An overview on the impact of genetically engineered organisms on crop yield and safety

Lokendra Nath Yogi 1 , Anju Kathayat 2 , Sarada Bhandari 3 , Prajjwal Paudel 4 , Prakash Mishra 5

1   Gokuleshwor Agriculture and Animal Science College (GAASC), Baitadi, NEPAL
2   Gokuleshwor Agriculture and Animal Science College (GAASC), Baitadi, NEPAL
3   Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Lamjung Campus, Lamjung, NEPAL
4   Gokuleshwor Agriculture and Animal Science College (GAASC), Baitadi, NEPAL
5   Gokuleshwor Agriculture and Animal Science College (GAASC), Baitadi, NEPAL

✉ Coressponding author: See PDF.




Genetically Engineered Organisms (GEOs) have ushered in a new era in agriculture, revolutionizing crop yield and safety through techniques like transgenic modification and genome editing. This review delves into the profound impact of GEOs on agricultural landscapes, elucidating their role in enhancing crop traits, and bolstering resistance to pests, diseases, and adverse environmental conditions, thereby ensuring food security for a burgeoning global population. However, amidst these advancements, persistent concerns regarding GEOs' environmental and health ramifications persist. The review critically examines potential unintended consequences within ecosystems and addresses human health implications, particularly allergenicity. Furthermore, it scrutinizes existing regulatory frameworks and the pivotal role of public perception in shaping the trajectory of GEOs. While emphasizing the intricate interplay between genetic engineering and crop production, the review advocates for continued research and informed decision-making to harness the benefits of GEOs while mitigating potential risks. Additionally, it underscores the significance of enhancing science communication and regulatory measures to address ethical concerns and combat misinformation. With advancements in precision gene-integration technologies and emerging research in biofortification and stress tolerance, GEOs are promising to enhance commercial agriculture's productivity and profitability. However, achieving this potential necessitates proactive measures such as improved regulation, risk mitigation strategies, and enhanced communication with stakeholders to ensure GEOs' responsible and sustainable integration into agricultural systems.


Environmental impact, Genetically modified crops, Herbicide tolerance, Pest resistance


Download data is not yet available.


Amarger, N. (2002). Genetically modified bacteria in agriculture. Biochimie, 84(11), 1061–1072.

Baldo, A., van den Akker, E., Bergmans, H. E., Lim, F., & Pauwels, K. (2013). General considerations on the biosafety of virus-derived vectors used in gene therapy and vaccination. Current Gene Therapy, 13(6), 385–394.

Barta, A., Sommergruber, K., Thompson, D., Hartmuth, K., Matzke, M. A., & Matzke, A. J. (1986). The expression of a nopaline synthase—human growth hormone chimaeric gene in transformed tobacco and sunflower callus tissue. Plant Molecular Biology, 6, 347-357.

Bhandari, S., & Yogi, L. N. (2023). A review on Recent Advances in Animal Biotechnology. Science Heritage Journal, 7(2), 79–82.

Chilton, M. D. (2016). Nature, The First Creator of GMOs. Forbes. Retrieved 4 January 2019.

Church, G. M., Gao, Y., & Kosuri, S. (2012). Next-generation digital information storage in DNA. Science, 337(6102), 1628.

Domingo, J. L., & Bordonaba, J. G. (2011). A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants. Environment International, 37(4), 734-742.

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Guidance for risk assessment of food and feed from genetically modified plants. EFSA Journal, 2011.

Finger, R., El Benni, N., Kaphengst, T., Evans, C., Herbert, S., & Lehmann, B. (2011). A Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM Crops.

Sustainability, 3(5), 743–762.

Fleischer, S. J., Hutchison, W. D., & Naranjo, S. E. (2014). Sustainable Management of Insect-Resistant Crops. Plant Biotechnology, 115–127.

Frist, B. (2006). 'Green revolution' hero. The Washington Times.

Goddijn, O. J. M., Pennings, E. J. M., Zanetti, A., & Hooykaas, P. J. J. (1993). Genetic transformation of Petunia hybrida with an incomplete Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens: a model system for studying gene expression in plants. Plant Molecular Biology, 21(2), 415–428.

Hiatt, A., Caffferkey, R., & Bowdish, K. (1989). Production of antibodies in transgenic plants. Nature, 342(6245), 76-78.

Klümper, W., & Qaim, M. (2014). A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops. PLOS ONE, 9(11), e111629.

Naqvi, S., Zhu, C., Farre, G., Ramessar, K., Bassie, L., Breitenbach, J., Christou, P. (2009). Transgenic multivitamin corn through biofortification of endosperm with three vitamins representing three distinct metabolic pathways. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(19), 7762–7767.

NAS, National Academy of Sciences. (2016). Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects. The National Academies Press.

Paine, J. A., Shipton, C. A., Chaggar, S., Howells, R. M., Kennedy, M. J., Vernon, G., & Drake, R. (2005). Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content. Nature Biotechnology, 23(4), 482–487.

Qiu, J. (2008). Is China ready for GM rice? Nature, 455(7215), 850–852.

Römer, S., Fraser, P. D., Kiano, J. W., Shipton, C. A., Misawa, N., Schuch, W., & Bramley, P. M. (2000). Elevation of the provitamin A content of transgenic tomato plants. Nature Biotechnology, 18(6), 666–669.

Sharma, B., Dangi, A. K., & Shukla, P. (2018). Contemporary enzyme-based technologies for bioremediation: A review. Journal of Environmental

Management, 210, 10–22.

Sheridan, C. (2011). Gene therapy finds its niche. Nature Biotechnology, 29(2), 121–128.

WHO, World Health Organization (2002). 20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods.

Yetisen, A. K., Davis, J., Coskun, A. F., Church, G. M., & Yun, S. H. (2015). Bioart. Trends in Biotechnology, 33(12), 724–734.



How to Cite

Yogi, L. N., Kathayat, A., Bhandari, S., Paudel, P., & Mishra, P. (2024). An overview on the impact of genetically engineered organisms on crop yield and safety. Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 9(1), 175-179.



Review Articles