Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes <p>The journal Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science (AAES) is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, open-access international journal that provides rapid publication (on a quarterly basis) of original research articles, review articles, short communications, and case studies. It publishes research papers in all areas of agricultural and environmental sciences. All papers undergo peer review by members of the editorial board or qualified reviewers using a single-blind peer review system.</p> <p><strong>Publication Frequency</strong></p> <p>The journal Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science is published quarterly, with issues released in March, June, September, and December. Accepted manuscripts will be published online at the end of the month corresponding to the upcoming issue of the journal. The journal welcomes submissions of manuscripts that meet the scope and criteria of Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p>The journal “Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science” is an official publication of Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy. Its goal is to publish scientific research in the field of Agricultural Sciences, Environmental Sciences and Biological Sciences; and any other related field to promote speedy propagation of quality research information.</p> <p><strong><span class="theme-text-color-4-2">Abstracting and Indexing</span></strong></p> <div> <div class="elementor-text-editor elementor-clearfix"> <p><a href="https://scholar.google.co.in/citations?user=rj2Q7WMAAAAJ&amp;hl=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>, JGate India, PKP-PN, <a href="https://agris.fao.org/search/en?query=Archives%20of%20Agriculture%20and%20Environmental%20Science&amp;filters=%7B%22providers%22%3A%5B%7B%22operator%22%3A%22any%22%2C%22values%22%3A%5B%22122227%22%5D%7D%5D%7D&amp;" target="_blank" rel="noopener">AGRIS – Food and Agriculture Organization</a>, <a href="https://core.ac.uk/search?q=2456-6632+AND+publisher%3A%22Agriculture+and+Environmental+Science+Academy%22&amp;page=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CORE - Open University and Jisc</a>, <a href="https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=2456-6632&amp;type=all&amp;oaboost=1&amp;refid=dcsoren&amp;sort=dcyear_sort%20desc,id%20asc" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)</a>, OAI-PMH, <a href="https://europub.co.uk/search?text=Archives+of+Agriculture+and+Environmental+Science" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EuroPub</a>, <a href="https://search.worldcat.org/title/1150872863?oclcNum=1150872863" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat Library</a>, <a href="https://search.crossref.org/search/works?q=2456-6632&amp;from_ui=yes" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a>, CrossMark (Article Version Updates), <a href="https://www.sciencegate.app/app/source#/311344/latest-documents" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ScienceGate</a>, <a href="https://openalex.org/sources/s4210183256" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OpenAlex</a>, and <a href="https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?search_mode=content&amp;or_facet_source_title=jour.1299792" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dimensions Catalogue</a>.</p> <p><a href="https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/abstracting-and-indexing">View more about indexing information here</a>.</p> </div> </div> en-US info@aesacademy.org (Dr. Vinod Kumar) info@aesacademy.org (Web Master) Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.0.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Adoption of post-harvest practices and their influencing factors: A study of ginger growers in Syangja, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/857 <p>Proper ginger post-harvest practices enhance quality, extend shelf life, and ameliorate market access. This study was carried out to know the status of adoption of post-harvest practices in ginger, examine factors associated with adoption, identify and rank major constraints of adoption. The collection of primary data involved 80 ginger growers chosen randomly from altogether 6 wards in Galyang, Waling, and Chapakot municipalities. Data entry and analysis were performed using two software: Ms Excel 2021 and SPSS Version 27. The adoption status of ginger post-harvest practices was assessed and quantified using frequency distribution. The chi-square test revealed a significant association between adoption and membership (5%), extension (1%) and training (1%). However, the association between demographic factors like age, gender, education level, experiences in ginger cultivation, and the adoption of post-harvest practices in ginger was statistically non-significant. Moreover, an independent sample t-test and indexing technique were employed. Average adoption index was computed based on which high and low adopters were categorized. Notable advantages emerged for high adopters as they cultivated ginger in larger areas (p &lt; 0.01) and gained higher economic returns (p &lt; 0.05). Five constraints regarding the adoption were ranked through indexing, where a poor marketing system had the highest index value of 0.83, followed by the unavailability of improved processing technologies. In contrast, labor crisis was the least ranked constraint. Offering impactful trainings and support to farmers in line with their recommendations can be the pivotal step towards enhancing the post-harvest practices in ginger sector in Syangja district.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Chi-square test, Training, Indexing, Poor marketing system</p> Suruchi Aryal, Madhav Pokhrel, Kul Bahadur Thapa, Kul Bahadur Thapa, Sapana Acharya, Dikchha Pantha, Rajendra Lamichhane Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/857 Assessment of Wheat Genotypes for Spot Blotch (Bipolaris sorokiniana sacc.) Resistance under Artificial Epiphytotic Conditions in the Inner Terai of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/856 <p>Spot blotch (<em>Bipolaris sorokiniana </em>Sacc.) is an important fungal disease of wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum),</em>&nbsp;causing economic losses in low fertile soil with a warm, humid climate in the inner Terai region of Nepal. A field experiment was conducted using 378 wheat genotypes in an augmented design in artificial epiphytotic conditions at the National Maize Research Program (NMRP), Rampur, Chitwan, during winter 2021/022 to assess the severity of spot blotch. Each genotype was sown in a single 2 m-long row along with a mixture of susceptible check genotypes (Agra and Morocco) at every 20<sup>th </sup>row. Aqueous spore suspension of <em>B. sorokiniana</em> was sprayed twice in border rows in the booting stage at a 15-day interval. Disease was scored four times at five-day intervals following a double-digit scale based on the percentage blighted area on the flag and penultimate leaf, and the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was calculated. 43 genotypes were categorized as resistant, 127 were moderately resistant, 135 were moderately susceptible, 66 were susceptible, and 7 were highly susceptible based on AUDPC. Cluster analysis revealed cluster 3 with 17 genotypes to be superior in terms of all disease as well as agronomic parameters. NRN-34 was ranked best among these genotypes, followed by NAL-73, NAL-94, NAL-12, NRN-34, NAL-57, NAL-43, NAL-82, and NAL-35, with lower AUDPC and higher yield-attributing character values. These findings may assist in varietal selection and breeding initiatives against spot blotch in wheat.</p> Ajay Poudel, Aman Mehta, Suk Bahadur Gurung, Asmita Bhusal, Ashok Itani, Oshna Kulung, Shaurav Yadav Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/856 Detection of Citrus Greening Disease and Field Efficacy of Anti-Pathogen Chemicals against the Disease in Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) in Gulmi, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/855 <p>Citrus cultivation in Nepal is experiencing a persistent decline due to the widespread presence of Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as Citrus Greening Disease, in citrus-growing regions. Consequently, farmers are grappling with substantial economic losses and actively seeking preventive and remedial measures. In a research study conducted at Dhurkot, Gulmi, efforts were made to detect Citrus Greening Disease and assess the field efficacy of anti-pathogen chemicals against the disease in Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) A total of 51 orchards were subjected to HLB testing using the starch iodine test, and an experiment was set up to evaluate the effectiveness of various anti-pathogen chemicals. The experiment involved eight treatments arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Each replication included eight treatments designated as follows: T1: Neem oil 5ml/l + Lentinan 2ml/l, T2: Neem Oil 5ml/l + Bacillus amyloliquefacians 5ml/l, T3: Neem oil 5ml/l + Pseudomonas 5ml/l, T4: Imidacloprid 0.02% + Copper Oxychloride 0.025%, T5: Imidacloprid 0.02% + Streptocycline 250ppm, T6: Bacillus thuringiensis 2ml/l + Pseudomonas 5ml/l, T7: Bacillus thuringiensis 2ml/l + Bacillus amyloliquefacians 5ml/l, T8: control. The results revealed that out of the 51 orchards, 18 tested positive for HLB, representing 35.2% of the sampled size. Notably, plots treated with Neem oil + Bacillus amyloliquefacians and Bacillus thuringiensis + Bacillus amyloliquefacians demonstrated the highest percentage reduction in comparison to the control plot. Based on these findings, foliar application of Neem oil at a concentration of 5ml/l along with Bacillus amyloliquefacians at 5ml/l, and Bacillus thuringiensis at 2ml/l along with Bacillus amyloliquefacians at 5ml/l at monthly intervals showed promising results in reducing the severity of citrus greening.</p> Abhinav Poudel, Kamal Kafle, Susan Subedi Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/855 IMPACTS OF PESTICIDE AND MANAGEMENT – A REVIEW https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/854 <p><em>Pesticides are the chemical substances used to control agricultural pests and enhance agricultural productivity. Intensification in agriculture leads over-use of pesticides. Pesticides are very toxic in nature that causes acute and chronic risks on human health when employed without the safety any measures. Although the effect of pesticides is a major subject of concern, an in-depth study on this topic has not been done yet. Lack of awareness among farmers, climate-induced change in pest distribution patterns, pest resurgence, poor regulation, low-quality pesticides, etc. are the major causes of overuse of pesticides. The persistence of pesticide residue in environments and crops leads to long-term negative health hazards to humans, animals, and ecosystems. Cancer, neurological disorders, diabetes, reproductive failure, abnormal functioning of the body's metabolism, immune system disruption, over-sensitivity pneumonitis, silo filler's disorder, and neuromuscular respiratory failure and blood-related disease are the major consequences for the use of pesticides. The proper management of pesticide use through increasing the efficiency towards the specific pest was a prerequisite for the protection of human, animal, and environmental health adulteration. Pest population monitoring, pesticide alternations, proper time and amount of pesticide application, target-specific pesticide application, biological control, pheromones traps, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), and host plant resistance techniques were the major strategies suitable to reduce the hazardous effects of pesticides. Therefore this review addresses the major issue related to over use of pesticides, their causes, and proper management strategies that would help people protect themselves from serious hazards and overall sustainability of the ecosystem.</em></p> Manisha Timalsena, Shivalal Nyaupane Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/854 The Potential of Natural Coagulants for Bioremediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Wastewater in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/853 <p>Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is one of the world’s top pesticide users relying on agricultural production for economic development. Pesticides and other agrochemicals are one of the major sources of Persistent organic pollutants (POPs). POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and emerging perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are increasingly polluting soils, and water bodies especially lakes and rivers. SSA is also Africa’s highest POP emitters with limited monitoring and bioremediation avenues for these pollutants. Despite recent increases in published data in the region, there is limited information on the changes in POP concentrations, post ratification of the Stockholm Convention. Most countries in SSA have not have not developed clear measuring and monitoring regulatory procedures and standards for POPs but adapt United States Environmental Protection Agency standards. This review is aimed at addressing knowledge gaps in monitoring and Quantification of POPs, application of natural coagulants by different bioremediation techniques in the remove POPs in Sub Saharan environmental matrices and the reported cases of environmental and health risks associated with the changing POP concentrations in water, wastewater and effluent from the discharge points to the environment. Findings from reviewed studies reveal inconsistency in methods and analytes for POP monitoring, along with data scarcity in some regions, making it challenging to identify temporal trends. There is a decreasing concentrations of some legacy POPs in soil/sediment and aquatic organisms, with increasing concentrations of some POPs in water, fish, fruits and vegetables. PCBs in some river systems have concentrations beyond acceptable ranges of USEPA (1,090 and 7,190 ng/l). PFAs are the most common POPs particularly PFOA, PFOS, PFHxA, PFDA and PFPeA. Application natural coagulants in comparison with their chemical alternatives is gaining popularity for water and waste water treatment as a safer alternative with advantages of producing less sludge, increased environmental sustainability; reduced cost of handling sludge and less toxicity with no adverse threats to the environment. <em>Moringa oleifera </em>(MO) was identified as the most prevalent and effective plant-based coagulant and chitosan as the most common animal based coagulant applied in water and waste water purification. These coagulants are effective in remediation of hydrocarbons, heavy metals and trails on some POP like PCBs and Dioxins. Trivalent cations in most natural coagulants enhanced by their concentrated extracts shows potential for application in bioremediation of POPs in the environment. Natural coagulant application still present’s sustainability challenges and are have not been explored on large scale commercial water treatment.</p> Michael Ahimbisibwe Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/853 IMPACT OF ADDED PHOSPHORUS AND PHOSPHORUS SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA (PSB) IN YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATE L.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/852 <p>Mungbean is an excellent rotational legume crop for farmers with small land holdings. Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) solubilizes phosphorus to make it available to the plant so, their integration can be a supporting factor to increase its yield and enhance soil fertility. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences (IAAS), Paklihawa Campus, Rupandehi during the summer season of 2023. The experiment comprised seven treatments, namely T1: Control, T2: 10 kg P2O5ha-1 , T3: 15 kg P2O5ha-1 , T4: 20 kg P2O5ha-1 , T5: 10 kg P2O5ha-1 + PSB, T6: 15 kg P2O5ha-1 + PSB, T7: 20 kg P2O5ha-1 + PSB tested in Randomized Block Design and replicated three times. Pratigya variety of Mungbean was used. The soil of the experimental field was medium in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium before the experiment. The analysis was done in R studio software. Results revealed that all the growth and yield attributes increased significantly (p &lt; .05) under the integrated treatment (20 kg P2O5ha-1 + PSB). The growth characters viz., plant height (61.65 ± 1.25 cm), nodule number (23.90 ± 2.22), dry matter accumulation(30.74± 1.37 g), and yield attributes like the number of pod plant-1 (26.6± 1.00), pod length (8.24 cm ± 0.05), the number of grains pod-1 (8.84 ± 0.08), biological yield (30.2 ± 0.79 mt/ha), seed yield (2.44 ± 0.05 mt/ha ) and harvest index (7.51 ± 0.18 %) increased significantly in T7 (20 kg P2O5 ha-1 PSB).</p> Rekha Pandey, Dikshya Pandey, Chetana Bashyal, Janma Gairhe Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/852 Effect of transplanting dates on growth, yield and quality of Broad Leaf Mustard (Brassica juncea L. var. rugosa) varieties at Rampur, Chitwan https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/850 <p>Broad Leaf Mustard, one of the most popular, highly commercialized, and widely grown green vegetables due to its richness in vitamins and minerals with peculiar taste. The field experiment was carried out at Horticulture Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan to evaluate the effect of transplanting dates on the growth, yield, and quality of Broad Leaf Mustard (<em>Brassica juncea</em> L. var. <em>rugosa</em>) varieties in Terai condition of Nepal during October 2021 to March 2022. The experiment was laid out in two-factor randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. There were sixteen treatment combinations comprising four varieties (Khumal Broad Leaf, Marpha Broad Leaf, Manakamana and Mike Giant) with four transplanting dates (October 25, November 9, November 24, and December 9). The results revealed that transplanting dates and varieties along with interaction significantly influenced the growth, yield, and quality of Broad Leaf Mustard. Among the varieties, Khumal Broad Leaf was significantly superior on growth parameters like plant height, leaf length and breadth, and plant canopy but on yield attributes the superior variety was Mike Giant based on a number of leaves harvested per plot (226.08) and leaf yield (26.43 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>). However, the organoleptic test result revealed that the Mike Giant had excellent taste (74%) along with highest recovery percentage of Gundruk (27.62 %). Among the date of transplanting, mid-transplanting on November 9 was better in terms of growth and leaf yield of 28.92 mt ha<sup>-1. </sup>While poorest performance was recorded on the last transplanting on December 9 in all growth, yield, and quality parameters with leaf yield of 17.36 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>. The interaction effect of different varieties and transplanting dates resulted better growth and quality in Khumal Broad Leaf and Manakamana varieties when transplanted on November 9. So based on the results of the experiment, Mike Giant transplanted on November 9 produced better growth and yield than others for the optimum yield production in Chitwan, Nepal.</p> Kaushila Bista Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/850 EFFECT OF Rhizobium WITH OR WITHOUT SULPHUR AND PHOSPHORUS IN GROWTH OF PEA (Pisum sativum) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/848 <p>This study was conducted to find the effect of Rhizobium with or without sulphur and phosphorus on growth of pea (Pisum sativum) at Gauradaha Agriculture Campus, Jhapa during winter season (January-March) 2023. The study consisting of eight treatments (T1: Control; T2: Rhizobium inoculated; T3: Rhizobium inoculated seed + sulphur; T4: Uninoculated seed + sulphur; T5: Rhizobium inoculated seed + phosphorous; T6: Uninoculated Seed + phosphorous; T7: Rhizobium inoculated seed + sulphur + phosphorous; T8: Uninoculated seed + sulphur + phosphorous) was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Observations like days of germination, days of flowering, number of branches, number of leaves and plant height were recorded. The result showed that the application of Rhizobium, phosphorous and sulphur have significant effect over the germination and days of flowering. The earliest and maximum germination was observed in T3 while days of flowering was minimum in T7 (53.75 days). Maximum plant height (20.6 cm) was observed in T7 while maximum number of branches (8.04) and number of leaves (30.9) were seen in T6. The statistically significant results were observed in treatments T8 (Uninoculated seed + sulphur + phosphorous), T3 (Rhizobium + sulphur) and T1 (Control) for germination (13.08). The results were non-significant for number of branches, number of leaves and plant height. Hence, Rhizobium along with sulphur and phosphorus can be used to improve the germination of pea.</p> Pujan Baral; Bivek Jha, Nisha Mehta Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/848 Black Scurf of Potato: Symptoms, Epidemiology, Disease Cycle, and Management Practices. https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/847 <p>Black scurf is one of the deadly fungal diseases of potatoes, common in the majority of the potato-producing regions around the world, and is caused by <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> AG-3 (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris [Frank] Donk). This disease has been causing both qualitative and quantitative damage to potatoes resulting in a huge economic loss and hence it has become a severe threat to the global potato crop. This disease affects potato development from emergence to harvest damaging both above-ground and underground parts. This disease is mainly characterized by the presence of fungal sclerotia attached to the surface of the tubers. The transmission of this disease is mainly favored by the fungal ability to survive either in the soil as sclerotia or in plant debris as mycelium for remarkably long periods. Furthermore, cool and damp conditions during crop periods and high soil moisture create a more conducive environment for the development of infection. An effective approach to the control of this disease requires integrated management tactics including cultural control (crop rotations, soil moisture management, etc.), chemical control, and biological control. This paper thoroughly discusses the symptoms, epidemiology, disease cycle, and management practices of Black scurf.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/847 IN VITRO EVALUATION OF PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST Bipolaris Sorokiniana CAUSING SPOT BLOTCH OF WHEAT https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/845 <p>Spot blotch disease of wheat, caused by <em>Bipolaris sorokiniana</em>, is one of the most alarming disease in warm and humid regions of Nepal. The pathogen suppresses seed germination and seedling emergence, resulting in a major decrease in wheat production. Given the dangers of fungicidal sprays, an eco-friendly strategy was taken to address this condition by utilizing botanicals. An experiment was conducted in central laboratory of IAAS, Lamjung campus, to evaluate the effectiveness of four botanical extracts at three different concentrations (i.e. 5%, 10%, and 15%) against <em>Bipolaris sorokiniana </em>in vitro, using poisoned food technique in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). All of the plant extracts significantly inhibited the pathogen's mycelial growth as compared to control. After seven days, among plant extracts, 15 per cent <em>Allium sativum </em>showed maximum growth inhibition (61.73%) followed by 15 per cent <em>Allium cepa </em>(50.25%). Minimum mycelial growth was observed in 5 per cent concentration of <em>Azadarichta indica </em>i.e. (3.3%).The fungistatic ability increased with an increase in concentration of the botanicals. Significant effects of botanicals against pathogen growth suggest that they are effective control agent in the management of spot blotch of wheat.</p> Priya Shahi, Gayatri Bhandari, Archana chand Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/845 Comparative Analysis of Red and Green Lettuce Microgreens Under Different Artificial LED Lighting Conditions https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/844 <p>Microgreens, being more nutrient dense than mature plants, are experiencing increased consumption. The nutritional value of microgreens can be further enhanced through optimal lighting conditions. Keeping this in mind, the effects of LED light exposure on growth parameters, chlorophyll content, and carotenoids in two lettuce microgreens were investigated in this study. Green lettuce outperformed red lettuce in the studied morphological parameters, including stem length (2.74±0.22 cm), plant height (4.54±0.21 cm), and fresh weight (3.79±0.32 g/100 plants) under different LED. White light promoted taller plants with higher fresh weight (4.45±0.43 g/100plants), dry matter (4.84±0.38%), and leaf area (0.76±0.06 cm<sup>2</sup>) in both lettuce species. In contrast, red light reduced overall growth and development, as evidenced by a 54% decrease in leaf area, despite a 23.36% increase in plant height. Chlorophyll levels varied significantly among LED treatments, with white LED yielding the highest levels in both red and green lettuce. Highest chlorophyll <em>a (</em>146.37±6.27 µg/g FW)<em>, </em>chlorophyll <em>b </em>(86.74±2.44 µg/g FW)<em>, </em>total chlorophyll (233.11±8.69 µg/g FW) and relative chlorphyll (215.84±8.05 µg/cm²) content was found in green lettuce under white light condition. Similarly, green lettuce grown under white LED had the highest total carotenoid (100.26±6.78 µg/g FW), β-carotene (20.25±2.43 µg/g FW), and lutein (2.13±0.21 µg/g FW). Red lettuce with white LEDs had the highest lycopene content (21.06±1.85 µg/g FW). The order in which LED light colors affected plant morphological parameters was white &gt; red+blue &gt; blue &gt; red and plant pigment parameters was white &gt; blue &gt; red+blue &gt; red.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/844 Insights into the germplasm conservation and utilization: Implications for sustainable agriculture and future crop improvement https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-026 <p>Plant genetic resources are critical for maintaining global biodiversity and ensuring food security. However, these resources face threats from factors such as habitat loss and climate change, with approximately 22% of plant species estimated to be at risk of extinction. To address this issue, both natural and biotechnological methods are being developed to preserve plant genetic resources, with germplasm being a key component. Germplasm contains the complete genetic information of a plant and can be stored for extended periods and replicated as required. The objective of this study is to emphasize the importance of preserving germplasm of endangered or near-extinct plant species through in situ and ex situ conservation methods. In situ conservation involves conserving species in their natural environment, while ex situ conservation includes using gene-seed banks and tissue culture to store genetic resources. These methods are crucial for maintaining genetic diversity and preventing the loss of valuable plant resources. The study highlights the various ex situ conservation methods, including cryopreservation, pollen and DNA banks, farmer's fields, botanic gardens, genetic reserves, and slow-growing cultures, which are essential for preserving germplasm. Gene banks worldwide currently hold over 7.4 million accessions of crop genetic resources, demonstrating the value of germplasm conservation efforts. Additionally, understanding the phenotypic and genetic characterization of related species is crucial for identifying endangered or vulnerable species that can diversify into new varieties or subspecies. In conclusion, prioritizing germplasm conservation efforts is crucial for meeting future demands while preserving endangered or vulnerable species. This will ensure that plant genetic resources remain available for future generations and that agricultural innovation can effectively address global food security challenges.</p> Bishnu Yadav, Daurik Lal Pandit, Dhurba Banjade, Dipesh Kumar Mehata, Susmita Bhattarai, Sujan Bhandari, Netra Prasad Ghimire, Puja Yadav, Prava Paudel Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-026 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Interplay of plant pathogens and host defenses: Unveiling the mechanisms and strategies for crop protection https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-014 <p>Plant pathogens, encompassing a diverse array of microbes including fungi, nematodes, protozoa, bacteria, and viruses, represent a significant threat to agricultural stability by compromising plant health. These microorganisms engage in a complex battle against plant immune systems, leading to diseases that can drastically diminish crop yields, degrade product quality, and in extreme cases, cause total crop failure. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant infection, the specific pathogens involved, and the strategy for effective prevention is crucial for agricultural sustainability. This review paper provides a detailed examination of the multifaceted interactions between plant pathogens and their hosts, focusing on the entry mechanisms, symptom development, and prevention strategies against plant diseases. Major findings reveal the intricate ways pathogens interact with plant immune responses, the critical role of environmental factors in disease outbreaks, and the effectiveness of integrated disease management approaches. The paper concludes with a novel perspective, emphasizing the urgent need for sustainable, science-based strategies to enhance plant resistance, safeguard food security, and mitigate the economic consequences of plant pathogenic diseases. This synthesis not only advances our understanding of plant pathology but also sets a framework for future research directions in plant disease management.</p> Amrit Poudel, Shreejana KC Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-014 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Customer attitude, buying behavior and satisfaction towards online shopping: An empirical study in some selected areas of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-012 <p>In the current digital era, online shopping has swiftly risen to prominence among Bangladeshis' preferred methods of making purchases. The current study was carried out to find out sub-urban customers' socio-economic profile, male and female attitudes, influencing factors, customer satisfaction, and problems with online shopping. For this study, 110 customers were selected using convenience sampling techniques at Muktagachha and Fulbaria Upazila in the Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. Along with descriptive statistics, principal component analysis (PCA) including factor analysis and Likert scales (5-point) were used to analyze the data. The study found that about 71% of the customers were aged 18 to 36 years; 100% of the customers were familiar with purchasing non-agricultural products; about 78% of the customers were interested in buying agricultural products in the near future; respondents used social media like Facebook (77%) for online shopping; and about 68% of the customers were willing to pay more for security, better quality of the products, and a reliable platform. Customer satisfaction shows that time-saving (4.17), variety of products (3.93), and cash on delivery (3.86) payment systems were considered satisfactory items for online shopping. Absent of touch and feel (3.47), less quality (3.31), and online payments (3.28) were the major problems of respondents while they bought products online. To increase customer awareness of information technology services and foster a favorable view of the e-commerce industry, all online retailers should enhance their convenient promotional tools and service strategies. This paper intended to identify the factors that influence consumers' decision-making when deciding whether or not to purchase a product.</p> Tonny Sen, Mashrufah Khatun, Md. Akhtaruzzaman Khan, Mohammad Ataur Rahman Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-012 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Examination of the diversity in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) growth accessions in south-eastern Nigeria https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-010 <p>The aim of the study was to compare the growth rates of various pumpkin (<em>Cucurbita maxima </em>L.) accessions. Pumpkins from Aku I, Aku II, Awka, Ifite-Ogwari Nsukka I, and Nsukka II were the various accessions. A field study was conducted at the Ifite-Ogwari Campus of Nnamdi Azikiwe University in Anambra State. The experiment was laid out using a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. As experimental sample units, two (2) of the middle-most plants in each polybag were cut off and tagged. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze data on vegetative growth factors at a 5% probability level and the treatment means were divided using the least significant difference (LSD 0.05). The result of the experiment revealed that all of the pumpkin accessions performed similarly in terms of the amount of time it took for them to emerge after sowing, their percentage of emergence, and their overall vegetative growth. None of the accessions were statistically different with respect to their emergence and growth parameters. However, the growth parameter evaluations were dominated, on average, by pumpkin accession from Nsukka (I and II) pumpkins. In addition, the Aku II pumpkin had the shortest days-to-emergence (3.33 days) and the greatest mean percentage of emergence (100%). Conversely, Aku I pumpkin consistently performed the lowest when it came to the factors that were looked at. For a comprehensive characterization of <em>C. maxima</em>, additional research at the molecular and genomic levels is advised including a greater number of accessions.</p> O. A. Umeh, C. Q. Ani, J. I. Ulasi, I. S. Umeh, E.R. Keyagha Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-010 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of sowing methods and varieties on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Dang, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-09 <p>In this study conducted in Gadhawa Rural Municipality, Dang district, from November 2021 to April 2022, the impact of two sowing methods (Line sowing and broadcasting) and four varieties (Bijaya, Gautam, Aditya, and Borlaug 2020) on wheat was investigated. We aimed to identify the best sowing method and variety using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The study focused on various growth and yield parameters, including plant height, tiller number, grain per spike, effective tillers per square meter, thousand grain weight, grain yield per hectare, and biological yield per hectare. Line sowing was found to have the highest impact on biometrical as well as yield attributing characters. More height (111.51 cm), number of tillers (3.80), grain/spike (57.02), and grain yield (3.85 ton/ha) were obtained in line sowing. There was a significant difference observed among the varieties for all the traits <br>except tiller number and biological yield. Borlaug 2020 was found to be superior for performance based on yield attributing traits which have grain/spike, effective tiller/m<sup>2</sup>, biological yield, and grain yield of 62.88, 177.15, 6.60 ton/ha, and 3.95 ton/ha respectively. From the interaction effects, variety Borlaug 2020 and line sowing method were found to be superior for cultivation. The study further demonstrates that farmers of Dang can combine Borlaug 2020 with line-sowing methods to obtain promising results.</p> Akriti Adhikari, Bishal D.C., Shishir Regmi, Kiran Timilsena, Sagar Lamsal Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-09 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.) varieties with respect to growth and yield in Chitwan, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-04 <p>A field experiment was carried out during October, 2021 to March, 2022 with an objective to evaluate growth and yield parameters of broccoli (<em>Brassica oleracea</em> var. <em>italica</em> L.) varieties in the Horticulture Farm of Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The treatments were six broccoli varieties <em>viz.</em> two open pollinated (Calabrese and Green Sprouting) and four hybrid varieties (Centauro, Century, Delight, Everest Green). Data were collected for biometrical, phonological, yield and yield attributing characteristics. Results revealed significance for growth and yield parameters.&nbsp; Calabrese had the tallest plant (100.60 cm), the highest leaf number per plant (15.75), the longest leaf (73.90 cm), higher canopy diameter (101.75 cm) and earliness in head initiation (54.50 days) as well as head maturity (60.25 days). Highest head diameter (30.13 cm) and economic yield (22.52 mt/ha) was observed in Century. Thus, Century was found more profitable for commercial production in the environment conditions of Chitwan, Nepal.</p> Pratima Bagale, Arjun Kumar Shrestha, Hom Nath Giri, Pradip Regmi Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-04 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the degrading potentials of plasmid and non–plasmid borne soil bacterial strains on bonny light crude oil https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-03 <p>This study was undertaken to evaluate the degrading potentials of plasmid and non–plasmid borne soil bacterial strains on Bonny light crude oil. Enrichment technique, turbidometric test, plasmid curing test as well as gas chromatographic flame ionization detection technique was adopted for isolating and evaluating the oil degrading capabilities of the selected bacterial strains. The preliminary physicochemical results revealed that pH was recorded slightly neutral, higher conductivity (0.41 to 0.44 μS/cm), higher organic carbon (2.32 to 4.34 %) but lower nitrogen and phosphorus contents (0.27 % and 10.11 kg) as well as lower water holding capacity was noted, respectively. The results indicated that 22 out of the 60 isolated bacterial strains had high crude oil degrading potentials (A600nm &gt; 0.3). The result further indicated that bacterial strains belong to various species which are <em>Bacillus cereus</em> C12, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> KAVK01, <em>Bacillus licheniformis</em> 126, <em>Ochrobacterium intermedium</em> E85b, <em>Bacillus subtillis</em> SDDlas, <em>Bacillus subtillis</em> LK4.5, <em>Enterobacter cloacae</em> GEBRI III and <em>Bacillus cereus</em> So24. Plasmid borne <em>P. aeruginosa</em> strain KAVK01 was the best degrader with 88 % remediation efficiency within the period while the plasmid cured <em>P. aeruginosa</em> strain KAVK01 had 65 % degradation with the order of n – alkane hydrocarbon degradation: (n-C8 - n-C17) &gt; (n-C18 - n-C25) &gt; (n-C26 - n-C32). The data obtained from the current study could help in the selection of bacterial species, most especially plasmid borne bacteria that can be employed in the restoration of oil contaminated soil ecosystem in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.</p> Marcel Chikelue Ifediegwu, Michael Uchenna Orji, Samuel Chinedu Onuorah, Bright Obidinma Uba Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-03 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of various mulching methods on growth and yield parameters of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in Achham, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/836 <p>A field experiment was conducted from February to June 2022 at Thulasen of Mangalsen Municipality-Achham, Nepal to determine the suitability of various mulching materials on the growth and yield of different potato varieties. Two major varieties i.e. Khumal Seto and Cardinal grown with four types of mulching material (Black plastic mulch, Silver plastic mulch, Organic mulch, and Control) were set up in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The vegetative parameters evaluated were germination percentage at 20 and 30 DAP, plant height, aerial stem number, plant spread, and stem girth at 60, 75, and 90 days after planting (DAP). In contrast, the reproductive parameters including tuber number/m<sup>2</sup>, yield(kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and graded tuber &nbsp;(number/ m<sup>2</sup>) for three grades were taken after potato harvest. Data entry and analysis were done in MS- Excel and R-studio software respectively. &nbsp;Findings revealed that at a 5% level of significance, a significant difference was found in the interaction effect of variety and mulching material respective to germination, height, average yield, and tuber numbers for (&gt;100gm). Khumal Seto in black plastic mulch was found significantly superior for germination percentage at 30 DAP (93.33%), plant height (40.87m), and yield parameters like average tuber yield (5.10kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and tuber number above 100gm (12.67). In addition, the Khumal seto variety had greater stem girth (3.03cm) and tuber yield while the Cardinal variety had a maximum number of stems (11.17). The highest plant spread (48.13cm) and stem girth (3.10cm) were observed in black plastic mulch and the lowest was in control in 60, 75, and 90 DAP. Khumal Seto in black plastic mulch was found to be the most effective treatment for increasing the overall production of potatoes.</p> Sujan Ghimire, Pooja Bhusal, Ashok Rijal, Nirajan Acharya, Praju Ghimire Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/836 Efficacy of Home-made and Commercial Trapping Baits for the Management of Fruit Flies in Mandarin Orchards https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/835 <p>The current study was done to appraise the efficacy of different homemade and commercial baits in fruit fly monitoring and examine the lure that attracts fruit flies in citrus orchards at Syangja, Nepal from Feb to June 2022. The two commercial pheromones used in the experiment were Cue Lure 40 ml and Methyl Eugenol 40 ml and the other five home-based baits were Apple Cider Vinegar, Yeast fermented sugar, Mint lure, Local Brewery Liquor and Banana Lure. Each lure was added to a cotton wick and soaked with Malathion 10ml which was adjusted inside the Lynfield traps. All the traps were placed at a 10m distance in the orchard. The lures were replaced every 15 days and the traps in 50 days intervals. In this experiment, different species of fruit flies were caught; <em>Z. tau, Z. cucurbitae, B. dorsalis, B. dorsalis complex</em>, <em>B.minax,</em> and few counts of <em>Z. scutellaris</em> &amp;<em>B. zonata</em>. The commercial baits used in this experiment in both trappings were able to attract the highest number of fruit flies; all of which were male. Cue lure showed the best result for <em>Zeugodacus </em>species with the highest trapping (68%) of <em>Zeugodacus</em> males while Methyl eugenol trapped a high percentage for <em>Bactrocera </em>species with <em>Bactrocera dorsalis </em>males (63%). Among the homemade baits, ACV trapping was high (16.1%) for male species of <em>Zeugodacus tau</em>, and PH (yeast lure) for <em>Bactrocera minax </em>male species (59%). Moreover, Banana lure was found effective for <em>Bactrocera dorsalis</em> male and ACV for <em>Bactrocera zonata</em> male and female species. ACV and PH can be added as recommended homemade bait in trapping the fruit fly species. In comparing the males and females of <em>Zeugodacus </em>species, cue lure had the better result for trapping males and methyl eugenol for females of <em>Zeugodacus tau sp</em>. Methyl eugenol lure also showed efficient capture for males of <em>Bactrocera dorsalis</em> while PH for <em>Bactrocera minax</em> females. Females of both <em>Zeugodacus</em> and <em>Bactrocera</em> species were less trapped in the lures in comparison.</p> Prashanna Acharya, Nirajan Acharya, Karishma Bhusal, Binita Lamsal, Shashi Pandey, Riya Pradhan, Madhav Lamsal, Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/835 Effect of various mulching methods on growth and yield parameters of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in Achham, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/834 <p>A field experiment was conducted from February to June 2022 at Thulasen of Mangalsen Municipality-Achham, Nepal to determine the suitability of various mulching materials on the growth and yield of different potato varieties. Two major varieties i.e. Khumal Seto and Cardinal grown with four types of mulching material (Black plastic mulch, Silver plastic mulch, Organic mulch, and Control) were set up in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The vegetative parameters evaluated were germination percentage at 20 and 30 DAP, plant height, aerial stem number, plant spread, and stem girth at 60, 75, and 90 days after planting (DAP). In contrast, the reproductive parameters including tuber number/m<sup>2</sup>, yield(kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and graded tuber &nbsp;(number/ m<sup>2</sup>) for three grades were taken after potato harvest. Data entry and analysis were done in MS- Excel and R-studio software respectively. &nbsp;Findings revealed that at a 5% level of significance, a significant difference was found in the interaction effect of variety and mulching material respective to germination, height, average yield, and tuber numbers for (&gt;100gm). Khumal Seto in black plastic mulch was found significantly superior for germination percentage at 30 DAP (93.33%), plant height (40.87m), and yield parameters like average tuber yield (5.10kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and tuber number above 100gm (12.67). In addition, the Khumal seto variety had greater stem girth (3.03cm) and tuber yield while the Cardinal variety had a maximum number of stems (11.17). The highest plant spread (48.13cm) and stem girth (3.10cm) were observed in black plastic mulch and the lowest was in control in 60, 75, and 90 DAP. Khumal Seto in black plastic mulch was found to be the most effective treatment for increasing the overall production of potatoes.</p> Sujan Ghimire, Pooja Bhusal, Ashok Rijal, Nirajan Acharya, Praju Ghimire Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/834 An Investigation into the performance of rice threshing drums in the southwestern region of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/833 <p>Threshing is one of the most important post-harvest operations for grains. Along with the traditional threshing, mechanical threshing such as pedal threshing, open drum power threshing and close drum power threshing are being used in Bangladesh. In this study locally developed rice threshing drum in Khulna was evaluated to determine its performance indices in terms of threshing efficiency, output capacity, throughput capacity, threshing capacity and grain to straw ratio. The variables used were two levels of moisture content (14% referred as dry condition and 23% referred as wet condition), three engine horsepower (25hp, 20hp and 16hp) and four different cutting height of paddy (25-30 cm, 30-35 cm, 35-40 cm and 40-45 cm). The values for threshing efficiency, output capacity, throughput capacity, threshing capacity and grain to straw ratio in dry condition ranges from 97.83 – 98.83%, 1700-2373 kg/hr, 27.75 -36.46 kg/hr, 930 – 1436 kg/hr and 1.21-1.54 respectively. The values for threshing efficiency, output capacity, throughput capacity and threshing capacity in wet condition ranges from 96.15 – 97.79%, 1168-2167 kg/hr, 41.64 -49.99 kg/hr, 622 – 1280 kg/hr and 1.14-1.45 respectively. Results showed that moisture content, engine horsepower and cutting height of paddy significantly affected threshing efficiency, output capacity, throughput capacity, threshing capacity and grain to straw ratio in dry condition and wet condition.</p> Anamica Chowdhury Keya, Joyshankar Baidya, Mst. Sabina Alim, Gazi Tamiz Uddin, Asmaul Husna, Sabyasachi Niloy, Md. Tuhinul Hasan Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/833 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF GINGER IN NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/832 <p>Nepal is the fourth largest producer of ginger in the whole world. It has been part of hilly farms from the ancestral period. With the traditional knowledge and favorable soil and climate, Nepal is the possible hub of organic ginger of world. Along with the tag of being 16<sup>th</sup> largest exporter of ginger in the world, India being largest importer of Nepalese ginger also comes together. In Nepal, Illam is the largest producer of ginger followed by Salyan. Ginger is also the largest produced spice in Nepal. The present potential yield of ginger in Nepal is 24.5 ton/ha but the production is low with highly unstable market demand and price. Through value chain analysis in various papers, producer, collector/wholesaler, retailer and exporter are considered main actors in ginger market in Nepal. Ginger are sold in various forms to different part of the world, but the most profitable form is considered sutho. Even though farmers share in market price is around 50%, production cost of ginger is still higher than income. In Nepal, Kalimati is the biggest market for fresh ginger. Beside that other markets are scattered in various districts of terai region. Ginger is exported through three ports all over the world; Indian Port, Bangladesh Port and China Port. Dabur Nepal, Gorkha Ayurved, Singh Durbar Vaidyakhana, Male International, and Coffee Plantec are some big ginger consumer of Nepal but the traditionally prepared ‘sutho’ or dried ginger couldn’t even match the quality required by Dabur Nepal. Situation like this is mainly due to lack of storage and processing facilities, lack of laboratories for quality check and lack of scientific and technical advancement in the production methods. Overall, this article shows the status of ginger production and its marketing in Nepal.</p> Bijaya Dangi, Kamal Regmi Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/832 INFLUENCE OF SEED PRIMING IN THE GERMINATION AND YIELD PERFORMANCES OF COMMON BUCKWHEAT https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/831 <p>The study, conducted from November 2019 to March 2020 at the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science in Rupandehi, Nepal, aimed to evaluate the effects of seed priming techniques on common buckwheat. The experiment comprised eleven treatments with three replications each. Germination parameters were analyzed in the laboratory using a Complete Block Design, while growth and yield parameters were assessed in the field using a Randomized Complete Block Design. The results indicated significant improvements in all germination and yield parameters of buckwheat due to seed priming. Notably, the 48-hour hydropriming treatment exhibited the highest performance, yielding a germination percentage of 87.167%, a speed of germination of 66.62, a vigor index of 52.78, a grain yield of 1518.988 kgha-1, a test weight of 19.533 grams, and a harvest index of 0.405. These findings suggest that priming seeds with water for 48 hours can effectively enhance the germination, growth, and yield attributes of common buckwheat.</p> Dipika Bhusal Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/831 Comparative analysis of knowledge and management practices of insect pests of maize among IPM adopters and non-adopters in Sindhupalchok, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-024 <p>Integrated pest management (IPM) is a decision-based approach that involves optimizing the pest population below the economic threshold by the coordinated use of multiple tactics in an economically and environmentally sound manner. The adoption of IPM in farming practices prevents long-term pest damage by combining biological control, modification of cultural practices, habitual manipulation, and use of resistant varieties. In Nepal, mostly in hilly regions, haphazard chemical pesticide application has inevitable effects on human health, the environment, and the ecosystem. The haphazard chemical pesticide application in Sindhupalchok, Nepal originated mostly due to a knowledge gap in the identification of the stages of the lifecycle of pests, and the distinction between beneficial and harmful insects. To compare the effectiveness of management practices between IPM adopters and non-adopters this study was framed for six months in Sangachokgadi municipality, Sindhupalchok, Nepal. The knowledge gap among the maize growers in Sindhupalchok was assessed using both primary and secondary data collection methods. For primary data collection a comprehensive and structured questionnaire, face-to-face interview, phone call interview, and Key Informant Interview was conducted. Similarly, secondary data was collected from various articles and publications from Maize Zone, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD), Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC), and National Maize Research Program (NMRP). The collected data were then analyzed (descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and indexing) by using computer software packages i.e., Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 26, and Microsoft Excel 2010. The analyzed data revealed maize growers adopting IPM practices for crop management are known to have significantly better knowledge of the life cycle of pests, were able to distinguish between beneficial and harmful insects, and had knowledge of appropriate fertilizer doses. Further, the findings revealed IPM adopters had better knowledge of chemical pesticide handling which could minimize the chemical hazards among the farmers.</p> Bipin Bastakoti, Sundar Tiwari, Ananta Prakash Subedi, Dipesh Giri, Aashish Karki Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-024 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Heat Stress Tolerance in Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) Genotypes Using Stress Tolerance Indices https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/829 <p>Wheat requires a temperature range of 12-22°C during its growth phases, particularly during blooming and grain filling, since moisture stress affects yield component, number of viable spikes per unit area, and grain amount per spike. The primary goal of this study is to assess the resilience of Wheat genotypes to drought stress in the late season and to identify tolerant genotypes. Twenty wheat genotypes were tested for heat stress tolerance in Rupandehi district using an alpha lattice design with two replications under non-stress (optimum time) and stress (late shown) conditions. Three bhairhawa lines (BL), fifteen Nepal lines (NL), and two commercial lines Gautam and Bhrikuti were tested. Heat accelerates wheat development because the crop must complete its life cycle rapidly owing to late-season high temperatures. This affects grain output by decreasing the time required for grain filling and development, resulting in a 19.17% loss in grain yield in drought circumstances when compared to normal conditions. Based on wheat grain yield, eight selection indices for stress tolerance were calculated: mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), tolerance indices (TOL), stress susceptible indices (SSI), stress tolerance indices (STI), drought index (DI), yield index (YI), and yield stability indices (YSI). The indices STI, MP, GMP, and YI showed a positive connection in both stressed and non-stressed conditions, whereas YSI, SSI, and TOL showed a negative correlation in both stressed and non-stressed conditions. According to MP, GMP and STI genotypes NL 1384, NL 1413 and NL 1420 are the tolerant genotype.</p> Rashmi Poudel Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/829 SEEDLING CHARACTERIZATION OF SPRING WHEAT LANDRACES UNDER INCREASED SALINITY https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/828 <p>This study aimed to investigate the performance of wheat landraces under salt stress conditions. This research was conducted in 2024 at the laboratory of Gokuleshwor Agriculture and Animal Science College to investigate the effect of NaCl-induced salinity on germination and early seedling stages of different wheat landraces. The study followed a two-factor Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. Four different concentrations of NaCl (0mM, 25mM, 50mM, 75mM) and five landraces (<em>Bhartale</em>, <em>Jhuse, Rato gahun, Mudule, Aadhikhole</em>) were used for investigation during the germination and early seedling stages of wheat landraces. The highest germination percentage (97.25%)) and seed vigor index (20.27) were observed in <em>Mudule</em>, whereas the lowest germination percentage (60.50%) and seed vigor index (10.14) were observed in <em>Rato</em> <em>gahun</em>. <em>Rato</em> <em>gahun</em> had the highest mean germination time (5.99 days), and <em>Mudule</em> had the lowest mean germination time (4.82 days). The maximum fresh weight (0.12 g) and dry weight (0.042 g) were recorded by <em>Aadhikhole </em>and <em>Jhuse</em> and minimum fresh weight (0.10 g) and dry weight (0.032 g) were observed in <em>Mudule</em>. The maximum shoot and root lengths were observed in <em>Bhartale</em> (3.05 cm) and <em>Jhuse</em> (3.54 cm), whereas the minimum shoot length (2.07 cm) and root length (2.41 cm) were observed in <em>Rato gahun</em>. It was concluded that landraces go through salt stress and under stress. <em>Mudule </em>shows that it can tolerate salinity compared to other landraces during germination and early seedling stages.</p> Pawan Chapagaee, Adhiraj Kunwar, Lokendra Khatri, Dipak Raj Bist Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/828 EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILISERS FROM COMPOSTING AND METHANISATION OF GREEN WASTE ON THE AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF SWEET POTATOES IN BINI-DANG (NGAOUNDÉRÉ-CAMEROON) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/825 <p>Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) is one of the most important root and tuber plants in sub-Saharan Africa, with both domestic and industrial uses. Substituting sweet potato flour for some of the wheat flour used in pastries and bakery products would help to reduce wheat imports into Cameroon and, consequently, the outflow of foreign currency. The alternative of amending the ferralitic soils of Ngaoundéré (Cameroon) with organic fertilisers is now proving to be a major solution for increasing yields and improving the nutritional value of crops. In the present study, the influence of organic fertilisers derived from composting and methanisation on two sweet potato varieties (Marimar and Numéro I or Chineese) was assessed from an agronomic point of view. A two-factor block design with 12 treatments (06 treatments per variety) was used: a negative control (T-) receiving no fertiliser, a positive control (22 g NPK, T+), 500 ml eluate (T1), 500 g digestate (T2), 500 g compost (T3) and 500 g digestate-compost mixture (T4). Fertilisers were applied 21 days after cuttings. The physico-chemical properties of the study site soil and fertilisers, growth parameters and tuber yields were evaluated using experimental methods. The results show that the soil at the study site is poor in major nutrients and organic matter for optimum sweet potato production, while the eluate is richer in nutrients than the digestate and compost. Overall, the compost-digestate mixture significantly (p˂0.05) improved sweetpotato productivity compared with eluate, digestate and compost. Tuber yields of plants amended with the compost-digestate mixture were 2.65, 2.00, 1.85, 1.27 and 1.47 times higher, respectively, than those of plants in the negative control, positive control, eluate-amended, digestate-amended and compost-amended. Producing and using the compost-digestate mixture for sweet potato cultivation will help to improve tuber yields and the management of waste from tuber processing, as well as contributing to sustainable agriculture.</p> AHMED DAVY ALI Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/825 Ms Review on Effect, mechanism and management methods of drought stress in wheat https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/827 <p>Wheat is considered as limiting factor for crop productivity and food security. Morphological, physiological and biochemical phenomena are affected by water unavailability in soil. Morphological changes like seedling length, primary roots length, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight, shoot dry weight, germination rate occur during drought condition in soil. Changes in physiological phenomena like cell growth pattern,&nbsp; chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate ,&nbsp; evapotranspiration rate , membranous stability&nbsp; ,Relative water content occurs by water scarcity in soil . Bio chemical&nbsp; changes&nbsp; in&nbsp; Proline content , Anti-oxidant enzymes defence system ,osmotic adjustment , Abscisic acid production ,Lipid peroxidation occurs at water deficient period in wheat .Such changes are recovered by wheat crop in some extent through different 4 mechanism of drought tolerance i.e. Escape, avoidance , recovery , &nbsp;&nbsp;are present in wheat crop are studied in this review. Drought-tolerant wheat cultivars should be developed using modern approaches such as physiological trait-based breeding, molecular breeding, marker-assisted backcrossing, genome editing, transcriptase factors.</p> Smirti Sharma Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/827 PERFROMANCE EVALUATION OF ADVANCED DURUM WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER IRRIGATED CONDITION AT BHAIRAHAWA, NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/824 <p>&nbsp; A field trial was carried out at the National Wheat Research Program (NWRP) in Bhairahawa, Nepal in 2022 to investigate elite durum wheat genotypes and key traits contributing to yield. The experiment was performed in an alpha lattice design with two replications. Thirty distinct durum wheat genotypes were assessed, focusing on fourteen quantitative traits including days to booting, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, spike length, peduncle length, number of tillers per square meter, number of spikes per square meter, number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike, thousand kernel weight, grain yield, biomass yield, chlorophyll content. The studied genotypes were grown under irrigated condition. Genotype NL1779 attained the highest grain yield of 3828 kg/ha, followed by NL1769 (3784 kg/ha), NL1772 (3726 kg/ha), NL1789 (3640 kg/ha) and NL1784 (3570 kg/ha). Principal components analysis revealed that eight traits were the major loadings on the first two principal components that describe 53.4% of the total morphological variance at irrigated condition. Cluster analysis grouped the different genotypes into four clusters, with each cluster showing variation in performance for different traits under irrigated conditions. Cluster III is characterized by genotypes exhibiting the highest grain yield, biomass yield, spike length, number of grains per spike, and number of spikes per square meter. Notably, the high-yielding genotypes NL1779, NL1769, NL1772, NL1789, NL1784, and NL1773 identified within this cluster could serve as potential candidates for inclusion in the national breeding program. Additionally, these genotypes may be considered for recommendation in irrigated areas, pending further evaluation to validate their performance and adaptability. Furthermore, the presence of significant genetic variability among the evaluated durum wheat genotypes suggests an opportunity for improvement of grain yield through using these genotypes in national breeding program.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/824 Effect of boron and molybdenum on growth and yield attributes of cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae Var. Botrytis L) at Salyan, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-023 <p>A research study was conducted to investigate the impact of varying levels of boron and molybdenum on the growth and yield parameters of the Silvercup-60 variety of cauliflower in the fields of Luham, Salyan during the winter season of 2022. The experiment comprised seven treatments arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Each replication included seven treatments denoted as follows: T1 (Control), T2 (Borax @10 kg/ha), T3 (Ammonium Molybdate @1 kg/ha), T4 (Borax @10 kg/ha + Ammonium Molybdate @1 kg/ha), T5 (Borax @10 kg + Ammonium Molybdate @2 kg/ha), T6 (Borax @20 kg/ha + Ammonium Molybdate @1 kg/ha), and T7 (Borax @20 kg/ha + Ammonium Molybdate @2 kg/ha), representing different doses of boron and molybdenum. Various growth parameters, including plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, and leaf width, were recorded at intervals of 15, 30, 45, and 55 days post-transplanting, along with yield parameters such as curd diameter and curd yield. Notably, treatment T4 (Borax @10 kg/ha + Ammonium Molybdate @1 kg/ha) exhibited significantly superior curd diameter (19.03 cm) and yield (16.41 mt/ha) compared to the control group, while the control group yielded the lowest values for these parameters. Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the application of boron and molybdenum at a rate of 10 kg/ha of Borax and 1 kg/ha of Ammonium Molybdenum is recommended for cauliflower cultivation in the Salyan district, as it leads to enhanced growth and yield of cauliflower crops.</p> Niharika Chaudhary, Kamal Kafle, Biju Adhikari, Saroj Sapkota Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-023 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Heavy metal concentrations in water from Bakkhali River estuary, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-022 <p>Heavy metals contamination of water is considered as severe global issues for developing countries like Bangladesh. Because heavy metal pollution ruined aquatic ecosystem especially fish diversity which contribute important share on economy of a country. The present study designed to investigate the contamination level of lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in surface water of Bakkhali river estuary in Bangladesh. The decreasing order of metals concentration was Cu&gt;Zn &gt;Cr&gt;Pb&gt;Cd with the mean value of 2.6&gt; 0.825 &gt; 0.355 &gt; 0.056 &gt;0.003 mg/L, respectively. The results showed a significant seasonal variation of heavy metals concentration in water. Higher contamination occurred during post monsoon, while lower during the monsoon season. Among the all studied heavy metals Cu concentration was higher (2.6 mg/L) and lower (0.003 mg/L) concentration was Cd. Metal concentrations in water samples exceeded the safe limits of drinking water which indicated that the water from this estuarine river is not fully safe for using/drinking. The study area was not entirely polluted in terms of all metal concentrations. But level of metal concentration in polluted sites supposed risk to ecological health. The findings of present study recommended that continuous monitoring of water should be aimed to evaluate the risk which could help to maintain healthy coastal ecosystem and improve management strategy of this estuarine river.</p> Sharmin Jahan, Md. Abu Sayed Jewel, Jesmin Ara Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-022 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An ideal model of plant-vector-phytopathogen interaction and the management of the vector https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-027 <p>Maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) is a vital cereal crop worldwide, crucial for global food security and various industrial applications. Its cultivation faces significant challenges from a diverse array of insect pests and pathogens, notably including the maize leaf aphid (<em>Rhopalosiphum maidis</em>) and the maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV). This paper explores the intricate interactions among maize, its insect vectors, and MDMV, emphasizing the urgent need for a deeper understanding to develop sustainable management strategies. Maize exhibits vast genetic diversity and is cultivated across diverse environments, making it susceptible to a range of pests and diseases. The transmission of MDMV by aphids, particularly <em>R. maidis</em>, poses a significant threat to maize production globally. The complex tripartite interaction between maize, aphids, and MDMV serves as an ideal model system for studying plant-insect-phytopathogen interactions. Understanding the components of this interaction is critical for developing effective management strategies. Despite significant research efforts, there remains a knowledge gap in the molecular mechanisms underlying vector-borne diseases. Further research on the molecular level is essential for identifying specific targets for genetic pest control and disrupting pathogen transmission by insect vectors. Developing countries, in particular, require intensified research efforts to address the growing challenges to food security and agricultural sustainability. Thus, unraveling the complexities of plant-insect-phytopathogen interactions is essential for devising effective strategies to combat vector-borne diseases and sustain global food systems. Enhanced scientific research, especially in developing regions, is crucial for addressing these challenges and ensuring food security for future generations.</p> Bipin Bastakoti Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-027 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of different nitrogen levels on yield and yield attributes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-021 <p style="text-align: justify;"><a name="_Hlk159744136"></a></p> <p>Farmers in Lamjung have been unable to maximize okra performance and yield due to being unaware of the ideal fertilizer dosage. A field experiment was carried out at Sundarbazar-7, Lamjung during the period from March to June 2023 to understand the optimal N level to enhance the growth and yield of okra. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used to set up the experiment with the seven treatments <em>viz.</em> control, 40, 55, 70, 85, 100, and 115 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> each had three replications. A hybrid variety Arka Anamika mostly used by farmers in Lamjung was used. Recorded data on yield and yield contributing parameters were subjected to statistical analysis and results revealed a significant effect of the treatments on the yield and yield attributes of okra. Plants treated with T6(100 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) had the highest number of fruits per plant (13.10), fruit length (15.84cm), weight of a single pod (15.84 g), and total fruit yield of 14.74 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. The lowest number of fruits per plant (7.93), fruit length (9.29 cm), single fruit weight (9.29 g), and yield (8.12 t ha-1) were recorded from the control treatment T1 (0 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>). Meanwhile, the impact of treatment T6 (100 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) was found to be effective compared to other treatments under study. Based on these findings, the experiment suggests okra farmers to use 100 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> to maximize okra performance and yield considering the soil health.</p> Saraswata Pokhrel, Biplab Neupane, Sujan Chapagain Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-021 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Length frequency distribution, length-weight relationship and condition factors of Hilsa Shad, Tenualosa ilisha from Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-020 <p>Hilsa shad, <em>Tenualosa ilisha</em>, a cherished and economically vital species, thrives in the waters of Bangladesh. It holds a prominent role in bolstering the nation's food security and influencing the ecological dynamics of aquatic ecosystems along the Bangladeshi coast and estuaries. This comprehensive study encompasses data collection efforts on the Hilsa fish species, conducted at 12 commercial landing centers throughout Bangladesh over the course of 2020. The study describes some fundamental components, including length frequency distribution, length-weight relationships, and condition factors, offers invaluable insights into the growth, health, and overall well-being of Hilsa population. Notably, the length-weight relationship analysis revealed size ranges of 11.5-59.2 cm and 11.0-49.0 cm total length for females and males, respectively. The observed b values indicated positive allometric growth (b &gt; 3.00) for female population and negative allometric growth (b &lt; 3.00) for male population in the length-weight relationship. Among the condition factors scrutinized, Fulton's condition factor emerged as the most reliable indicator for assessing the health and condition of the Hilsa population. This study offers valuable insights for biologists, aiding in the assessment of the species' status and providing essential information for fishery biologists and conservation biologists. Such insights are instrumental in the management and ultimate conservation of this iconic species in Bangladesh.</p> Mohammad Ashraful Alam, Md. Rahamat Ullah, Flura, Md. Hashibur Rahman, Md. Moniruzzaman, Md. Abu Kawser Didar, Md. Tarek , Md. Amirul Islam, Md. Zulfikar Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-020 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Systematic Review on the Dynamics of Urban Expansion Impacts on Inner-City Slums, Crime Spreading Out, and the Mitigation Mechanisms in Ethiopia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/815 <p><em>A growing portion of the global population (51.1%) lives in cities. The percentage of people living in cities increased to 55.7% by 2019. In general, it is higher in developed countries (80.5%) than in developing countries (51.1%). Ethiopia is experiencing a rapid increase in its urban population, which totals about 3 million people. Of these, 64.3 percent reside in inadequate neighborhoods with unsatisfactory infrastructure. Urban expansions that are characterized by a high proportion of slums, a lack of infrastructure, a high degree of inequality, and widespread participation of societies in informal sectors have been linked to an increase in crime and the eviction of the urban poorest. Urbanization in Ethiopia is a contributing factor to slum living, crime, drug abuse, environmental pollution, unused farmland, and worsened income inequality between urban dwellers. Setting up or improving the fundamental infrastructure, removing or reducing environmental risks, and providing incentives for community management and upkeep are some of the mechanisms used to counteract the effects of urbanization.</em></p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/815 Review on Effect, mechanism and management methods of drought resistance in wheat https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/813 <p>Wheat is considered as limiting factor for crop productivity and food security .Morphological ,physiological and bio chemical phenomena are affected by water unavailability in soil. Morphological changes like seedling length, primary roots length, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight, shoot dry weight, germination rate occur during drought condition in soil . Changes in physiological phenomena like cell growth pattern,&nbsp; chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate ,&nbsp; evapotranspiration rate , membranous stability&nbsp; ,Relative water content occurs by water scarcity in soil . Bio chemical&nbsp; changes&nbsp; in&nbsp; Proline content , Anti oxidant enzymes defence system ,osmotic adjustment , Abscisic acid production ,Lipid peroxidation occurs at water deficient period in wheat .Despite of these all causes,4 mechanism of drought tolerance .i.e. Escape, avoidance , recovery , tolerance &nbsp;are present in wheat crop are studied in this review. Drought-tolerant wheat cultivars should be developed using modern approaches such as physiological trait-based breeding, molecular breeding, marker-assisted backcrossing, genome editing ,transcriptase factors.</p> Smirti Sharma Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/813 An overview on the impact of genetically engineered organisms on crop yield and safety https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-025 <p>Genetically Engineered Organisms (GEOs) have ushered in a new era in agriculture, revolutionizing crop yield and safety through techniques like transgenic modification and genome editing. This review delves into the profound impact of GEOs on agricultural landscapes, elucidating their role in enhancing crop traits, and bolstering resistance to pests, diseases, and adverse environmental conditions, thereby ensuring food security for a burgeoning global population. However, amidst these advancements, persistent concerns regarding GEOs' environmental and health ramifications persist. The review critically examines potential unintended consequences within ecosystems and addresses human health implications, particularly allergenicity. Furthermore, it scrutinizes existing regulatory frameworks and the pivotal role of public perception in shaping the trajectory of GEOs. While emphasizing the intricate interplay between genetic engineering and crop production, the review advocates for continued research and informed decision-making to harness the benefits of GEOs while mitigating potential risks. Additionally, it underscores the significance of enhancing science communication and regulatory measures to address ethical concerns and combat misinformation. With advancements in precision gene-integration technologies and emerging research in biofortification and stress tolerance, GEOs are promising to enhance commercial agriculture's productivity and profitability. However, achieving this potential necessitates proactive measures such as improved regulation, risk mitigation strategies, and enhanced communication with stakeholders to ensure GEOs' responsible and sustainable integration into agricultural systems.</p> Lokendra Nath Yogi, Anju Kathayat, Sarada Bhandari, Prajjwal Paudel, Prakash Mishra Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-025 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of various biochar on selected soil properties and agronomical parameters of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) at Rupandehi, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-019 <p>Biochar is rich in carbon and obtained by carbonization of biomass heated at 300-1000°C under limited oxygen which improves the soil properties and yield of various crops. This study aimed to determine the changes in soil properties and agronomical characteristics of okra by biochar prepared from different feedstock. The research was conducted in randomized blocks and replicated thrice, with treatments; control, wood ash (WA), rice husk biochar (RHB), bamboo biochar (BB), Ashoka leaves biochar (ALB), coconut husk biochar (CHB), and sawdust biochar (SB), applied at 18 t/ha. Biochar-incorporated soil and the biochar were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, K<sub>2</sub>O, and organic matter, and the soil for bulk density, particle density, and porosity. Agronomical parameters like plant height, fruit size, and yield were also recorded. The biochar incorporation modified the soil's chemical properties and significantly decreased bulk and particle density. The highest reduction of 10.9% in bulk density (1.22gm/cm<sup>3</sup>), and 4.4% in particle density (2.39gm/cm<sup>3</sup>) were observed in ALB and SB incorporated soil respectively. ALB (50%) followed by BB (49%) showed a significant increase in soil porosity compared to the control (45.18%). BB (15.7cm) significantly increased the fruit size compared to the control (14.06cm) followed by ALB (15.5cm). ALB (8.16t/ha) significantly increased the yield of okra relative to control (7.82t/ha). The findings suggest the use of ALB and BB to improve soil properties and yield in the long run.</p> Janma Jaya Gairhe, Pragyan Bhattarai, Prashant Gyanwali, Renuka Khanal, Rasmita Mainali, Shrijana Poudel, Manisha Pokhrel, Pramod Kumar Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-019 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gravel and River sand mining activities in Maroua (Far-North Region, Cameroon): Environmental and Socioeconomic aspects https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-018 <p>Sand and gravel mining are amongst the main factors that induces significant impacts on environment, as a result of growing need for building materials and as a source of income for rural communities. This study was conducted to assess the socio-economic and environmental effects of these activities in Maroua, Cameroon. Its objectives include a description of artisanal mining method and identification of its socio-economic and environmental impacts. The study was conducted in a multidisciplinary approach. During the fieldwork, data were collected using questionnaires and focused group discussions were undertaken with those responsible for managing natural resources in the that area. The results reveal that sand mining activity alter river morphology at a faster rate than normal river process, where river reduction of the extraction areas is significantly larger. These activities were responsible for quick resource depletion and adversely affecting the environment and causing disturbances such as, ecological balance, soil degradation, pollution, infrastructure destruction, as well as conflict between miners and communities. Despite the negative impacts, mining activities generate income for all parties involved in the value chain, including the government. Accordingly, based on the research results, there are concerns about sustainable extraction practices by implementing strict rules and government policies.</p> Bertin Pagna Kagonbé, Bouba Nafissa, Cedric Djeutchou, Alexis Ngoniri Hamdja, Pagoré Djoda, Alain Pahimi Loabé, Etienne Yanné, Paul Venyité Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-018 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Biofloc based farming of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in tanks under different stocking densities https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-017 <p>This experiment was conducted to optimize the stocking density of Nile tilapia (<em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>) in biofloc based farming system in tanks for a period of 90 days from 23 December to 22 March 2022 in Mohanpur upazilla, Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. The experiment was conducted in 5000 L cemented tanks (5m<sup>3</sup>) under three different of stocking densities (T<sub>1</sub>: 200 fishes/m<sup>3</sup>, T<sub>2</sub>: 150 fishes/m<sup>3</sup> and T<sub>3</sub>: 100 fishes/m<sup>3</sup>) having three replicates each. The initial weight of fish was 11.50±0.35 g and fishes were fed (34% protein content) twice a day @ 5-3 % body weight. Among three treatments, a significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) average daily gain (ADG) of 1.15±0.07 g with specific growth rate (SGR) of 2.44±0.09 % day<sup>-1</sup> were recorded in T<sub>3</sub> treatment but a significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) average yield of 118907.70 and 114914.20 kg/ha/3 months were obtained in T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub> treatment, respectively. Higher average net benefit of 1231671.90 BDT/ha/3 months and BCR of 0.12 were obtained in T<sub>2</sub> treatment which is significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) than T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> treatment. By an economical assessment, if the sales price is influenced by the final body weight, the reduced average harvest weight in higher stocking densities could lead to low profitability. Therefore, it is concluded that the use of intermediate stocking density, around 150 fishes/m<sup>3</sup>, has higher profitability since it produces a large proportion of harvested fish that reach high body weights, and possible high selling prices, combined with desirable biomass.</p> Md. Humaun Kobir, Md. Akhtar Hossain, Md. Anwar Hossain, Shishir Kumar Dey, Mahmudul Hasan Mithun Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-017 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Farmer’s perception on Chinese citrus fruit fly (CFFs) and its management in Solukhumbu and Sindhuli district of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-016 <p>This study conducted between January and June 2022 aimed to assess the impact of precipitation on <em>Bactrocera minax</em>, a citrus pest, in Nepal's Solukhumbu and Sindhuli districts. Primary data were gathered from 84 respondents using pre-tested interview schedules, focal group discussions (FGD), and key informant interviews (KII), while secondary information was collected through literature review. The results highlighted the Chinese citrus fruit fly as a significant citrus pest causing fruit drop, particularly impacting Mandarin cultivation after sweet orange displacement. Farmers in Sindhuli exhibited greater motivation and trust in citrus cultivation compared to those in Solukhumbu. Notably, the fruit drop was lower (4.33%) in Sindhuli where the Area-wide Management Program (AWCP) utilizing protein bait and field sanitation was applied, in contrast to Solukhumbu where fruit drop was higher (35.5%), suggesting the effectiveness of AWCP. The PMAMP Sindhuli super zone played a direct role in the study, with respondents in Sindhuli demonstrating higher awareness of Chinese citrus fruit flies and AWCP. Technical and financial support for citrus cultivation was also more prevalent in Sindhuli. Furthermore, the study found that the majority of respondents perceived protein bait (AWCP) as the most straightforward, effective, and expensive management method, despite its limited application in Solukhumbu. This study underscores the importance of AWCP in mitigating citrus pest infestation, particularly in areas with high precipitation, and emphasizes the need for broader adoption of effective management strategies in citrus cultivation regions.</p> Sujan Limbu, Bishnu Yadav, Raju Khatri, Chandani Sunuwar, Anish Subedi Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-016 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Management of Wheat Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici) through Fungicides Spray Frequencies in Central Ethiopia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/805 <p>The stem rust disease caused by (<u>Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici</u>) is the most striking among various wheat diseases that contributing&nbsp;to&nbsp;huge&nbsp;yield losses in Ethiopia. The effect of fungicide spray frequency on yield components of the bread wheat was studied under natural infection at Mareko and Dalocha during 2020 growing season. Two different fungicides: Nativo SC 300 (Trifloxystrobin 100g/l + Tebuconazole 200g/l) at 0.75l/ha and Tilt® 250EC (propiconazole) at 0.5l/ha were field evaluated each with three spraying frequencies in randomized complete block design with three replications. Unsprayed controls were also included to allow maximum rust severity for comparison. The disease resulted in relative grain yield losses of up to 53.5% at Dalocha and 41.9% at Mareko on unsprayed plots.&nbsp; However, terminal rust severity, average coefficient infection and AUDPC values were significantly (P&lt;0.05) reduced due to frequent fungicides application. Application of both fungicide-treated plots showed a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in thousand kernel weight and grain yield compared to untreated check plots. Moreover, Nativo SC 300 provides the highest grain yield increment and is effective in decreasing stem rust across all locations. Significant negative correlation was observed between TRS, ACI and AUDPC to that of the grain yield, kernel per spike and TKW with a correlation coefficient ranging from, r=-0.85** to r=-0.33**. Cost benefit analysis revealed that the combined use of Nativo SC 300 three times at ten day interval provides the highest net benefit and it is the best management strategy to improve the grain yield.</p> mitiku kebede Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/805 Production economics and marketing of Himalayan Yew in Mahankal rural municipality of Lalitpur District, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-015 <p>This study delves into the dynamic landscape of Himalayan yew cultivation in the Mahankal Rural Municipality of Lalitpur district, offering a comprehensive analysis of the socio-demographic factors influencing growers' practices. By examining variables such as gender, age, education, landholding, income, ethnicity, access to irrigation facilities, and marketing strategies, we present a nuanced understanding of the complexities involved. Agriculture emerges as the cornerstone of respondents' income, with Himalayan yew cultivation consistently proving to be financially lucrative, yielding revenues and gross margins that significantly bolster local farmers' economic well-being. The calculated Benefit-Cost Ratio underscores the profitability of Himalayan yew cultivation in Mahankal, advocating for its sustained expansion. Despite favorable climatic conditions, challenges persist in marketing and production domains. Limited primary marketing channels signify untapped potential, necessitating initiatives to foster growth and enhance efficiency. Technical obstacles highlight the need for innovative solutions and technical support to bolster the sustainability of Himalayan yew cultivation. In conclusion, this research underscores the promising prospects and profitability of Himalayan yew cultivation while emphasizing the imperative to address existing challenges. Strategic interventions and collaborative efforts are essential to empower local farmers and ensure the enduring success of this valuable industry. This study serves as a clarion call for concerted action to propel Himalayan yew cultivation to new heights in Mahankal and beyond.</p> Pratima Timalsina, Shimran Dahal, Raj Chaudhary, Saugat Karki, Nama Raj Bhusal Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-015 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of elite spring wheat genotypes for grain yield and other agronomic attributes in hills of Sudurpaschim Province, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-013 <p>Selection and release of high yielding and disease resistant varieties is the cost effective and ecologically sound approach for increasing the production and productivity of agricultural crop in Nepal. Twenty-two advanced bread wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) genotypes including commercial check variety "Sorgadwari", newly released check variety "Khumal Shakti" and Local Check variety " Jhadde" were evaluated under irrigated conditions at Gokuleshwor Agriculture and Animal Science College (GAASC), Baitadi, Nepal during 2022/2023. This study was carried out for the identification of high yielding genotypes under irrigated condition in western hills. The experiment was conducted in Alpha lattice design with two replications. The highly significant difference (p&lt;0.01) among the genotypes was found for most of the traits viz., days to heading, days to anthesis, days to maturity, plant height, spikes per square meter, number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike, flag leaf area, thousand kernel weight, biomass yield and grain yield and non-significant difference for spike length. The mean grain yield ranged from 1908 to 4146 kg/ha with grand mean of 2766 kg/ha. The highest grain yield was produced by genotype NL 1474 (4146 kg/ha) which was followed by NL 1475 (3994 kg/ha), NL1597 (3536 kg/ha) and NL 1590 (3070 kg/ha). The check variety Sorgadwari and Khumal Shakti produced 3480 and 3070 kg/ha respectively while the local check variety Jhadde produced 2655 kg/ha. Similarly, highest TKW was produced by NL 1487 (68.5 g) followed by BL 5148 (67.2 g) and WK 3730 (66.3 g). The correlation analysis revealed that grain yield showed highly significant positive correlation with biomass yield (0.90**) and number of grains per spike (0.6**), spikes per square meter (0.7**), plant height (0.5**) and non-significant positive correlation with spike length (0.21) and grain weight per spike (0.1) and non-significant negative correlation with days to heading (-0.2) and days to maturity (-0.2). Cluster analysis revealed that Cluster III consists of 4 genotypes namely NL 1474, NL 1475, NL 1597 and Sorgadwari. This cluster represent with highest grain yield, number of spikes per meter square, number of grains per spike and grain weight per spike. Among the tested genotypes, NL 1474, NL 1475, NL 1597 and NL 1590 were found superior for grain yield and yield-related traits in comparison to three checks and could be recommended for hills of Sudurpaschim province after further testing in multi-environment and in farmer's field.</p> Anjal Nainabasti, Bishesh Subedi, Damber Singh Thapa, Khem Bahadur Bohora, Mithlesh Kumar Shah, Khem Raj Pant Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-013 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on YAK FARMING PRATICES IN NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/800 <p>Yak farming in Nepal plays a significant role in agrobiodiversity conservation, cultural traditions, and socioeconomic development in high mountain regions. However, yak populations are facing challenges due to closed borders, grazing restrictions, and the abandonment of traditional farming practices. This paper examines the recent status of yak farming, including the decrease in population and herd sizes. It also explores housing and grazing practices, emphasizing the need for improved management and commercialization of yak farming. The study highlights the importance of yak breeds such as Chauri, their productivity, and their adaptation to lower altitudes. With limited research conducted on yaks in Nepal, this paper calls for the integration of scientific methods and indigenous knowledge to strengthen yak breeding and feeding practices. The study concludes with recommendations, including awareness programs, access to veterinary services, the establishment of milk chilling centers, genetic improvement, and the establishment of yak research centers, to support the development of yak farming in Nepal.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/800 Review on Effect of Drought and mechanism of drought resistance in wheat https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/799 <p>Wheat is considered as limiting factor for crop productivity and food security .Morphological ,physiological and bio chemical phenomena are affected by water unavailability in soil. Morphological changes like seedling length, primary roots length, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight, shoot dry weight, germination rate occur during drought condition in soil . Changes in physiological phenomena like cell growth pattern,&nbsp; chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate ,&nbsp; evapotranspiration rate , membranous stability&nbsp; ,Relative water content occurs by water scarcity in soil . Bio chemical&nbsp; changes&nbsp; in&nbsp; Proline content , Anti oxidant enzymes defence system ,osmotic adjustment ,Abscisic acid production ,Lipid peroxidation occurs at water deficient period in wheat .Despite of these all causes,4 mechanism of drought tolerance .i.e. Escape, avoidance , recovery , tolerance &nbsp;are present in wheat plant which &nbsp;are &nbsp;studied in this review.</p> Smirti Sharma Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/799 Consumer preferences of fast-food items in Mymensingh, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-011 <p>The goal of the current study was to ascertain Bangladeshi consumers' preferences for fast food items. Data from 80 respondents who were eating fast food in the Mymensingh region were gathered using a purposeful random sample; men made up 52.50 percent of the respondents. The study employed multiple linear regression analysis to determine the primary determinants influencing eating habits among customers. Additionally, descriptive statistics were utilized to determine the demographic characteristics such as age, education, income level etc. of the consumers. Furthermore, the utilization of Likert scale analysis assists in identifying the more favoured reasons why consumers go for fast food. The findings showed that most respondents were government employees with advanced degrees. Nearly 8.75 percent of customers spent more than Tk 2000 (18.22 $) on fast food every month. According to Likert scale research, 47.5% of consumers thought fast food was unhealthy. Consumers in the research region felt generally dissatisfied with fast food, as evidenced by their affirmative responses to seven out of the seventeen questions on the meal. In the Mymensingh District, explanatory factors such education, monthly family income, students, advertisements, and social pressure had the most impacts on the amount of fast food consumed. This research also looked at the critical elements at fast food restaurants and the relationship between customer satisfaction and restaurant service. The results of this study contribute significant knowledge to the literature on the food service sector and offer vital insights for the fast-food business in Bangladesh, indicating areas for development and customer preferences. It will offer insights for businesses to tailor their marketing strategies and menu offerings to align with consumer preferences and health concerns as well as highlights areas for improvement in fast-food establishments to enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty because of fast food consumption is becoming more and more appealing these days.</p> Sabbir Ahamed, Nazia Tabassum, Md. Moniruzzaman, Md. Mahfuzul Hasan, Md. Asraf Mahmud Hasif Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-011 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Growth and yield response of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostratus) on substrate composed from waste paper, faba bean straw, and cotton seed waste https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/797 <p>This article report the growth and yield, response of oyster mushroom on substrate composed from waste paper, faba bean straw, cotton seed waste. The culture of the mushroom was grown on potato dextrose agar and the spawn was developed on yellow color sorghum grains. The different substrates were collected, mixed and sterilized and data collected were analyzed by using SPSS computer soft ware for window version 26.0. T1, T3 and T4 completed mycelia colonization on 15 days, while it took 31 days for T2. &nbsp;Fastest incubation to first harvest 21 days was recorded for T1, T3 and T4 while the slowest for T2, 42 days. T4 gave the highest fresh weight in the first harvest, 1140 g, and T6 gave the smallest 579g. Highest number of bunches 18 counted from T8 and the lowest number from T2, 4. Higher number of fruiting bodies counted for T8, 110 and fewer for T2, 55. Highest number of aborts was recorded for T8, 30 and least from T2, 18. Larger pilus diameter 18cm was measured from T6 and the smallest 6cm from T2. The highest total biomass and biological efficiency was measured from the T7, 2896g; 289% respectively while, the smallest total biomass and biological efficiency from T2 1307g, 113% respectively. The yield, yield-related parameter, total biomass, and biological efficiency of oyster mushrooms produced on&nbsp; Faba bean straw combined with waste paper &nbsp;and &nbsp;cotton seed waste were best&nbsp; and needed to be evaluated for oyster mushroom production on a pilot and large-scale basis</p> Asefa keneni Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/797 Role of credit on mustard production and food security in a selected area of Sirajganj District in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-08 <p>Credit is a driving force behind increased crop productivity, and food security is essential to the general advancement of humanity. The current study was carried out to analyze the socioeconomic profile of the respondents, examine the loan components, evaluate the effect of credit on mustard production, and find out how many calories each household member consumes on a per capita basis. A sample size of sixty respondents was selected randomly from Sirajganj district in Bangladesh. Primary data were collected through a field survey using a semi-structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics, the multiple linear regression models, and the modified OECD scale were used to analyze the data. The study found that most of the respondents were in the active age group, and half of the respondents had a secondary level of education. About half of the respondents belonged to the middle-income group. Two-thirds of the respondents received a large loan. It was found that credit had a positive impact on mustard production. The poverty rate was much higher than the national average in the study area. Along with specialized banks, other financial institutions should extend agricultural loans to increase mustard production and food security for rural poor households in Bangladesh.</p> Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Indrani Saha, Ashley Comma Roy Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-08 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The "Enhancing Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Growth and Yield: The Influence of Zinc and Boron" https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/794 <p>A field experiment to study, “Impact of Foliar Spray of Boron and Zinc on Growth Parameters and Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) at Gokuleshwor, Baitadi” was conducted at Gokuleshwor Agriculture and Animal Science College from May 8 to August 27. The variety used in this experiment was ‘Arka Anamika’. The experiment was laid out Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications and 7 treatments. Data were collected from the sample plant of each plot. In this experiment applied treatments were control, 0.2%Zn, 0.2%B, 0.3%Zn, 0.3% B, 0.2%Zn+0.2%B and 0.3%Zn+0.3%B. Results revealed that application of different fertilizers significantly affects various parameters such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, number of branches, number of buds, number of fruits, length of fruits, girth of fruits and yield. Result obtain were maximum plant height, stem diameter, number of branches, number of buds, fruit length, number of fruits and yield recorded in T<sub>7</sub> which was statistically at par with T<sub>6</sub> whereas significantly lower found in T<sub>1</sub>(control). Girth of fruits become non-significant by various level of foliar application of boron and zinc either separately or in combination. From this study, we can conclude that 0.3%Zn+0.3%B might be best in overall yield and yield parameters of okra.</p> Shiva Prasad Adhikari Maate, Prakash Awasthi Prakash, Punam Roka Punam, Lokendra Yogi Lokendra, Srijana Bharati Srijana Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/794 Preharvest application of ethephon improved growth, maturity and quality of banana https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-07 <p>Poor yield, non-uniform ripening, and delay in maturity are some serious issues faced by commercial banana growers in the country. This research was conducted in a commercial banana orchard of Chitwan from December 2021 to April 2022 in order to study the effect of different doses of ethephon on growth, maturity, and quality of banana. Five different doses of ethephon (200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 ppm) were sprayed on a banana bunch at 15<sup>th</sup> days after shooting which were compared with the control (no ethephon treatment) in RCBD design. The maturity of the bunch was significantly hastened at a higher concentration of ethephon (above 600 ppm). Fruit length and fruit weight were also observed higher at 600 ppm (10.21 cm and 62.68 g) and 800 ppm (10.67 cm and 63.26 g) ethephon spray. The bunch treated with 600 ppm ethephon had the highest TSS (10.78<sup>o</sup>B and 23.27<sup>o</sup>B at 0 and 5 days of storage, respectively) and PPR (1.65). Considering quantitative and qualitative parameters, preharvest ethephon spray @600 ppm significantly improved growth, maturity, and quality of banana fruits.</p> Bishal Shrestha, Nirajan Bhandari Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-07 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of Foliar Application of NAA and GA3 on Growth and Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L) Cultivar N-53 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/792 <p>A field experiment was carried out at the Horticultural Research Farm of Baba Farid Institute of Technology (BFIT), Dehradun, India during the Rabi season, 2021-2022 to evaluate the Performance of Foliar Application of NAA and GA<sub>3</sub>on growth and yield of Onion (<em>Allium cepa</em>L) Cultivar N-53 and the significant differences in results had been observed. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 9 treatments and 3 replications of each growth regulators <em>viz. </em>NAA and GA<sub>3</sub>of different levels (50 PPM, 100 PPM, 150 PPM, 200 PPM). The superior growth attributes like maximum plant height (47.38 cm) at 45 DAT,(51.01 cm) at 60 DAT and (54.04 cm) at 90 DAT, maximum number of leaves per plant (6.32) at 45 DAT and (8.84) at 60 DAT were recorded from the application of NAA 150 PPM (T<sub>3</sub>). The superior yield attributes like maximum fresh weight of bulb per plant (60.12 gm), maximum bulb polar diameter (4.75 cm) and maximum bulb equatorial diameter (5.45 cm) were recorded from the application of GA<sub>3</sub> 100 PPM (T<sub>6</sub>).</p> Paratikshya Khadka, Chintamani Paudel, Keshab Kumar Jha, Dr. Anita Chauhan Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/792 AN ASSESSMENT OF DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVITY AND PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS OF WHEAT FARMING IN KANCHANPUR, NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/791 <p>Although having huge potential for Wheat farming, productivity in Kanchanpur is still below the productivity of other districts like Kailali, Banke, Kapilbastu, and Rupendehi which have similar climatic conditions as Kanchanpur. So, this research was carried out in the month of March- April in 2022 to identify the factors affecting Wheat production and problems of wheat farming in Kanchanpur district. Kanchanpur district was purposively selected due to the high potential of wheat production in the region. Total one hundred of farmer’s households were selected by simple random sampling and primary data was collected with the help of a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire by interview schedule and secondary data were collected from relevant journals. A multiple regression model was applied to identify the factors of wheat production. This study identified that wheat cultivated land with irrigation facilities, the experience of farmers in the field of wheat farming (years), amount of NPK applied and education level of household head had a significant positive impact on wheat production in the study area. About 95% variation in wheat production was explained by the independent variable considered under the study. Indexing was applied to identify major problems of wheat production. This study revealed that lack of fertilizer in peak plantation time, problems like damage from wild animals and stray cattle, unavailability of improved seed, unavailability of irrigation, high incidence of disease and pest, lack of proper access to market etc. were major constraints of wheat production in the study area.</p> Kamal Kafle, Pankaj Prasad Joshi Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/791 A review on molecular breeding techniques: Crucial approach in livestock improvement https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-027 <p>For underdeveloped countries, molecular breeding (MB) has a lot of promise. However, the implementation in developing countries is far from uniform. Livestock improvement programs aim to improve the genetics of domesticated animal populations by selecting males and females who, when mated, will produce progeny that perform better than the current generation's average. The amount of genetic progress made through conventional selection and breeding methods for quantitative traits in livestock is successful, but limitations such as routinely recording phenotypes, animal sacrifice for meat quality traits, recording in particular sex for sex-limited traits, and so on the limit the amount of genetic progress made through conventional selection and breeding methods. Marker-assisted selection (MAS), genome-wide selection (GWS), marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS), and genome-wide sequencing (GS) are examples of modern breeding procedures. Molecular genetics technology may provide a technique to choose breeding animals at an early age (even embryos), to select for a wide variety of features and to improve the accuracy of forecasting an individual's mature phenotype. This paper examines the challenges and potential of applying molecular breeding techniques to improve livestock in developing countries.</p> Rupak Kandel, Ishwari Prasad Kadariya, Kailash Bohara, Sonu Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-027 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the efficacy of different botanicals on prolonging shelf life and maintaining quality of mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco var. Banshkharka Local) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-024 <p>Mandarin (<em>Citrus reticulate</em> Blanco) has been cultivated in 56 districts of Nepal. Huge losses in mandarin were reported and use of safer alternatives to synthetic chemicals to solve post-harvest losses is a matter of great concern.&nbsp; An experiment was conducted at the Directorate of Agricultural Research, Lumle for two consecutive years 2019 and 2020. Mandarin having similar maturity indices were harvested and transported to DoAR, Lumle. The fruits were treated with five different botanicals (garlic extract @ 10 %, ginger extract @ 10 %, aloe vera extract @ 10 %, neem extract @ 10 %, and control) allocated in randomized complete block design with four replications. The post-harvest study was conducted for 3 weeks under laboratory conditions (7.9 ± 3° C and RH 74 ± 4%). Different parameters such as physiological loss in weight (PLW), decay loss, total soluble solid (TSS), titrable acidity (TA) and fruit weight to juice ratio were recorded. Fruit treated with ginger extract @ 10 % recorded the minimum physiological loss in weight (6.31% and 5.15%), minimum decay loss (16 % and 17%) in the year 2019 and 2020, respectively. Highest TSS: TA ratio (13.54 and 12.79) and fruit weight to juice ratio (0.33 and 0.35) was also observed in fruit treated with ginger extract @ 10 % in both years. In both years, results obtained in the fruits treated with ginger extract was followed by fruit treated with aloe vera extract and garlic extract. Control treatment gave the poor result as compared to ginger extract @ 10 %. Thus, this study concluded that the use of ginger is suitable for postharvest treatment of mandarin fruit to increase its shelf life and maintain its quality parameters.</p> Asmita Khanal, Sandip Timilsina, Neela Poudel, Susmita Khanal, Tul Bahadur Poon Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-024 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-economic appraisal of fish sanctuary on livelihood of fishermen in Chikadubi beel of Dingapota Haor, Netrokona, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-010 <p>The investigation was conducted on the livelihood status of fishers of Chikadubi beel in Dingaputa haor, Netrokona district of Bangladesh for a period of 6 months from August 2020 to December 2020. A total 50 fishers were randomly selected and data were collected from them through direct interview. Focus group discussions were carried out by a previously made checklist. The results showed that the annual income of fishermen varied from BDT 30000 (270.79 USD) to BDT 70000 (631.85 USD). Maximum (58%) fishers were low-income levels from BDT 30000 (270.79 USD) to BDT 40000 (361.05 USD) and trying to shift their professions to other subsidiary professions. Among them 66% of the respondents indicated that this sanctuary is very effective in improving socio-economic status of the fishers. Relatively middle age group (31 to 40 years) dominated in all study areas. Muslim fishermen are the most dominant in the study area. 68% of the fishers live with nuclear families. The highest percentage (62%) fishers can sign only due to economic crisis and lack of awareness about education, (24%) having Primary level education, (14%) have no education as the children dropped out from school before completing their primary education. Housing and sanitation conditions of the fishermen were not well developed. Based on various livelihood parameters, fishermen are leading very poor state of lives. Sanctuary establishment and Community based aquatic resource management strategies may be undertaken with a view to enhance fish production to improve the livelihood condition of the fishers dwelling in the Chikadubi beel area of Dingaputa haor in Bangladesh.</p> Md. Shahin Alam, Md. Hashibur Rahman, Nafis Tasneem Binti, Shayla Sultana Mely, Saokat Ahamed, Md. Moshiur Rahman Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-010 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Value addition of homemade pickles in selected areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-03 <p>The pickles are popular food item in Bangladesh. Different types and kinds of pickles are sold by the vendors in the roadside those are processed by themselves at their home. This study has been conducted to assess the value addition of homemade pickles. The four homemade pickles (mango pickle, tamarind prickle, jujube pickle and elephant apple pickle) were selected for this study. The study was conducted in Gulshan, Dhanmondi, Uttara and Mirpur of Dhaka in Bangladesh. This study was based on primary data. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interview method in the month of mid-September to mid-October 2019. Data were collected from 20 vendors (selected conveniently) and 60 consumers (selected purposively) of homemade pickles. Descriptive statistics (mainly mean, percentage) was used to analyze the data. Value additions of homemade pickles were calculated by deducting the cost of production from the selling price of pickle which can be found from the value addition &nbsp;tables. The study found that the vendor’s added value of Tk. 330.44 ($3.94) to one kg raw mango, Tk.293.32 ($3.49) to one kg tamarind, Tk.340.01 ($4.05) to one kg jujube and Tk.425.57 ($5.07)to one kg elephant apple by processing to make pickle if it is ignored the value addition of other ingredients. In percentage term, it was 182.67 to 448.90 according to pickles. So, this is a productive activity creating form utility for the consumers that can contribute to the economy of Bangladesh.</p> Nasrin Aktar, Md. Moniruzzaman, Shankar Kumar Raha, Md. Shishir Ahamed Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-03 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An analysis of area and production growth rate along with price forecasting of major pulses in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-01 <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 115%;"><span lang="EN-IN" style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; color: windowtext;">Pulses are the most significant crops in the world, as well as in Bangladesh, for their commer-cial and nutritional importance. The study was carried out to determine the rate of expansion in area and production for several types of pulses such as Mosur, Mung, Mashkalai, Gram, and Khesari in Bangladesh, as well as to anticipate wholesale prices for those pulses. Secondary data from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) and the Department of Agricultural Marketing were used in this study. Following a diagnostic check, such as R<sup>2</sup>, Adjusted R<sup>2</sup>, RMSE, AIC, BIC, MAE, and MAPPE, it was discovered that the Cubic growth model was the best for specified pulses. The data over the entire time revealed that total output in the area rose in the case of all pulses. Mosur and Mung had positive average production growth rates of 2.02 and 6.919 percent, respectively. Mashkalai, Gram, and Khesari experienced negative growth rates of -0.541, -8.894, and -0.854 percent, respectively. After computing the average percentage change for Area growth rate Mosur, Mung, and Mashkalai showed positive growth rates of 1.229, 4.631, and 1.152 percent, respectively. In contrast, Gram and Khesari both had negative average values of -7.719 and -1.987 percent. This study applied the ARIMA (0,1,0) (1,0,1) model for Mosur, ARIMA (0,1,2) model for Mung, ARIMA (2,1,2) model for Mashkalai, ARIMA (2,1,4) model for Gram, and ARIMA (0,1,0) model for Khesari since those models passed the diagnostic test. Forecasting findings revealed that Mosur, Gram, and Khesari wholesale prices would be marginally modified, while Mung and Mashkalai wholesale prices would be raised in 2025. Thus, analyzing the growth rates of area and output of key pulses may help farmers allocate their land more wisely and price forecasts will help farmers in identifying the best crops for their production, which will improve the output of these crops in Bangladesh. </span></p> Md. Mahfuzul Hasan, Nazia Tabassum, Mohammod Kamruj Jaman Bhuiyan, Md Akhtarul Alam, Abu Hayat Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Asraf Mahmud Hasif Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-01 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and antibiogram of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus species in subclinical mastitis among dairy cows in western Chitwan, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/785 <p>Mastitis is a major economically important disease manifested in clinical and subclinical forms among dairy animals. This study aimed to isolate the mastitis-causing bacteria, their prevalence, and associated risk factors of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with their antibiogram. This study was conducted from July 2017 to May 2019 in Western Chitwan, Nepal. Approximately 10 ml milk samples were collected from each quarter in a sterilized bottle from 340 cows. The California Mastitis test (CMT) was performed for screening of mastitis, which was followed by immediate bacteriological culture in both Nutrient Agar (NA) and Selective media [Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA), Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) Agar, Mac Conkey Agar], Grams’ staining, and confirmatory biochemical test for respective organisms. The results from CMT revealed that the prevalence of SCM was 41.47% (141/340). The biochemical cultural characteristics found that the most common <em>Staphylococcus</em> (39.01%) followed by <em>E. coli </em>(23.40%), <em>S</em><em>treptococcus </em>(17.73%), and others unidentified (19.85%). The statistical analysis shows a non-significant association between breed, stage of lactation, milk yield, farming system, and prevalence of SCM among dairy cattle. Antibiogram profile indicated that tetracycline (80.3%) was the most effective drug followed by ceftriaxone (70.5%), Gentamicin (59.0%), and Enrofloxacin (44.3%). In conclusion, there was a high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in western Chitwan. Mastitis pathogens develop resistance against ampicillin. Further studies are required to develop alternative control strategies for mastitis in Nepal.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Antimicrobial-resistant, CMT, Mastitis, Risk factor, <em>Streptococcus</em></p> Gita Pandey Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/785 Impact of Anthropogenic Fires on Soil Health and Fertility in Ghana: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Soil Ecosystem. https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/784 <p>Soil has played a crucial role in supporting the existence of human populations through the provision of food and to some extent water. While its ecosystem services continue to fascinate scientists, the impact of bushfires, which directly remove vegetation cover and expose the soil to erosion and runoff, has adversely affected the health and functions of the soils of Ghana. &nbsp;&nbsp;The occurrence of anthropogenic fires in Ghana is deeply rooted in the cultural and traditional farming practices of the local population which makes its control quite difficult. The objective of this study is to assess the adverse effect of anthropogenic fires on soils of Ghana. The study reveals that anthropogenic fires have primarily affected the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soils of Ghana. Of particular concern is the volatilization of essential soil nutrients, potentially causing a temporary loss of soil fertility and contributing to environmental pollution. Nevertheless, there has been no studies carried out to investigate the impact of anthropogenic fires on the microbial properties of the soils of Ghana. The complex and varied effects of anthropogenic fires in the soil ecosystem of Ghana emphasizes the need for sustainable fire management practices to preserve soil health and productivity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Bushfire, Ecosystem service, Erosion, Runoff, and Volatilization.</p> Georgina Asare Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/784 UDDER MORPHOLOGY, MILK QUALITY AND MILK COMPOSITION OF SAANEN GOAT AT NGRP BANDIPUR https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/782 <p>Goat farming plays a crucial role in meeting global demands for meat and dairy products, especially in Nepal, where it contributes significantly to agricultural GDP and rural livelihoods. The introduction of Saanen goats, known for their prolific milk production, has the potential to revolutionize goat farming in Nepal. This study, carried out over a 28-day period involving 10 Saanen goats at the late lactation stage assesses udder morphology, milk composition, and milk quality in Saanen goats at the National Goat Research Program, Bandipur, Nepal. The results indicate that most goats have symmetrical, globular udders and funnel-shaped teats. Somatic cell count (SCC) values consistently remained within the normal range throughout the duration of the study, with the notable observation that SCC values were higher in the right teat (1137242 cells/ml) compared to left teat (352676 cells/ml) and teat-to-ground distance notably impacted SCC, especially in the left teat. The right teat did not significantly affect SCC, possibly due to individual variations. Milk composition remained stable, with minor fluctuations, and physical udder measurements showed significant variations in udder circumference and width, possibly linked to milk production. The study highlights the potential for sustainable high-quality milk production in Saanen goats in Nepal and offers insights for early health issue detection, fostering effective herd management and productivity. Further research with larger sample sizes and different lactation stages can provide more comprehensive insights into Saanen goat farming in Nepal.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: </em>Milk Composition, Somatic Cell Count, Saanen Goats, Udder Morphology</p> Ayush Adhikari, Sagun Malla Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/782 Edible Insects Diversity, Abundance, and Conservation https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/781 <p>Insects are the most varied category of creatures, with one million species accounting for 80% of all species on the planet. Practice of eating insects is called entomophagy. Edible insects are consumed and number of species serves as good source of nutrients all over the world. Over 2000 species of insects are consumed around different regions of the world. Coleoptera order consist the major number of edible insects used as feed in the world followed by Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Isoptera, Odonata, Diptera and other orders. These insect species also contain significant amount of nutrients such as protein, fat, minerals, fiber, ash, amino acids and others. &nbsp;Despite of their potential as alternative human feed, there is still an aversion to acceptance of insects as food due to lack of researches and study related to this aspect. This paper assesses the diversity and abundance of edible insects around different parts of their world, nutritive values of these insects, and their conservation. This study is based on recent data available from different source and literatures.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/781 How Agricultural Credit and Subsidies Impact Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia: Empirical Evidence Using ARDL Model https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/780 <p><em>The main objective of this study is to examine the effects of agricultural credit and subsidies on agricultural productivity in Ethiopia from 1990 to 2021. We obtain secondary data from the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Bank databases. The Autoregressive Distributive Lag Model to co-integration is applied to estimate the long- and short-run effects of agricultural credit and subsidies on productivity. The findings revealed that in the short-run, credit provision affected productivity negatively but subsidies to agricultural sector showed a positive significant effect. However, in the long run, the effect of credit turned out to be positive and significant, whereas, subsidies affected productivity negatively. It is recommended that the government design and implement policy measures that create better access to agricultural financing to enjoy long-run improvements in productivity. Similarly, the government should offer subsidies to the agricultural sector only during short-run periods and need to lift them gradually in the long run as their provision retards productivity in the long run.</em></p> Lemane Gebeyehu Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/780 Review on the Nexus between Macroeconomic Variables and Economic Growth: The Case of Ethiopia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/779 <p><em>One of the most contentious topics among academics is the association between macroeconomic variables and economic growth. The primary goal of this review is to examine how macroeconomic factors affect Ethiopia's economic growth. Reviews were conducted on the titles, abstracts, publication years, and main contents of all the papers that made it past the screening stage. Since Ethiopia's new government was elected in 2018, I've been curious to see how things have turned out, so a thorough literature review was conducted on 20 publications completed in Ethiopia between 2019 and 2023. The review result shows that almost all of the authors stated that economic growth, as measured by GDP, is influenced positively by foreign direct investment, government expenditure, gross fixed capital formation, money supply, trade balance, general debt, population growth, the consumer price index, and domestic investment, while negatively affected by inflation, trade openness, and interest payments. This article aims to give information about the impact of macroeconomic variables on a nation's economic growth to the government, policymakers, researchers, and other organizations that support economic growth. As a result, the review encourages further systematic meta-regression analysis evaluations of empirical literature, which can offer useful information to policymakers, researchers, and other groups trying to promote economic growth.</em></p> Lemane Gebeyehu Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/779 Value chain analysis of Mango in Saptari district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/777 <p>Mango is an important fruit crop grown widely in the Saptari district of Nepal. A study was conducted in March and June 2022 under PMAMP-PIU (Prime Minister Agriculture Modernization Project-Project Implementation Unit), Saptari (PMAMP-PIU, 2074/75) to analyze the value chain of Mango in Saptari, which explored the functional and economic linkage among the actors. A total of 60 producers, 10 traders, 5 retailers and 2 key informants were interviewed. Data regarding production, post-harvest handling and marketing were analyzed by using descriptive and analytical methods with SPSS (version 26) and MS Excel 2021. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was undertaken in this study to generate insights into the limitations and opportunities of the mango value chain which can be used to establish the critical control points. The study identified key actors of Mango VC as input suppliers, producers, contract farmers, village-level collectors, wholesalers, retailers and consumers. Likewise, 4 marketing channels were identified in the study area. Economic analysis shows the cost of production per hectare was $1,453.71. Benefit cost analysis showed mango sub-sector is profitable business with BC ratio of 2.02. The average return was $2942.88/ha. The producers’ share was 55.28% in the proximal market and 32.25% in the distant market. Infestation of disease, insect and pest and lack of processing and post-harvest technology was major production problem.</p> Puja Teyung Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/777 Impact assessment of farm mechanization on potato production in Dadeldhura district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-022 <p>Potato is one of the major cash crops in Nepal but farmers can't maximize profits due to the low adoption of farm machinery and technology. There is insufficient research on agricultural mechanization and its effectiveness in the study area. Therefore, the goal of this study, which was carried out in the Dadeldhura district in 2022, was to assess the problem of farmers' potato cultivation yielding less profit than they might have due to a lack of agriculture equipment and technology adoption. Purposive and simple random sampling were used to select 90 respondents from four local bodies of the Dadeldhura district. Primary data were collected from a household survey with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and Key Informant Interview (KII). Secondary data were collected from annual PMAMP, MoALD, FAO reports, etc. MS Excel and SPSS (26.0) were used to analyze and interpret the collected data. The study divided farmers into groups based on whether they used bullocks or mini-tillers, and it found that mechanical power was mostly used during land preparation and irrigation phases. Fragmented land and lack of capital were major constraints to promoting mechanization. The study showed that mini-tiller users had a greater B: C ratio than bullock users. Similarly, the average variable cost of production per hectare was substantially lower in mini-tiller users than in bullock users. The results underlined the financial viability of mechanized potato farming and stressed the necessity of removing barriers to automation and developing regulations to support small-scale mechanization. The study concluded that mechanization might be extended beyond the stages of irrigation and field preparation to further improve cost-effectiveness and increase the profitability of potato cultivation for farmers in the Dadeldhura district. Overall, the study emphasized the necessity of strategic interventions to encourage automation and enhance the profitability of potato farming in the area.</p> Kapil Khadka, Anupam Tiwari, Manju Yogi, Shiba Hari Dhakal, Ashok Rijal, Kedar Devkota Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-022 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Morpho-physiological response of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under aluminium stress at early seedling stage https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-023 <p>This study investigated the morpho-physiological responses of five maize (<em>Zea mays </em>L.) genotypes to aluminum stress during the early seedling stage. The experiment, conducted at the Plant Physiology Laboratory in the Department of Crop Botany at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, followed a two-factor completely randomized design with aluminum concentrations (0 μM as control, 100 μM, and 200 μM) and five maize varieties (Konok, Kaveri-50, BWMRI-1, BHM-14, and BHM-16). Variety Konok exhibited superior overall performance across experimental parameters, while aluminum stress at 200 μM consistently decreased seed germination and seedling growth compared to the control at all recording stages. Variety Konok without aluminum stress demonstrated the highest values for root length (28.23 cm), shoot fresh weight (4.35 g), shoot dry weight (0.53 g), root fresh weight (8.18 g), root dry weight (1.21 g), total fresh weight (12.56 g), total dry weight (1.74 g), vigor index (5106.7). Conversely, under aluminum stress (200 μM AlCl3), the lowest values were observed in root length (14.70 cm), shoot length (15.38 cm), seedling length (31.50 cm), shoot fresh weight (1.79 g), shoot dry weight (0.20 g), root fresh weight (1.96 g), root dry weight (0.47 g), total fresh weight (3.84 g), total dry weight (0.67 g), vigor index (2592.7), and various stress tolerance indices. In summary, the study suggests that the maize variety "Konok" exhibits greater enhancement during the early seedling stage when grown without exposure to aluminum stress, emphasizing its potential for improved performance under normal conditions.</p> Md. Asaduzzaman, Md. Shabab Zahedi, Md. Liton Mia, Ibrahim Hossain Shakil, Md. Shafiqul Islam, A. K.M. Zakir Hossain, Muhammad Humayun Kabir Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-023 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Determining the Profitability of Different NPSB and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates on Yield and Yield Attributes of Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) at Southern Oromia, Ethiopia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/774 <p><em>This is a traditional practice and most farmers and district offices only use fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorus in almost all soils in Guji districts. These nutrients are detrimental to increasing crop yield and must be applied during the planting schedule. This experiment was conducted to investigate the profitability of Irish potatoes when applying different rates of NPSB and N fertilizers and the economically appropriate rate to maximize potato yield. The results showed that the combined application of mixed NPSB fertilizer and N2 was significantly influenced days to 50% flowering, plant height, tuber number per plant, average tuber weight, marketable tuber yield, unmarketable tuber yield and total tuber yield. However, 80 % days to maturity was not affected by the combined application of NPSB blended and N2 fertilizer. </em><em>The highest marketable tuber yield (22.86 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and total tuber yield (24.76 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) were</em> <em>recorded from combined application of 200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> of blended NPSB fertilizer and 69 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> of N<sub>2</sub>; while</em> <em>the lowest values 12.25 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>and 14.43t ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively were recorded from the control. </em><em>The MRR, which determines the acceptability of any treatments shows that treatments that received 200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB and 69 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N2 nutrient yielded best result of 7700 % marginal revenue. Therefore it can be recommended that application of 200&nbsp;kg NPSB ha<sup>-1</sup> and 69&nbsp;kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N<sub>2</sub> is the appropriate rate for optimum productivity of Irish Potato for Adola Rede areas and similar agro-ecologies.</em></p> Solomon Teshome, Arega Amide, Miresa Mitiku Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/774 Plankton dynamics and physico-chemical parameters: A longitudinal investigation in carp and catfish culture ponds https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-021 <p>An experiment was aimed to discover the overall scenario of physico-chemical parameters along with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plankton in two different fish culture systems as carp mixed culture and catfish (Pangus) monoculture from September 2021 to February 2022 using conventional techniques. The mean values of transparency and dissolved oxygen (DO) noted at the catfish culture pond were lower than those at the mixed carp culture pond while pH mean values were observed to be higher in the catfish culture pond than in the mixed carp culture pond. A total of 21 genera of phytoplankton were found in both ponds under the groups of euglenophyceae (4), cyanophyceae (4), bacillariophyceae (5) and chlorophyceae (8). Among zooplankton, 13 genera were identified including Rotifera (7), copepoda (2), cladocera (3) and crustacean larvae (1) were recorded in mixed culture ponds whereas in catfish culture ponds, 11 zooplankton genera were recorded including Rotifera (5), copepoda (2), cladocera (3) and crustacean larvae (1). Planktonic abundances were statistically significantly different between the different levels (phytoplankton abundance in CCP, phytoplankton abundance in MCP, zooplankton abundance in CCP, zooplankton abundance in MCP), χ2(3) = 220.46, p &lt; 0.001. Mixed culture pond cyanophyceae, bacillariophyceae, and euglenophyceae are positively associated with water temperature and pH but negatively correlated with DO. Rotifera is negatively associated with catfish culture pond water temperature, whereas chlorophyceae and cyanophyceae are favorably. Catfish monoculture ponds had higher phytoplankton abundance, so phytoplankton grazing fish species could be included with pangus culture to maintain a better water quality.</p> Md. Abu Sayed Jewel, Mst. Masuma Khatun, Krishna Rani Bhowmik, Zannatul Ferdoushi, Mst. Nahid Akter, Md. Shahanur Alam, KM. Toufiq Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-021 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of onion farming practices and purple blotch disease knowledge among farmers in varied agro-ecological zones of Nyeri County, Kenya https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-06 <p>Onion (<em>Allium cepa</em> L.) is the second most produced vegetable globally, following tomato and plays a vital role in both cuisines and daily diets. However, the threat of diseases, such as purple blotch caused by <em>Alternaria porri</em>, poses a substantial risk to onion production, particularly in Nyeri County, Kenya. Despite its critical impact on farming, there is a lack of information on farmers' knowledge of purple blotch in this region. This study aimed to assess the onion farming practices and farmers' understanding of purple blotch disease across various agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Nyeri County. Specifically, the study examines farmers' demographics, cultivated onion varieties, and their knowledge of purple blotch disease. Farms were selected using cluster random sampling. Data were collected from 100 onion farmers through semi-structured questionnaires, and statistical analysis was performed using the <br />chi-square test in Scientific Analysis System (SAS) version 9.4 at α=0.05. The findings revealed that while the <em>Rucet F</em><em><sub>1</sub></em> onion variety was popular among the farmers (52%), there is no significant association (<em>X</em><sup>2</sup> (6, 100) = 11.947, <em>p</em> = 0.063) between the choice of variety and AEZs. Similarly, the preferred source of onion seeds, mainly Agroshop (84%), showed insignificant association (<em>X</em><sup>2</sup> (9, 100) = 7.153, <em>p </em>= 0.621) with AEZs. Despite 65% of farmers reporting knowledge about onion diseases, there is no significant association (p &gt; 0.05) between their awareness of purple blotch and AEZs. In conclusion, the study highlights a significant gap in farmers' understanding of purple blotch disease, emphasizing the need for training programs to enhance disease identification skills. Early detection can empower farmers to implement proactive measures, ultimately improving onion productivity. This study recommends diversifying onion varieties for disease resilience, promoting awareness and training on purple blotch identification, engaging women and youths in farming, and fostering collaborative networks for ongoing knowledge exchange and improvement in onion cultivation in Nyeri County.</p> Kevin Mokaya Isaboke, Moses M. Muraya, Maina J. Mwangi, Fredrick O. Ogolla Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-06 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Variation in heavy metals concentrations among seaweed species from Mkwiro seaweed farm, Kwale County, Kenya https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-05 <p>This study, conducted at the Mkwiro seaweed farm in Kwale County, Kenya, aimed to assess the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and essential elements (Na, Fe, Ca, and K) in selected edible seaweed species. The study used a cross-sectional, descriptive research design and probability sampling method to collect data. Seaweed samples of three selected species, Cottonii (<em>Kappaphycus alvarezii</em>), Sea lettuce (<em>Ulva lactuca</em>), and Bubble-green seaweed (<em>Boergesenia forbesii</em>) were collected in quadrants and subjected to chemical analysis. Statistical analyses were conducted using R Studio version 4.3.2, with a significance level set at α=0.05. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences in lead concentrations among seaweed types (χ² (2) = 7.01, p = 0.03). Cadmium concentrations did not show significant differences (χ² (2) = 3.88, p = 0.14). For calcium concentrations, ANOVA indicated no significant effect of seaweed type (F (2,33) = 0.6381, p = 0.5347). Iron concentrations differed significantly among seaweed types (χ² (2) = 23.35, p = 0.00000849), with <em>B. forbesii</em> having the highest median concentration. Potassium and sodium concentrations did not significantly vary among seaweed types (p &gt; 0.05). The study uncovers elevated cadmium levels in seaweed, indicating potential contamination risks. However, concentrations of essential elements were lower. To address these findings, it is recommended to initiate regular monitoring and pollution control measures in seaweed farms. Additionally, diversifying cultivation with low-metal species can enhance product safety and quality.</p> Paul Leniko Lanyasunya, Eric C. Njagi, Joel Gichumbi, Fredrick O. Ogolla Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-05 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 FARMER’S KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTION, AND MANAGEMENT OF MAJOR DISEASES OF GINGER IN PALPA DISTRICT, NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/769 <p>Ginger is a high-value spice crop from mid-hill regions in Nepal, which is ranked fourth in global ginger production. Despite having huge potential, productivity is below the potential yield due to disease incidence in the Palpa district. A study was carried out to assess farmers’ knowledge, perceptions, management, and factors affecting their management. For the study, 90 farmers were selected by using a simple random sampling method from the Bagnaskali, Nisdhi, and Purbakhola rural municipalities of Palpa. Both primary and secondary data were collected and analyzed through computer software like SPSS and MS Excel, including simple descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and independent t-tests. The study affirms that the incidence of disease and pests (index value 0.9) is a major constraint on ginger production. Moreover, rhizome rot (index value 0.95) was reported as a major disease, followed by bacterial wilt, leaf spot, soft rot, and storage mold, and disease severity occurs 3-5 months after the DAS (Days After Sowing). The majority of farmers adopted the cultural method instead of the chemical method despite a high literacy rate and had a significant association with the use of chemical pesticides at a 5% level of significance. Furthermore, training had found a significant association with farmers’ knowledge level of diseases at a 1% level of significance. Farmers had perceived a 31.58% yield loss and a 40% loss of income due to disease. Thus, effective and efficient disease management methods should be adopted to hinder yield loss and control disease.</p> Niraj Bhandari, Anuja Subedi Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/769 Genetic variation and trait association of fine rice genotypes https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-020 <p>To explore high yielding genotype and significant yield contributing trait, field experiment was conducted using alpha lattice design replicated three times at the National Wheat Research Program (NWRP), Bhairahawa, Nepal in 2022. Eighteen fine rice genotypes were evaluated based on nine quantitative traits (Heading days, maturity days, plant height, panicle length, effective tillers, filled grains per panicle, unfilled grains per panicle, thousand grain weight and grain yield per hectare). Variance analysis, correlation and estimation of genetic parameters were conducted to comprehend genetic variations and interrelationships among traits within genotypes. The results showed most of traits except unfilled grains had statistical significance differences. Tarahara-107 (3940 kg/ha) had the highest grain yield followed by Tarahara-2 (3700 kg/ha) and NR 2381-RGA1-RGA2 (3665 kg/ha). Similarly, grain yield showed positive and significant association with filled grains at both phenotypic and genotypic level (r<sub>p</sub> = 0.7074 ** and r<sub>g</sub>= 0.9482 **). Elevated values of PCV and GCV were recorded for filled grains (22.05 and 17.57). The high value GAM coupled with high heritability was recorded for filled grains (28.83%), plant height (23.10%), number of effective tillers (21.57%) and thousand grain weight (19.37%). Thus, identified genotypes NR 2380-RGA1-RGA2 and NR 2381-RGA1-RGA2 exhibited early and potential high yielding genotypes while Tarhara-107 and Tarhara-2 identified as high yield, medium maturity and good filled grain number per panicle. In addition, filled grains trait displayed tightly linked with grain yield and possess high GCV, PCV, GAM with moderate heritability indicated direct selection could be employed for trait enhancement in breeding program.</p> Biswash Raj Bastola, Upama Adhikari, Bishnu Prasad Poudel, Raj Kumar Yadav, Roshan Basnet, Amrit Poudel, Ram Baran Yadaw, Dipak Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-020 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Heat Stress in Spring Rice Cultivation; A Review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/766 <p>Rice is Nepal's main staple food crop, contributing considerably to the majority of people's livelihoods and the national economy. Rice cultivation is insufficient to meet current demand during the main season. As a result, spring rice cultivation is being performed throughout the country to increase rice production. High temperature is already one of the most significant environmental restrictions limiting tropical rice yield, with significantly higher temperatures causing grain weight and quality losses. Developing high-temperature stress-tolerant rice cultivars has been suggested as a possibility, however finding and selecting traits, as well as improving tolerance mechanisms in rice cultivars, will necessitate a thorough understanding of genetics, biochemistry, and physiological processes. Most agronomic strategies for minimizing high-temperature stress rely on early sowing of rice cultivars or selecting early maturing cultivars to prevent high temperatures during grain filling. However, as high-temperature stress events grow more common and severe in the future climate, current precautions may no longer be adequate. This paper discusses the impacts of heat stress on rice development, yield, and quality characteristics, as well as numerous morphological, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms, as well as the possible application of conventional and molecular breeding strategies.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/766 Determinants of production constraints of mandarin farming in Dailekh district, Nepal. https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/765 <p>Mandarin is the most important and highly commercialized fruit crop grown in the mid-hill region of Nepal. It is necessary to pinpoint the factors of production constraints of mandarin. This study was carried out in 3 wards namely Ranukhana, Chiudi, and Kalvairab of Dullu municipality of Dailekh using a simple random sampling technique. A household survey using pretested questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected sample of 75 respondents of which 53.33% were female and 46.67% were male. Descriptive statistics and index scaling were used for data analysis using SPSS and MS Excel. Out of the total sample population, for orchard management practices, tillage, manure application, and weed control were carried out by 100% of the respondents, only 6.7% of the respondent household had tested the soil, 13.3% had used Bordeaux paste, 93.3% had practiced the pruning activities, 5.3% used mulching material, 72% had an access to irrigation, 25.3% used the chemical fertilizers, and 76% carry out intercropping in the mandarin orchard. The majority of respondents (52%) had agriculture as a primary occupation for income and respondents who had been involved in mandarin farming ranged from 2 to 35 years. The land holding under mandarin orchard per household is 6.10 ropani (0.31 ha). The average production and productivity of mandarin in the fiscal year 20/21 of the study area were found 1.65 mt and&nbsp;&nbsp; 12.24 mt/ha respectively. The major pest of mandarin orchards was found to be citrus psylla (I=0.96) and the disease was found to be citrus canker (I=0.9). Incidence of pest and disease (I=0.93) followed by lack of irrigation (I=0.81) was the major production constraint of mandarin farming. The study inferred that most of the farmers have not applied the orchard management practices properly and adequately. For the better performance of the orchard timely application of the required practices would be better. It can be accomplished through the joint effort of the farmers and the respective agriculture sector working on that area.</p> Anisha Giri, Sagar Manandhar, Gyanu Thapa, Gyanu Thapa Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/765 Effect of combined application of urea and organic manures on soil acidity along with the growth and yield attributes of okra at Lamjung, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-019 <p>An experiment was conducted in horticulture farm of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Lamjung Campus, Nepal to evaluate the effect of combined application of Urea and Organic manures on soil acidity along with the growth and yield attributes of Okra. The experiment was set up under Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) comprising five treatments replicated four times. The various treatments used in the experiment were Cow manure + Urea, Buffalo manure + Urea, Goat manure + Urea, Buffalo manure + Goat manure + Urea and the Untreated Control. The required doses of Nitrogen for the crop were applied through treatments and that of Phosphorous and Potassium was petitioned from Single Super Phosphate (SSP) and Muriate of Potash (MOP), respectively. The quantities of nutrients were put in as recommended by Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) (i.e., 200:180:60 kg NPK per ha). The effect of Goat manure + Urea was found superior against plant height at 30 DAS (13.52 cm) and 45 DAS (32.15 cm), leaf area throughout the growth stage and in final mean fruit yield (12.33 t/ha). Meanwhile, the impact of Cow manure + Urea was found superior against plant height at 60 DAS (46.67 cm) and in case of reducing soil acidity (Soil pH = 6.75). Eventually, the experiment suggests the farmers to use Goat manure + Urea for desirable Okra production considering soil health and also with the application of Cow manure + Urea in the interval of (2-3) years ensuring the control over soil acidification.</p> Shiva Basnet, Keshar B. Khatri Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-019 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of plant spacing and sowing dates on the growth and yield of radish (Raphanus sativus) in Rupandehi district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-018 <p>A field experiment was conducted from mid-April to mid-June 2022 in Rupandehi to evaluate the growth and yield of radish maintained in varied plant spacing at differed sowing dates. The study was aimed to compare the growth, production and economics of radish in Rupandehi district under different plant spacing and sowing dates and to evaluate the interaction between these two factors. Four plants spacing (10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm) with constant row spacing was maintained at two sowing dates (Chaitra 29 and Baisakh 14). The treatments were arranged in two factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications<em>.</em> The data were collected on 30 DAS and 45 DAS. The obtained data were recorded and analyzed using MS-Excel and R-studio, respectively. The results revealed that the highest yield was obtained from plant spacing of 20 cm (28.20 t/ha). However, individual plant weight was higher in wider spacing. Plant spacing of 20 cm showed significantly highest plant height (24.52 cm), number of leaves per plant (22.37) and leaf length (23.36 cm). Leaf blade width (10.67 cm) and petiole length (3.05 cm) was significantly highest in plant spacing of 30 cm. Early sowing date showed significantly better results for all growth and yield parameters and yield except leaf blade width. Higher gross return, net return and B:C ratio was observed in plant spacing of 20 cm and early sowing date. The study concluded that plant spacing of 20 cm and earlier sowing date was ideal for maximum growth and yield of radish in Rupandehi district.</p> Shristi Parajuli, Pankaj Raj Dhital Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-018 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A comprehensive study on biological parameters of Osteobrama cotio (Hamilton, 1822): Conservation strategy https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-017 <p><em>Osteobrama cotio</em>, commonly referred to as Dhela locally, is one of the most essential sources of nourishment for humans. The present study was conducted at the Freshwater Station of the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute in Mymensingh to learn more regarding the sex ratio, length-weight relationship, condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and fecundity. Fish samples were taken monthly, and their total length and weight were measured and noted. Among the 310 samples of fish evaluated, 201 (64.85%) and 109 (35.15%) were found to be females and males, respectively (F: M= 1.88: 1). The chi-square test findings showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two sexes in the sex ratio study (χ2= 0.164, df= 1, p&gt;0.05). It was shown that there was a substantial relationship (r<sup>2</sup>=0.76 for females, r<sup>2</sup>=0.96 for males, p&lt;0.05) between fish fecundity and length. Positive allometric growth was observed in the length-weight relationships for both females and males (b=3.05 and 3.01, respectively; independent t-test; p&lt;0.05). Throughout the study, the condition factor values for both sexes were more than 1, suggesting that both sexes are in excellent fitness (F=1.66 and M=1.67). Males and females showed GSI values ranging from 0.001 to 0.33 and 0.25 to 10.96, respectively. The gonadosomatic index scores for both sexes maximum in June while minimum in November. The range of fecundity was 297 to 6529; where June having the highest egg count, while November having the lowest.</p> Selina Yesmine, Md. Rabiul Awal, Anuradha Bhadra, Yahia Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-017 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Factors affecting awareness on good agriculture practices among citrus growers in Palpa, Nepal: Through binary logistic regression approach https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-016 <p>Being an indigenous high-value commodity, with significant market demand in the mid-hills of Nepal, citrus requires the incorporation of sustainable techniques in orchard to increase fruit production. For farmers in Nepal, Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) is a novel concept. The majority of farmers are unaware of it, and those who are aware also have not fully embraced the techniques. Therefore, the study was conducted in summer 2022 to assess the factors that affect the awareness of GAP among the farmers at Palpa, Nepal. Rainadevi Chahara and Ribdikot rural municipality of Palpa district, Nepal was purposively selected, and altogether, 64 commercial citrus growers from the municipalities were taken by simple random sampling technique. The binary logistic regression model was used for analyzing the effect of different variables on the awareness of GAP among citrus growers. Different demographic and socioeconomic variables have been found associated for odds of being GAP aware. The findings revealed that, farmers’ who are GAP aware have an access to trainings and contact with extension agents, 4.164 and 10.293 times higher than those farmers who are GAP unaware respectively. Therefore, the study suggests that farmers knowledge on GAP can be further expanded through trainings and frequent contact with extension agents as they are the major factors affecting commercial citrus growers’ awareness to GAP in Palpa district, Nepal.</p> Bidya Ojha, Hom Nath Giri, Bamdev Regmi, Astha Pokharel, Deepa Parajuli Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-016 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Farmer’s knowledge and Perception of late blight of potato and its management strategies in Kailali and Banke districts of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/758 <p>Late blight of potato (<em>Phytophthora infestans</em>) is one of the major diseases of potato in Nepal causing a significant yield loss. Late blight has continued to be a dominant potato disease for many decades in hill, midhills, and terai regions in Nepal. A survey of 60 randomly selected farmers was carried out in two major potato-growing districts (Kailali and Banke) in the western Terai region of Nepal to examine farmers’ knowledge and management practices of the late blight of potato and to analyze the role of relevant knowledge in their practices. From the study, farmers ranked disease as the major constraint in potato cultivation followed by a lack of inputs and market problems. The majority of farmers were able to identify disease symptoms on contaminated leaves and stems. On the other hand, they knew relatively little about the diseases, their causes, and practical ways to treat them. The majority of farmers relied on chemical management techniques and did not adhere to traditional methods for controlling late blight. Based on the severity of the illness and the availability of fungicides, the majority of farmers reported applying three to four times per season, separated by 10 to 14 days. Therefore, in order to manage the disease&nbsp;effectively, farmers must become knowledgeable about the disease, choose the right fungicides, apply them on time, and control the diseases in their local context by implementing a workable combination of management choices.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/758 Impact of nematicides on plant-parasitic nematodes: Challenges and Environmental safety https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/757 <p>Plant Parasitic Nematodes ((PPN) are tiny, pseudocoelomate, unsegmented, bilaterally symmetrical vermiform animals that attack plants. Nematicides are chemically synthesized substances that kill or harm nematodes. Between 1940 and 1950, three chemicals with nematicidal properties were discovered: methyl bromide (bromomethane), D-D mixture, and EDB (1, 2-dibromoethane; as ethylene dibromide) which were fumigants. When fumigant compounds are applied to soil, a gas moves through the open spaces between soil particles or dissolves into the water film that surrounds soil particles. Fumigants significantly decrease nematode respiration by oxidizing Fe+2 centers and alkylated proteins in the cytochrome-mediated electron transport chain. Despite the efficacy of fumigants in the nematode, their use was lowered due to the high environmental risk of these products. A new generation of nematicides was introduced - carbamates and organophosphates that served as contact nematicides, which led to the testing and development of other non-fumigant nematicides such as aldicarb, carbofuran, ethoprop, and fenamiphos. The carbamates and organophosphates acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties prevent normal nerve impulse transmission in the nematode nervous system. Nematicides are typically non-selective pesticides, and their use has an impact on non-target organisms, humans, and the environment. Even though nematicides are toxic to humans, soil, groundwater, and non-target organisms, cautious nematicide selection and application are vital. New compounds that are less aggressive and more specific for phyto-parasitic nematodes have been developed, making them safer for the producer, consumer, and environment. Crop rotation, cover crops, organic manuring, use of resistant varieties, and other methods must be integrated with nematicides for increased effectiveness.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Srijan Tiwari Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/757 Consumer’s preferences for healthy food consumption: An empirical analysis from Mymensingh city in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-015 <p>Numerous non-communicable diseases are being caused by changes in food and lifestyle choices. However, the global trend of eating more healthful food is growing as people become more aware of their personal health. Nonetheless, not much scholarly work has been done on the perplexing purchasing habits of customers, especially in developing nations like Bangladesh. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the preference for healthy food consumption and the factors associated with consuming healthy food. The study was conducted on 140 participants selected by a purposive sampling technique from Mymensingh city. Data were collected through both face-to-face surveys and via email with the help of an e-questionnaire from May 2022 to August 2022. A five-point Likert scale was applied to assess the consumer’s preference for healthy food products. The internal consistency of the items on the scale was examined by Cronbach’s alpha. In addition, binary logistic regression was used to identify the factors that affect consumers’ decisions to consume healthy food products. The study findings provide evidence of the highly disfavored attitudes (82.86%) toward healthy food consumption among people in the study area. The analysis also reveals that factors like gender, age, education, and monthly income have a positive impact on consumption decisions, while distance from the market, occupation, family size, and credit negatively affect consumption decisions.</p> Eshrat Jahan Mahfuza, Md. Fuad Hassan, Md. Shishir Ahamed Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-015 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Farmers’ Perceptions of the impact of climate change on apple production in lower Mustang, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-02 <p>Undoubtedly, climate change is becoming a worldwide concern due to its great sensitivity and detrimental effects on livelihood. The government, policymakers, and other relevant stakeholders are striving to come up with novel and innovative approaches to combat the effects of climate change. Nevertheless, understanding and perceptions of the issue among local farmers are more crucial before making mitigation or adaptation plans. It’s them who are actually more exposed to these environmental works and who are on the frontlines of climate change. So, the study was conducted in 2022 at Lower Mustang to understand how farmers perceive climate change, how it has impacted apple production, and to find discrepancies between their perceptions and the actual change in climatic variability recorded by the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM). Temperature and precipitation were two climatic variables that were taken into account to investigate the significant effects they have on the rate of apple production. Altogether, 60 households from Lower Mustang were selected randomly for the study. Pre-tested interviews, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, as well as secondary data from DHM, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD), etc. were used to collect the required information. The majority of farmers observed an increase in temperature (83.30%) and an unpredictable increase in rainfall (98%), which are consistent with the actual change in temperature and precipitation recorded between 1991 and 2021. Findings show that the average annual temperature and mean annual precipitation are increasing at a rate of 0.012°C per year and 0.4146 mm per year, respectively. This has resulted in the outbreak of significant amounts of diseases and insect pest infestations that have a direct impact on the quality and quantity of apples. The majority of farmers acknowledged that rainfall was the most significant climatic hazards that negatively impacted apple production, followed with hailstones having an impact on apples during flowering and fruiting. Farmers in the study area are limited to intercropping practices, mostly as an adaptation strategy to combat the impacts of climate change. The study concluded that farmers perceived climate change; they are aware of the term ‘Climate Change’ but haven’t taken any significant adaptation measures towards it. So, there is an immediate need for effective adaptation mechanisms, taking into account farmers' perspectives, to make Lower Mustang self-sufficient in apple production. </p> Shristi Adhikari, Ram Hari Timilsina, Anusuya Aaradhana Panthee, Ashmita Sapkota Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-02 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Study on the Economic Performance of Commercial Broiler Farms in Chitwan District of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/751 <p>The study was conducted in 2019 to evaluate existing broiler production situation, profitability, marketing channels and exploring opportunities in broiler production in Chitwan district. Forty-nine broiler producers were randomly selected for study. The results revealed association between the gross margin and the scale of production while the trade margin and the share of producers was not associated with the scale of production. The price was heavily influenced by the meat wholesalers and feed industries. There were long marketing channels for broilers marketing and stakeholders involved in the channel received more benefits than the manufacturer. Due to the long marketing channel of the broiler market, the producer had lower prices for their products while consumers were forced to pay dearly for chicken meat. The collected data revealed that 20% of the small sized and 20% of the medium sized while none of the large sized farms were at loss. The most serious problem was the low-price level of broilers received at farm level. Because broiler producers had little bargain in broiler pricing, broiler production and marketing management ruled important roles in the success and failure of broiler production. The analysis revealed that the variable cost of boiler production decreased as the size of the enterprise increased. Governments and related agencies should actively participate in dissemination services to enhance chicken health, organized marketing channels are essential for selling poultry products that can increase farmers' profits.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/751 Prevalence of antibodies against classical swine fever in two districts of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-014 <p>This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of Classical Swine Fever (CSF), caused by the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), in the Bhaktapur and Kavrepalanchok districts of Nepal. The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against CSFV in the swine population, providing crucial insights for targeted interventions and control strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and March 2018. The research involved structured questionnaire surveys and blood sample collection from selected farms in the study area. A total of 184 serum samples were collected and subjected to testing using the IDEXX ELISA test kit. The study evaluated seroprevalence by considering variables such as district, sex, age groups, and housing systems. Out of the 184 serum samples collected, 34 were found to be seropositive for CSFV antibodies, resulting in an overall seroprevalence of 18.40%. The study identified significant variations in seroprevalence between different factors, including districts, sexes, age groups, and housing systems. These findings indicate a notable exposure of swine populations in the Bhaktapur and Kavrepalanchok districts to CSFV. This research highlights the considerable risk posed by CSF to the pig populations in the Bhaktapur and Kavrepalanchok districts of Nepal. The identified seroprevalence and variations among different factors emphasize the importance of targeted interventions and control strategies in these regions. The findings serve as a foundation for informed decision-making to mitigate the impact of CSF, safeguard swine health, and protect the livelihoods of those dependent on the swine industry. This study was made possible with the support of the Zoonosis Control Project under the National Animal Science Research Institute, Nepal Agriculture Research Council.</p> Sonu Adhikari, Monica Gautam, Riddhi Shrestha, Eliza Ranjit, Kanchan Parajuli, Samjhana Kumari Kafle Pandey Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-014 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of economic, production, and marketing aspects of potato farming in Changunarayan Municipality of Bhaktapur, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-013 <p>A comprehensive study was undertaken in the Changunarayan Municipality of Bhaktapur District to conduct a thorough cost-benefit analysis, analyze production functions, and evaluate the various marketing channels and associated challenges of potato cultivation. A total of 100 farmers were surveyed, and gathered data were, analyzed using Excel and SPSS software. Despite an average cost per hectare of potato cultivation reaching NRs 370,662.58, which is comparatively higher than in other regions, the productivity was notably greater at 22.021 Mt/ha, surpassing the national average of 16.73 Mt/ha. With a benefit-cost ratio of 1.68, potato production was found economically viable in the region. The production function analysis, conducted using the Cobb-Douglas Model, revealed noteworthy insights among the six variables examined. Fertilizers, machinery, plant protection measures, and micronutrients were identified as underutilized inputs, as indicated by a RUE value surpassing unity. Conversely, labor cost and various other factors exhibited negative associations with average returns. The study also revealed that potato production in the area exhibited an increasing Return to Scale (RTS) value of 1.619, indicating that a 1% increase in input expenditure would lead to a 1.619% increase in returns. Farmers primarily choose a marketing channel with three intermediaries, which results in a larger market margin but a smaller share for the producers. Among the five key marketing challenges reported by farmers, the influence of intermediaries stands out as the most significant issue. In conclusion, this study highlights the pressing need for efficient marketing channels and fair pricing systems to support potato farmers in the region.</p> Shimran Dahal, Bijay Regmi, Hari Krishna Panta, Pratima Timalsina, Raj Chaudhary, Tirsana Khadka, Ajay Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-013 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Economic, Production, and Marketing Aspects of Potato Farming in Changunarayan Municipality of Bhaktapur, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/748 <p>A study was conducted in the Changunarayan Municipality of Bhaktapur District to conduct a cost-benefit analysis, analyze production functions, and evaluate marketing channels and related challenges. A total of 100 farmers were surveyed, and data from various sources were, analyzed using Excel and SPSS software. Despite an average cost per hectare of potato cultivation reaching NRs 370,662.58, which is comparatively higher than in other regions, the productivity was notably greater at 22.021 Mt/ha, surpassing the national average of 16.73 Mt/ha. With a benefit-cost ratio of 1.68, potato production was deemed economically viable in the region. The production function analysis, conducted using the Cobb-Douglas Model, unveiled noteworthy insights among the six variables examined. Fertilizers, machinery, plant protection measures, and micronutrients were identified as underutilized inputs, as indicated by a RUE value surpassing unity. Conversely, labor costs and various other factors exhibited negative associations with average returns. The study also revealed that potato production in the area exhibited an increasing Return to Scale (RTS) value of 1.619, indicating that a 1% increase in input expenditure would lead to a 1.619% increase in returns. Farmers most commonly use a marketing channel that has three intermediaries. This channel had a larger market margin and a smaller producer’s share. Likewise, among the five most significant marketing problems reported by farmers, the dominance of intermediaries was recognized as the most severe challenge. In conclusion, this study underscores the need for effective market channels and a robust pricing mechanism to support potato farmers in the region.</p> Shimran Dahal Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/748 SOIL APPLICATION OF ZINC FERTILIZER IN COMIBATION WITH NITROGEN ENHANCED MAIZE (Zea Mays L.) PRODUCTIVITY AND ITS CONCENTRATIONS IN PLANT https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/747 <p>Both macro and micronutrients are vital for the growth and yield of maize crops. Nitrogen (N) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies are expected in arid and semiarid regions due to alkaline calcareous soil. This study was carried out to judge the interaction between N and Zn on spring maize crop productivity. The experiment was evaluated at the Agricultural Research Centre, Swabi, during spring season of 2015. N was applied in three various levels (100, 150 and 200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) along with four levels of Zn (0, 5, 10 and 15 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Maize hybrid “Pioneer 3025” was sown at seed rate of 30 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>for this study. Our findings revealed that crops yield and yield components such as ears weight, 1000 grains weight and total yield of grains were significantly affected by both N and Zn treatments interaction. Utmost values were recorded in plots treated by 150 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and Zn 10 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, which were parallel to that of 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N and 15 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>Zn. Total plant N and Zn concentrations in plant had also shown significant effect to treatments interaction. Total plant N was found superior in those plots which were treated by N @ 200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> &amp; Zn @ 10 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> while Zn content in plants was recorded @ 15 kg Zn ha<sup>-1 </sup>and @ 200 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>. Our study concluded that N @ 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and Zn @ 10 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> gave practically top yield and yield components.</p> Jasim Iqbal Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/747 Evaluation of local substrates as rice straw alternatives for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) cultivation in resource-constrained Darchula, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-012 <p>Oyster mushroom cultivation, though cost-effective, faces constraints due to seasonality and substrate availability. An experimental study was conducted in the resource-constrained Darchula district of Nepal from February to May 2022. The aim was to identify and recommend economically sustainable alternatives to rice straw for oyster mushroom production using local substrates in regions with limited resources. Six treatments; rice straw (T1), banana leaves and pseudostem (T2), maize cob (T3), sawdust (T4), grass (<em>Eulaliopsis</em> sp.) (T5), and spent mushroom substrates (T6); were employed in a completely randomized design with four replications. Statistical analysis of growth and yield parameters revealed significant results (P values ranging from P&gt;0.001 to P&gt;0.05) across all parameters. The maize cob treatment exhibited a shorter spawn run period (20.50 days) and the earliest pinhead formation (25 days). The highest total yield (3.14 kg) across three flushes was obtained from paddy straw, followed by T2 and T5, yielding 2.05 kg and 1.43 kg, respectively. Sawdust, despite its larger stalk (1.23 cm) and pileus diameter (7.72 cm), had the lowest production (0.63 kg). Maximum biological efficiency was recorded for T1 (139.63%), followed by T2, T5, and T3, respectively. Economically, T1 resulted in the highest gross margin per 10 kg of substrate (NRs.1845.22) and the highest B:C ratio (2.51), followed by T5 and T2. These findings highlight the promise of locally abundant substrates such as banana leaves, pseudo stems, <em>Eulaliopsis</em>, and maize cobs as economically viable alternatives to rice straw in regions with limited straw availability or unsuitable climates for rice cultivation.</p> Krishna Raj Pandey, Yagya Raj Joshi, Sharwari Bhattarai, Dharmendra Joshi, Sobita Subedi, Prakash Kumar Pant, Sushil Khatri Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-012 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater for consumption and agriculture: A case study from Phulpur Upazila, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-025 <p>The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation in Phulpur Upazila, Bangladesh, based on its hydrochemical attributes. In our research, we examined twenty groundwater specimens from shallow and hand tube wells, adhering to international and national guidelines. The data showed groundwater pH levels from 5.67 to 6.84, signifying slightly acidic to neutral properties. Total dissolved solids ranged from 79 to 298 mg/l, and conductivity varied between 120 and 832 μS/cm. Notably, the primary cations and anions were sequenced as Ca &gt; Mg &gt; Na &gt; K and HCO<sub>3</sub> &gt; Cl &gt; SO<sub>4</sub> &gt; PO<sub>4</sub>, respectively. A marked correlation was discerned among the physicochemical parameters, and the predominant groundwater type was magnesium-bicarbonate (Mg-HCO<sub>3</sub>). The main geochemical activity was identified as silicate weathering, pointing to significant rock-water interactions in the region. The groundwater displayed moderate salinity and low alkalinity, qualifying them as 'excellent to good' and 'normal' in quality metrics, respectively. The soluble sodium percentage was rated as 'excellent'. On multiple assessment scales, the groundwater quality was deemed 'good' for irrigation. In line with established classification systems, most samples were suitable for drinking and irrigation. Hence, the area's groundwater is viable for consumption and agricultural utilization. Cumulatively, our research offers critical insights for sustainable groundwater stewardship in the region, providing a foundation for policymakers to guarantee the sustained provision of high-quality groundwater for diverse applications.</p> Deen Islam, Rafia Shaheen, Md. Shariot-Ullah, Md. Touhidul Islam, Nilima Das, Nusrat Jahan Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-025 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Population trend of Grey and Purple Heron in National Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh, India https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-011 <p>Data of two species of Herons were collected, during the annual census of major aquatic fauna in the National Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh, India, over a period of 23 monitoring seasons. The survey was conducted by direct visual observation method from 1985 to 2016. During the surveys all the relevant information about the current status of Grey Heron (<em>Ardea cinerea</em>) and Purple Heron (<em>Ardea purpurea</em>) in different zone of the Chambal River was complied. A total of 5318 (Avg. 443.66±242.6) individuals of Grey Heron and 104 (Avg. 8.66±4.39) individuals of Purple Heron were sighted. The highest density of Grey Heron 22.32/km was observed in zone XI and Purple Heron 0.75/km in zone III. Similarly, the least density of Grey Heron 4.82/km was in zone I, VIII and that of Purple Heron 0.07/km was in zone X. The result of the present study indicates that Chambal River continues to be a good habitat for Heron population. The Heron shares similar habitat and similar level of anthropogenic pressure in the study area. This is the first attempt to document the population status and distribution of Heron in different habitat zone of the sanctuary.</p> R.K. Sharma, Hari Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-011 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Present status of brood stock management and breeding operations at Carp Hatcheries in Jashore, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-01 <p>Sustainable aquaculture production depends on the proper management of brood stock. In this regard, multiple survey studies were reviewed to assess the present status of management of carp brood stock at Jashore region in Bangladesh from March 2023 to August 2023. A total of 38 hatcheries were selected in Jashore. The areas of ponds were ranged from 33.33 to 400 decimal and shape with maximum rectangular. The green color water of pond was 79% and 75% practice pond drying. Most of the farmers applied liming doses were ranged from 500- 1200 gm dec<sup>-1</sup>. Most of the farmers used rotenone (39%) to control predators in the brood stock pond. Different sorts of fertilizers both organic and inorganic were applied. Most of the brood stocks (39%) were collected from the hatcheries and the rest of them were collected from other pond, World fish, BFRI and the natural sources (Halda and Padma River). Moreover, 4 carp species (rui, catla, mrigala and kalbashu) among 13 endemic and 4 exotic carp species (silver carp, grass carp, bighead and common carp) out of 6 exotic carp’s species were used for seed production. Negative selection of brood stock was performed in few hatcheries in order to reduce the cost for collecting or purchasing good quality broods. The formulated feed which contained 20-30% protein for carp brood stock were prepared using the indigenous ingredients including mainly rice bran, mustard oil cake, vitamin and mineral premix, wheat flour, fish meal and soya bean flour and maize flour. The main problem of hatchling production is <em>Argulosis</em> (fish lice) diseases which causes 95% of hatchlings mortality. Finally, these survey findings indicate that proper brood stock management could be a good approach to attain the main purpose of aquaculture.</p> Akhery Nima, Anik Talukdar, Md. Rakibul Islam, Nasima Begum, M.N.S Mamun Siddiky, Anuradha Bhadra, Yahia Mahmud Copyright (c) 2024 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/09-01-01 Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Socioeconomic status of the people and their attitude toward conservation in Parsa National Park, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-08 <p>This study aims to investigate the socioeconomic status of communities living in proximity to a park and their attitudes towards conservation. The questionnaires used in this study were carefully designed to achieve the desired research objectives. The majority of people living adjacent to the park depend on agriculture and livestock farming for their livelihood. People also benefit from the forest's resources in many aspects. People’s perceptions of wildlife conservation vary widely and are influenced by various factors such as economic status, cultural background, education status, awareness level, and personal experiences. Respondents with higher education status have been found to exhibit positive attitudes towards conservation. Results have shown that 70% of respondents who live near the park claim that coexistence with wildlife is becoming increasingly problematic. While the respondents are pleased with the practical conservation strategies that have contributed to the rise in wildlife populations, they are concerned about the increasing conflicts with wildlife. Crop raiding is a serious problem in several villages located near dense forests. Livestock depredation is another major issue that has been observed in the same area. Wildlife has been known to attack and kill livestock, causing a significant loss of income for the farmers in these villages. Many people feel that the lack of effective compensation mechanisms has led to a sense of antagonism towards both authorities and conservation efforts as a whole. The importance of effective compensation mechanisms in conservation efforts cannot be overstated. Some of the respondents have noted that the development of ecotourism has the potential to mitigate human-wildlife conflict. Ecotourism provides jobs, income, and other economic opportunities that help improve their socioeconomic status and, in turn, promote conservation.</p> Kanchan Parajuli, Sonu Adhikari, Sujaya Subedi Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-08 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Value chain analysis of potato in Bajhang district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-09 <p>The study was conducted in the Bajhang district from February to July 2022. Its goals were to find the key actors in the potato value chain, assess their linkage, analyse marketing margins, determine the share of value-addition among each actor, evaluate the production cost, productivity, and profitability of producers, examine the producer’s share in consumer rupees, and conduct a SWOT analysis. The data collection process involved the random purposive sampling technique to select a total of 80 potato producers, 5 aggregators, 5 wholesalers, 10 retailers, 50 consumers, and 3 extension service providers. Findings revealed that, on average, potato cultivation covered 0.215 hectares (4.23 Ropani) with a productivity of 13.46 Mt/ha, which is lower than the national average. The production cost of the producer was NRs. 301,756.60/Ha (NRs. 15,356.57/Ropani) with a benefit-cost ratio of 1.37, and the producer’s share was 51.68%. The primary value chain actors included input suppliers, producers, aggregators, wholesalers, retailers, and consumers. Marketing margins for producers, aggregators, wholesalers, and retailers were NRs. 359.25/quintal, NRs. 965/quintal, NRs. 945/quintal, and NRs. 1170/quintal, respectively. Value addition by potato producers accounted for 10.45%, while aggregators, wholesalers, and retailers contributed 28.05%, 27.48%, and 34.02%, respectively. The SWOT analysis highlighted opportunities like favourable policies, subsidies, processing options, rising potato demand, and potential production area expansion. To boost the profitability of the potato industry, it is imperative to address challenges such as poor seed quality, diseases-pests, drought, short shelf life, soil degradation, and fertilizer and pesticide availability while strengthening the linkage of value chain actors.</p> Tirsana Khadka, Dipendra Chauhan , Anupam Tiwari , Bijay Regmi, Sagar Manandhar, Simran Dahal Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-09 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The cost-benefit analysis and constraints of pineapple production in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-018 <p>The main purpose of the study was to estimate the profitability of pineapple production in Sreemangal, Moulvibazar District. Structured questionnaires and face to face interviews were done to collect raw data from 100 pineapple farmers during harvesting season. These farmers were chosen using a multi-stage sampling approach. Net return analysis, Benefit-Cost Ratio, and Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the prepared data. Findings from net return analysis showed that pineapple production was a profitable activity in the study area. The total cost of production was Tk. 740,767 and the total return was also substantial, resulting in a net return of Tk. 501,445 for pineapple production. The Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) was 1.48, indicating that pineapple farming was profitable for the farmers. However, the study also discovered several constraints perceived by the farmers that hindered pineapple production. These constraints included issues like animal damage, lack of credit availability, natural calamities, labor supply shortages, expensive fertilizer, inadequate storage facilities, and poor seed quality. By mitigating these constraints, pineapple productivity may rise not just in the study area but also in other regions of Bangladesh where the fruit is grown intensively. Thus, this improvement could significantly contribute to the well-being of farmers and enhance their disposable income.</p> Tumpa Datta, Jiban Krishna Saha, Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Abhijit Chowdhury, Muslima Akter, Akhi Das Gupta Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-018 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and yield performance of hybrid rice varieties under varying zinc levels https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-02 <p>Zinc deficiency in soil is currently a widespread problem in Bangladesh that significantly reduces the yield of a variety of crops, including rice. Despite the fact that many farmers started applying zinc fertilizer, many are unaware of the right amount and application technique. For this reason, to determine the impact of variety and zinc treatment on the performance of hybrid rice, a field experiment was carried out between November 2019 and May 2020 at the Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University's experimental field in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207. The experiment consisted of two factors as variety (3 types) <em>viz</em>., V<sub>1</sub> – BRRI hybrid dhan2, V<sub>2</sub> – BRRI hybrid dhan3 and V<sub>3</sub> – BRRI hybrid dhan5 and, Zinc management (4 levels) <em>viz</em>., Zn<sub>0</sub> – 0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (control), Zn<sub>1</sub> – 2 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, Zn<sub>2</sub> – 4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and Zn<sub>3</sub> – 6 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (Factorial) with three replications. Data on different growth and yield parameter of rice were recorded and significant variation was found for different treatments. Regarding varietal performance, the maximum panicle number hill<sup>-1</sup> (17.10), panicle length (28.03 cm), grain number panicle<sup>-1</sup> (109.45), 1000-grain weight (26.50 g), grain yield ha<sup>-1</sup> (6.94 t), straw yield ha<sup>-1</sup> (8.58 t), biological yield ha<sup>-1 </sup>(15.51 t) and harvest index (44.62%) were found from the variety BRRI hybrid dhan5. Considering Zn effect, the maximum panicle number hill<sup>-1</sup> (16.33), panicle length (27.14 cm), grain number panicle<sup>-1</sup> (108.11), 1000-grain weight (25.38 g), grain yield ha<sup>-1</sup> (6.81 t), straw yield ha<sup>-1</sup> (8.34 t), biological yield ha<sup>-1 </sup>(15.15 t) and harvest index (44.88%) were found from 6 kg Zn ha<sup>-1</sup>. In the case of treatment combination of variety and zinc, the maximum panicle number hill<sup>-1</sup> (20.17), panicle length (29.45 cm), number of grains panicle<sup>-1</sup> (117.74), 1000-seed weight (27.43 g), grain yield (7.80 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (9.20 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), biological yield (17.00 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and harvest index (45.78%) were found from BRRI hybrid dhan5 along with 6 kg Zn ha<sup>-1</sup>. Therefore, the hybrid rice variety BRRI hybrid dhan5 with a Zn application of 6 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> yielded considerably more grain than the other treatment combinations under evaluation.</p> Md. Rakib Hasan, Annika Sal Sabil, Md. Moinul Haque, Kamal Uddin Ahamed, Shahin Imran, Md. Asif Mahamud Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-02 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Varietal evaluation of spring rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes in Kanchanpur, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-07 <p>A field experiment was carried out on spring rice in the rabi season of 2022 from February 3 to July 4 with an aim to identify the most suitable spring rice cultivar in Kanchanpur, Nepal. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications and eight treatments. The treatments were eight spring rice genotypes: one released (Chaite-5), one local genotype (ChaineeAndi), and six pipeline varieties (IR17A2946, IR17A2796, IR17A2949, IR13F402, IR16A3838, and IR18A2066). A total of 24 experimental plots, each of 6m<sup>2</sup> (3*2m), were set to the experimental design. The treatments were randomly assigned to the replications. Data were collected for various morphological characters such as plant height (cm), number of tillers (/plant), effective tillers (/m<sup>2</sup>), panicle length (cm), number of grains per panicle, sterility (%), thousand-grain weight (gm), grain yield (kg), straw yield (kg), biological yield (kg), and harvest index. Results revealed significance for all parameters except for the effective number of tillers per plant. ChaineeAndi took the least days to mature and had the highest effective tiller number per plant. Genotype IR17A2066 took the most days to flower and mature, and had greater plant height, thousand-grain weight, but low grain yield. Grains per panicle were higher in IR13F402 but lowest panicle length. Chaite-5 had the highest sterility percentage. Highest grain yield, straw yield, and harvest index was observed in genotypes IR16A3838, IR17A2946, Chaite-5, and IR17A2949. IR16A3838 performed superior than other genotypes in environmental conditions of Kanchanpur, Nepal.</p> Biru Chaudhary, Tek Raj Bhatt, Pramod Gyawali Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-07 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Contribution of insect flower visitors on macadamia nut set, retention and yield in central Kenya https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-06 <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of insects that visit macadamia flowers to nut set, retention, nut-in-shell, and kernel yields. The study was conducted at the Macadamia Research Centre in Kandara, Murang'a County, in three flowering cycles (cropping), from August 2020 to May 2022. Nut set, retention, and yield were assessed by randomly selecting twelve trees that were in full bloom at the study orchard in each of the flowering cycles. On each of the twelve trees, four branches of the same size were selected and tagged for the study. The branches were about 1 to 1.5 metres high from the ground. On each branch, one raceme at the bud stage was randomly selected and one of the four treatments administered. The treatments were (i) bagged during the day with mesh nets, (ii) bagged at night, (iii) bagged throughout the flowering season, excluding all insects, and (iv) racemes were left unbagged, thus having unlimited flower visitation by insects. There were significant differences on nut-in-shell yield (mass) (P≤0.05) in flowers that were unbagged (68.23 ± 4.03), bagged at night (61.50 ± 3.51), bagged during the day (6.53 ± 1.05) and those that were bagged throughout (4.45 ± 0.95). Racemes that had flower visitors fully excluded resulted in low nut-in-shell production. The initial nut set, retention, and ultimately the nut-in-shell yields were significantly increased in flowers that were left unbagged, thus insects had unlimited access. Macadamia nut set, retention, and ultimate yield (nuts-in-shell and kernel) is largely dependent on the presence of insect flower visitors.</p> Nicholas I. Njue, James W. Muthomi, George N. Chemining’wa, James J. Odanga Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-06 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Surpassing National Averages: The Elevated Productivity and Economic Viability of Potato Farming in Changunarayan Municipality, Bhaktapur, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/732 <p>A study was conducted in the Changunarayan Municipality of Bhaktapur District to assess the demographic characteristics of farmers, conduct a cost-benefit analysis, analyze production functions, and evaluate marketing channels and related challenges. 100 farmers were surveyed, and data from various sources (KIS, FGD, Surveys, literature) were, analyzed, and interpreted using Excel and SPSS software. Despite an average cost per hectare of potato cultivation reaching NRs 370,662.58, which is comparatively higher than in other regions, the productivity was notably greater at 22.021 Mt/ha, surpassing the national average of 16.73. With a benefit-cost ratio of 1.68, potato production was deemed economically viable in the region. The production function analysis, conducted using the Cobb-Douglas Model, unveiled noteworthy insights among the six variables examined. Fertilizer, machinery, and plant protection measures, along with micronutrients, were identified as underutilized inputs, as indicated by a Resource Use Efficiency (RUE) value surpassing unity. Conversely, labor costs and various other factors exhibited negative associations with average returns. The study also revealed that potato production in the area exhibited an increasing Return to Scale (RTS) value of 1.619, indicating that a 1% increase in input expenditure would lead to a 1.619% increase in returns. Furthermore, among the four reported marketing channels, the one involving three intermediaries between producers and consumers was the most commonly followed by farmers. It was evident that as the number of intermediaries increased, the market margin expanded, but the producer's share decreased. Among the five most significant marketing problems reported by farmers, the dominance of intermediaries and price fluctuations were recognized as the most severe challenges. In conclusion, this study underscores the need for effective market channels and a robust pricing mechanism to support potato farmers in the region.</p> Shimran Dahal, Bijay Regmi, Ajay Poudel, Tirsana Khadka, Raj Chaudhary, Pratima Timilsina, Hari Krishna Panta Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/732 Multiplication performance of monkey jack by cleft grafting on single source seedling rootstock https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-05 <p>The present research work was undertaken to study the fate of cleft grafting of five potential monkey jack genotypes during 2020-2021 at the Germplasm Center, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh. Scions from five <em>in situ</em> conserved promising mother plants named as Dumki-Al-S1, Dumki-Al-S2, Dumki-Al-S3, Dumki-Al-S4 and Kalapara-Al-S5 were cleft grafted on seedling rootstock (Dumki-Al-R1) of single genotype. A pot experiment was set in two-factor (Scions and Days after grafting) RCBD with 10 replications. The time required to break bud varied significantly among the treatments and ranged from 14 to 20 days. Dumki-Al-S1 required the maximum time to bud break (20 days) followed by Dumki-Al-S3 (18 days). Dumki-Al-S2 took minimum time (14 days) for bud breaking. The maximum increased length of rootstock found in Dumki-Al-S2 which were 55.00, 55.70, 56.44 and 65.30 cm at 21, 42, 63 and 84 days after grafting (DAG), respectively, followed by Kalapara-Al-S5 (61.80, 54.80, 55.30, and 57.12 cm at 21, 42, 63 and 84 DAG, respectively). Kalapara-Al-S5 showed maximum diameter of rootstock (1.44, 1.70, 1.80 and 1.94 cm at 21, 42, 63 and 84 DAG, respectively) followed by Dumki-Al-S4 (1.08, 1.24, 1.34 and 1.42 cm at 21, 42, 63 and 84 DAG, respectively). The length and diameter of scion of Dumki-Al-S4 and Kalapara-Al-S5 were higher and statistically identical at 84 DAG. The maximum graft height was recorded in Kalapara-Al-S5 (70.60, 73.40, 76.00 and 77.10 cm at 21, 42, 63 and 84 DAG, which was statistically similar with Dumki-Al-S2. Kalapara-Al-S5, Dumki-Al-S3 and Dumki-Al-S4 showed maximum number of leaves per graft at 84 DAG. The maximum graft success of 40% was observed in both Dumki-Al-S1 and Dumki-Al-S3 at 84 DAG, whereas, other treatments had less than 20% graft success. Kalapara-Al-S5 and Dumki-Al-S2 showed significantly higher and identical number of sprouted shoots at 84 DAG. Dumki-Al-S1 showed the maximum lengths and diameters of shoot at 84 DAG. The overall performance of the stionic combinations indicated that Dumki-Al-S1 and Dumki-Al-S3 were found promising for further grafting trials with seedling rootstocks.</p> M. Robbani, C. R. Sarker, M. M. Islam, M. N. H. Mehedi Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-05 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Recovery Percentage of Different Coffee Varieties (Coffee arabica) From Fresh Cherry in Gulmi, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/730 <p>Different coffee cultivars have different out-turn ratios based on the methods of processing and fruit characteristics. Wide new varieties of coffee are available, and their recovery percentage and out-turn have yet to be tested in Gulmi District or any other coffee-growing region of Nepal. A field experiment evaluated the recovery percentage and out-turn of parchment, green beans, and roasted beans of different coffee cultivars from the fresh cherry in Aapchaur, Gulmi, Nepal. The experiment was laid out in RCBD design with three replications. The treatments consisted of 10 varieties of coffee (Catisic, Bourbon Amarillo, Mundo Novo, Catimor, Yellow Catura, Catuai Amarillo, Firfire, Sanroman, Gulmi Local, and Tekisic). The research result revealed that the Mundo Novo variety of coffee had the highest recovery percentage (18.13%). The recovery percentage of wet parchment from fresh cherry was highest on the variety Catuai Amarillo (63.13%). In contrast, the recovery percentage of dry parchment from fresh cherry was found on variety Mundo Novo (24.85%) due to the removal of a higher amount of floated parchment while washing fermented wet parchment. Likewise, the highest recovery percentage of green beans from Fresh cherry was found in the variety Mundo Novo (21.13%). Similarly, the highest recovery percentage of roasted beans from fresh cherry was found in the variety Mundo Novo (18.13%) because of less floated parchment, wider fruit size, and uniformly ripened cherries than other varieties. Therefore, Mundo Novo and Catuai Amarillo are suggested for cultivation for farmers in Nepal due to their high recovery percentage and out-turn.</p> Mandira, Abhinav, Daxina, Niharika Chaudhary, Narayan Bhandari Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/730 A REVIEW ON RECENT ADVANCES IN ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/729 <p>Animal biotechnology represents a cutting-edge field that has revolutionized our interactions with the animal kingdom. Recent advancements encompass various domains, including genetic editing techniques like CRISPR-Cas9, which allow precise genetic modifications for improved animal health and product quality. Cloning and reproductive technologies offer opportunities to preserve rare genetic traits and enhance livestock production, albeit accompanied by ethical and genetic diversity challenges. Transgenic animals, engineered with foreign genes, serve purposes from increased productivity to disease modeling, raising ethical and regulatory concerns. Disease resistance strategies involve selective breeding and gene editing to bolster animals' immunity, promoting sustainable farming practices. Biopharming utilizes genetically modified animals for large-scale pharmaceutical production, balancing potential benefits with containment and safety issues. Conservation efforts employ advanced genetic and reproductive techniques to protect endangered species, necessitating careful ethical and ecological considerations. Animal biotechnology promises transformative possibilities but underscores the importance of responsible progress and ethical frameworks.</p> Lokendra Yogi Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/729 AMMI GGE biplot analysis of wheat genotypes under heat stress and heat drought environment https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-04 <p>Wheat is the third most important cereal crop of Nepal. Climatic changes have been a major threat on overall production and productivity of wheat in Nepal. With the aim of evaluating twenty elite wheat genotypes under heat stress and heat drought environments, a field experiment was conducted using alpha lattice design at Bhairahawa, Rupandehi, Nepal. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences in the yield across wheat growing environments (<em>p&lt;0.001</em>). Environment explained 75.11% of the total variation in grain yield. NL 1404 was the most stable followed by NL 1368, and NL 1413. NL 1376, NL 1369. NL 1386 was the best adapted genotypes under heat stress environments whereas NL 1384, Gautam, and BL 4949 were best adapted to heat drought environments. NL 1346 was the best genotype. WWW model explained NL 1346 won under heat drought environment and NL 1384 under heat stress environment. Mean vs. stability model showed NL 1346 was the above yielder and stable genotype. In ranking, NL1179 was concluded to be the ideal genotype. From the study, NL 1368 was found to be the winning genotype under heat drought and heat stress environments. These genotypes should further be evaluated to release as a variety.</p> Eishaina Chaudhary, Surakshya Sharma, Pratik Gautam, Sweksha Ghimire, Sushma Sapkota, Kriti Bhattarai, Puja Roka, Rashmi Poudel, Bibisha Timalsina, Kapil Neupane, Ganesh G.C., Manoj Pariyar, Anil Aryal, Mukti Ram Poudel, Radhakrishna Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-04 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of dietary Cu nanoparticles on growth performance, physiology and bioaccumulation in Asian walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-022 <p>The present investigation was conducted to determine the optimal dietary Cu-NPs requirement of Asian walking catfish, <em>Clarias batrachus</em> (7.46 ± 0.15 cm; 5.28 ± 0.10 g) by feeding with diets supplemented with different concentrations of Cu-NPs (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg) and control group. Each experimental diet was hand-fed to triplicate groups of fish for 60 days in glass aquarium. Results showed that fish group fed with 20 mg/kg Cu-NPs in feed exhibited highest (P &lt; 0.05) growth performance and feed utilization compared to the control group. However, increased level of Cu-NPs from 30 to 50 mg/kg in feed significantly reduced the growth performance. Significantly higher protein and lipid were also recorded at 20 mg/kg Cu-NPs supplemented group. Haematological parameters, serum lipid and enzymatic profile were found to influence significantly with the addition of Cu-NPs in feed compared to the control group. Based on the polynomial regression analysis between FW, WG and SGR<sub>W</sub> against dietary Cu-NPs levels, the optimal dietary supplementation of Cu-NPs for <em>C. batrachus</em> were estimated to be ranged between 19.98 to 20.05 mg/kg per diet, respectively. Bioaccumulation of Cu was the highest in liver compared to muscle and serum, whereas the highest Cu accumulation was observed at 50 mg/kg Cu-NPs supplemented group. The findings of the present study will be helpful for formulating nutrient rich low cost catfish feed.</p> Nasrin Akter, Md. Abu Sayed Jewel, Md. Ayenuddin Haque, Md. Nahiduzzaman, Md. Hashibur Rahman, Mst. Bithy Khatun, Abdus Satter Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-022 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Growth performance of Thai Pangus (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) using different synthetic amino acids in plant protein based formulated diets https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-021 <p>An experiment was carried out for a period of 120 days to evaluate three formulated diets among of which T<sub>1 </sub> was formulated based on animal protein, T<sub>2 </sub> was partially replaced animal protein with plant protein and adding amino acid whereas the T<sub>3 </sub> was formulated with fully plant protein with adding amino acid to assess the growth performance of Thai Pangus, <em>Pangasionodon hypophthalmus. </em>Each treatment had three replicates using 9 (nine) mini experimental ponds. The stocking density was 120 fish/decimal. Initially, the fish were fed twice daily at a rate of 5% of their body weight, which was progressively reduced to 2% by the end of the experiment. During the experimental period, the water quality parameters observed (temperature 26.0°C-31.5°C, pH 7.50-8.44, DO 4.30-5.94 mgL<sup>-1</sup>, ammonia-nitrogen 0.01 to 0.03 mgL<sup>-1</sup>, and total alkalinity 155-185 mgL<sup>-1</sup>) were found to be optimal and stable. The mean weight gains (WG) of Thai Pangus were 421.6±4.71 g, 407.34±1.97 g and 345.89±4.44 g for T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>, respectively and significantly (p&lt;0.05) highest WG was obtained in T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub> followed by T<sub>3. </sub>The specific growth rate (SGR) was found highest in T<sub>2</sub> (2.70±0.03) followed by T<sub>1</sub> (2.53±0.06) and T<sub>3</sub> (2.16±0.04), respectively. The highest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was found in T<sub>1</sub> (1.62) whereas lowest FCR obtained from T<sub>2</sub> (1.52±0.01) followed by T<sub>3</sub> (1.55). The protein efficiency ratio (PER) values were ranged between 2.03 and 2.13 and highest was found in T<sub>2 </sub>(2.13±0.05). The highest production was attained from T<sub>1 </sub>(13557.50±51.60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by T<sub>2</sub> (13227.71±50.72 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and T<sub>3 </sub>(11450.60±49.87 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), respectively. The findings of this study revealed that, the partial replacement of animal protein with plant protein adding limited amino acid (lysine and methionine) exhibited the best performance on the basis of nutritive value and growth performance.</p> Durin Akhter Jahan, Saymuna Tarin Lupa, Md. Hashibur Rahman, Md. Zulfikar Ali, Anuradha Bhadra, Yahia Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-021 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Value chain analysis of Sweet orange in Sindhuli district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/723 <p>Government of Nepal has announced a super-zone of sweet orange in Sindhuli district to enhance productivity and commercialization of sweet orange subsector in the Banepa-Bardibas road corridor. This study analyzed sweet orange value chain in Sindhuli district. A total of 150 producers, 5 retailers and 4 agro vets, 8 banks and co-operatives, 2 processing industry and 2 nurseries were selected using random sampling method. The pretested semi-structured questionnaires surveys, focused group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted to collect primary data and analyzed using STATA and MS Excel. The study revealed the value chain stream in the Sindhuli district. Sweet orange market was found oligopolistic competitive along the chain. Producers of Sindhuli district were sustaining the business because of their higher benefit cost ratio (1.37) and higher farm gate price for fruits (NRs 54.27). The reasons for this were relatively better institutional set up contributing to extension and training services, and better technological adoption rate in Sindhuli district. In addition, the chain stream of Sindhuli district had better market margin, market efficiency and value addition. Thus, policy efforts to strengthen local institutions providing extension, training, insurances, market information and credits are recommended to improve the performance of the value chain. In addition, encouraging processing and value addition of bananas should be of concern to development practitioners and policy makers.</p> Prabhat K.C., Shiva Chandra Dhakal, Rishi Ram Kattel, Raj Kumar Adhikari Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/723 Heavy metal contamination and risk assessment on ecological and public health in a tropical estuarine river https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-020 <p>Heavy metals contamination of water is one of the most severe environmental and public health issues. The present study was conducted to assess the levels of lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in surface water of the Pasur River estuary in Bangladesh along with their health risk through the ingestion and dermal exposure. The decreasing order of studied metals was Cr &gt; Pb &gt;Cu &gt; Zn &gt; As &gt; Cd with the mean value of 0.050 &gt; 0.024 &gt; 0.021 &gt; 0.014 &gt; 0.012 &gt; 0.006 mg/L respectively. Pb, Cr, Cd and Zn concentration in water samples exceeded the safe limits of drinking water and thereby not safe for drinking. The multivariate analysis identified the common anthropogenic source and existence of studied metals. Heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) indicated significant contamination of water. The HQ and HI through ingestion and dermal contact were &lt;1 except for the adult, whereas HQ (only for As) and HI value through ingestion was &gt;1 indicating an unacceptable risk of non-carcinogenic effects on public health. Carcinogenic risk through ingestion (CR<sub>ing</sub>) indicated that consumption of water from Pasur River estuary may develop cancer risk of Cd. Therefore, strict rules and regulations must be adopted to reduce water contamination of this tidal river from anthropogenic sources for improving the health of this riverine ecosystem.</p> Md. Ayeunddin Haque, Afia Zinat, Md. Abu Sayed Jewel, Bithy Khatun, Abdus Satter, Partha Sarathi Das, Md. Hashibur Rahman, Md. Nahiduzzaman Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-020 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 In-vitro evaluation of antifungal effects of botanical extracts against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum causing anthracnose of beans https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/721 <p>Anthracnose of beans caused by <em>Colletotrichum lindemuthianum </em>is considered to be the most devastating disease of legumes causing considerable loss in yield and quality every year. Five distinct medicinal plants <em>viz.</em> neem, mugwort, garlic, ginger, and wild sage were collected to evaluate their capacity to inhibit the mycelial growth of <em>C. lindemuthianum</em> in in-vitro conditions. An experiment was conducted in the plant pathology lab of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Paklihawa, Rupandehi, Nepal in 2022 using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Among five different botanicals, maximum growth inhibition (100%) was observed in garlic at 10% concentration followed by ginger (81.15%) while minimum growth inhibition (36.58%) was observed in wild sage at 10% concentration. Garlic, neem, and mugwort show greater efficiency at lower concentration while ginger and wild sage have increased efficiency with an increase in concentration. So, the use of botanical fungicides has greater efficiency over control. The use of eco-friendly biological fungicides over hazardous chemicals should be the alternative way to reduce environmental degradation and health hazards.</p> Netra Prasad Pokharel Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/721 Effect of gamma radiation on fungal load decontamination of marketed spices https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-02 <p>In this study, the effects of gamma radiation on the decontamination of fungus, physicochemi-cal properties, and molecular analysis of <em>Aspergillus </em>spp. of common spices for storage were evaluated. After being irradiated with gamma doses of 0, 2, 4, and 6 kGy and sealed in glass vials, the spices were stored at room temperature for 180 days. Among the tested spice samples, chili, turmeric, and black pepper powder showed the highest presence of fungal contamination compared to cumin, coriander, garlic, and ginger samples. Microscopy was used to identify a total of 48 isolates, of which 11 were <em>Mucor</em>, 25 were <em>Penicillium</em>, and 12 were <em>Aspergillus</em>. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, a total of 12 Aspergillus genera were identified among them: 5 in black pepper and 7 in red chili. The gamma radiation also reduced the number of microbes compared to the control group. The best gamma radiation doses were found to kill the organ-isms in the studied spices. These were 6 kGy for red chili, 4 kGy for turmeric and black pepper, and 2 kGy for cumin, coriander, garlic, and ginger. Measurements of the physicochemical parameters were not significantly impacted by the 180-day exposure to gamma radiation; however, the number of fungi drastically decreased. Gamma radiation has been explored as an effective method for decontaminating spices, offering a promising solution for ensuring food safety and quality.</p> Mahfuzur Rahman, Md. Moniruzzazan, Keshob C. Das, Mohammad Amirul Islam, Md. Mostafa Kamal, M. Safiur Rahman, Ruhul A. Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-02 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Spawning season and size at first sexual maturity of freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck, 1819) in the Brahmaputra River, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-019 <p>Spawning season and size at first sexual maturity of Freshwater mussel <em>Lamellidens marginalis</em> was studied from the specimens collected from Brahmaputra River, Mymensingh district, Bangladesh from July 2015 to June 2016. The present study has investigated sex ratios, gamogenetic cycle, condition index, and size at first sexual maturity by means of standard histological procedures. The results indicated no significant difference in the overall sex ratio (M: F = 1:1.3). The qualitative analysis of gonad developmental stages has provided confirmation of the presence of a yearly reproductive cycle characterized by prolonged gonadal activity. The highest percentages of ripe gonads were observed in July for males (77.78%) and August for females (53.85%). The spawning activity was highest in October for males (50%) and November for females (83.33%). Furthermore, ripening and spawning stages in different shell lengths ranged from 58–63 to 88–93 mm for both sexes. The findings from the qualitative observation of gonad developmental stages, a single annual spawning peak observed between October and November. A statistically significant correlation was detected between the average condition index of male and female. Males reached sexual maturity at smaller standard length (SL<sub>50</sub> = 63.25 mm) compared to females (SL<sub>50</sub> = 72.10 mm SL). Acquired knowledge regarding the present state and distinctive gonad developmental characteristics of <em>L. marginalis</em> will aid fisheries management professionals and conservation biologist in the effective management of this particular species of mussels in the waters of Bangladesh.</p> Arun Chandra Barman, Mohosena Begum Tanu, Mohammad Ferdous Siddique, Sonia Sku, Md. Nazmul Hossen, Md. Ayenuddin Haque, Yahia Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-019 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PERFORMANCE AND STABILITY ANALYSIS OF WHEAT UNDER IRRIGATED, HEAT STRESS, AND HEAT DROUGHT ENVIRONMENT https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/714 <p><em>Heat stress and drought are the major abiotic stress of wheat. It reduces yield by affecting growth, physiology, and yield-attributing parameters. To evaluate the stress-tolerance of wheat genotypes, a field experiment was carried out in the western region of Nepal at Bhairahawa, Rupandehi using an alpha lattice design comprising twenty elite wheat lines under irrigated, heat stress, and heat drought environments. The combined and AMMI model ANOVA revealed that traits, days to booting (DTB), days to heading (DTH), days to anthesis (DTA), plant height (Ph), Spike weight (SW), thousand-grain weight (TGW), and grain yield (GY) were significantly affected by the environments (p≤0.05). The yield of wheat was reduced by 20% and 39% under heat stress and heat drought environments, respectively. AMMI revealed BL 4919, NL 1417, and NL 1420 were the adaptive genotypes under irrigated, heat stress, and heat drought environment, respectively. whereas which won where (WWW) model revealed, BL 4919, NL 1368 and Bhrikuti to be adaptive under irrigated, heat stress, and heat drought environments, respectively. From Mean Vs. Stability; NL 1412, and NL 1369 were identified as high-yielding stable genotypes, and NL 1386, and NL 1350 as low-yielding stable genotypes. Bhrikuti was the ideal genotype for cultivation across all tested environments. The stable genotypes were found to be NL 1386 and 1412 from the WWW model and NL 1386 and NL 1413 from the AMMI model which could further be evaluated to release as a variety.</em></p> Radhakrishna Bhandari Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/714 ASSESSING SPRING SEASON RICE’S PERFORMANCE USING LEAF COLOUR CHART FOR NITROGEN MANAGEMENT https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/712 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">A field experiment was carried out at Baradi, Tanahun in order to determine the effect of fertilizer management using Leaf Colour Chart on growth and yield of rice grown during the spring season of 2022. The research was laid out as a Randomized Complete Block Design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Treatments included in the&nbsp; research were Leaf Colour Chart (LCC) use with basal dose application, Purely LCC-guided application, recommended split application of fertilizer, farmers’ practice and control with no application of nitrogenous fertilizers. Parameters like plant height, number of leaves, number of tillers, panicle length, grain and straw yield, sterility percentage and harvest index were observed. MS Excel and R-Studio were used for data entry and statistical analysis respectively. Results revealed that the plants with the most optimum performance belonged to treatments with pure LCC use for almost all parameters. The highest grain yield (6.6050 ton/ha) was found to be in pure LCC treatment and the yield of basal dose + LCC treatment (6.577 ton/ha) was found to be statistically similar to it. Both of the treatments involving LCC were found to be significantly better than that of recommended practice (4.630 ton/ha) and farmers’ practice (4.560 ton/ha). The lowest grain yield (3.7125 ton/ha) was observed in the control plot. The greatest growth and yield parameters were found to be better in LCC-guided fertilizer management methods, out of which pure LCC use gave a greater grain yield than basal application + LCC. So, the pure LCC based fertilizer management was found to be the best practice for the spring rice in Baradi, Tanahun.&nbsp;</span></p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/712 An overview of foliar application of macro and micronutrients on the yield of maize in Ghana https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-026 <p>Maize is a major staple crop in Ghana which plays a significant role in consumer diets. For some time now, the farming methods used by the farmers have been negatively affected by components such as climate, soil nutrient depletion, and constant monocropping resulting in the adoption of inorganic fertilizers. Conventional fertilizers supplied through soils are subjected to slow release of nutrients, leaching, fixation, surface runoff, erosion, and volatilization, which hinders optimal plant growth and yield. Foliar application of fertilizer offers an alternative method of fertilizer application that supplies nutrients directly to the stomata and cuticle of the leaves of maize thereby enabling rapid absorption and enhancing crop vigor. The The main objective of this paper is to review research papers which explores the potential of foliar application of vital nutrients – phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) – to improve the yield of maize crop. According to the literature gathered, foliar fertilization in combination with soil applied fertilizers emerges as a promising strategy, particularly in addressing nutrient deficiencies and stress scenarios. The efficient uptake of nutrients through leaves, as opposed to traditional soil-based approaches, holds promise for augmenting yield and enhancing protein content in maize crops. Notably, prior research highlights the efficacy of foliar-applied P, S, Zn, and Fe in significantly boosting grain yield. By understanding the complex mechanisms of nutrient absorption and the advantages of foliar application, the agricultural sector can explore innovative avenues to surmount soil-related challenges and achieve sustainable crop development.</p> Georgina Asare, Poonam Bhatt, Vincent Kodjo Avornyo, Raphael Adu Gyamfi Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-04-026 Mon, 25 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Nutritional, ecological and livelihood significance of Moringa oleifera: A review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-025 <p>The potential ecological and livelihood benefits of Moringa plants are often overlooked. There is a need to raise awareness and encourage farmers and decision makers to adopt Moringa on marginal and degraded lands with changing climate risks. Previous studies have focused mainly on the pharmacological uses and oil content from a commercial point of view and failed to explore its ecological benefits and economic potential to address the growing problems of global food insecurity, malnutrition, and climate risks. Planting Moringa on unused and marginal land can improve soil fertility, food production, and resilience to climate change, offering a significant opportunity for diversification of livelihoods and economic development in the changing climate. Henceforth, this study compiles scientific evidence through a systematic literature search to highlight the ecological benefits and livelihood opportunities associated with the use of Moringa. Initially, we retrieved 206 pieces of global literature and, through the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted information from 22 articles. Various studies have consistently shown that Moringa leaves are highly nutritious and that their consumption can combat food and nutrition insecurity in low-income countries. Its seeds offer the potential for the commercial production of oils with heart-healthy properties. The oil is stable and suitable for cooking and its quality varies depending on location and environmental factors. When included in the diet, Moringa leaves improve the quality and quantity of goat milk and support the growth of fish in aquaculture. The extract of Moringa provides versatile uses in water purification, offering sustainable solutions to water pollution. We thus conclude that Moringa's diverse applications can contribute to the livelihood enhancement and economic well-being of poor and marginalized farmers in low-income countries. Planting Moringa trees in abandoned croplands and other degraded areas can have positive ecological and socioeconomic outcomes for rural communities. However, to support smallholders in low-income countries, favorable policies, field-based research evidences, and products development are crucial.</p> Kishor Atreya, Kanchan Kattel, Krishna Raj Tiwari, Sony Baral, Rabindra Adhikari, Om Prakash Kalwar Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-025 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Utilizing geographic information system and indexing to evaluate irrigation suitability of groundwater in Kalihati Upazila, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-017 <p>The aim of this research was to evaluate groundwater quality for irrigation in Kalihati Upazila, Bangladesh, a region that is significantly reliant on groundwater for crop development, especially during dry periods. By combining hydrochemical analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS), the research examined the physicochemical attributes and their spatial distribution. Fifteen groundwater samples from various locations were analyzed to measure parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), Kelly's ratio (KR), permeability index (PI), and potential salinity (PS). The pH of the groundwater ranged between 5.51 and 7.53, indicating slightly acidic to moderately alkaline conditions suited for irrigation. The EC ranged between 115.7 and 458 μS/cm, mostly falling into the "excellent" or "good" categories. Groundwater displayed irrigation suitability with TDS below 182 ppm and low SAR values, but variable RSC and MAR values indicated localized water quality issues. Based on the irrigation water quality index, all samples were within the "permissible" range. However, GIS-generated maps showed disparities in groundwater quality across the study area. Correlation matrices revealed significant links between various factors. Both the Piper and Gibbs diagrams displayed a prevalent Ca-HCO<sub>3</sub> groundwater type influenced by geological formations. Overall, the study confirmed groundwater's appropriateness for irrigation while recommending periodic evaluations due to a few uncertainties. In conclusion, the study found that hydrochemical analysis, GIS mapping, and correlation matrices reveal groundwater quality and spatial trends, allowing for sustainable water resource management and agricultural advancement.</p> Md. Touhidul Islam, Nilima Das, Nusrat Jahan, Md. Sifat Siddik, Khalid Mahmud, A.K.M. Adham Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-017 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Integrated approach for the management of common bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) under field conditions https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-016 <p>A field experiment was conducted to test the efficacy of different management practices and fungicide application timings for common bean rust management in Chitwan, Nepal. It was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors: management practices (Azoxystrobin, <em>Trichoderma viride</em>, maize intercropping + <em>Trichoderma viride</em>, Neem + Garlic extracts, and inoculated and untreated controls) and fungicide application timings (8 days after inoculation and 3 days after inoculation), each with three replications. The minimum disease severity was found with azoxystrobin, which was at par with neem + garlic extract and maize intercropping + Trichoderma at 50 days after inoculation (DAI). The maximum number of rust pustules per cm<sup>2</sup> was observed in the control plots (7.56), followed by Trichoderma (4.79) at 50 DAI. The maximum necrotic colonies (%) were observed with the control (36.88%), followed by Trichoderma (25.15%), while the effects of other treatments were at par at 40 DAI. Maize intercropping with Trichoderma resulted in a maximum plant height (201.56 cm), which was at par with azoxystrobin (197.81 cm). The plants treated with azoxystrobin showed maximum green pod yield at one picking (2411.35 g) which was at par with maize intercropping + Trichoderma and neem + garlic extracts. Rust was controlled more effectively when the fungicides were sprayed at 4 DAI than 8 DAI. The maximum disease control was observed with Azoxystrobin; however, as other treatments also had comparable effects, an integrated approach could be adopted for the sustainable management of common bean rust.</p> Sagar Bhandari, Alina Thapa, Sarita Bhandari, Pankaj Karkidholi, Bharat Saud, Sanat K.C., Bikash Kandel, Pramod Gyawali, Arvind Srivastava Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-016 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 AGROMORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF NEPALESE WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/703 <p>The yield and yield-attributing parameters of wheat are influenced by the environment. To identify the direct and indirect association of quantitative traits of wheat genotypes under high-yielding irrigated and low-yielding heat stress and late drought environment, correlation and path analysis was performed under eleven quantitative traits from the data of twenty wheat genotypes from the field experiment conducted at serpentine alpha lattice design at the agronomy farm of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Paklihawa campus, Rupandehi, Nepal.&nbsp; The grain yield of wheat was found to be negatively associated with days to heading (DTH) and days to booting (DTB) under all tested environments. Plant height (Ph) was found to have a significant (p≤0.05) negative association with grain yield under irrigated but a significantly positive association was found across heat-stressed and late drought environments. DTB, DTH, and Ph were found to have a direct influence on the grain yield of wheat under all tested environments. For the breeding program, the selection of dwarf genotypes which are earlier in booting and heading should be promoted under irrigated environment whereas taller genotypes which are earlier in booting and heading should be promoted under heat stress and heat drought environment.</p> Radhakrishna Bhandari, Shivalal Nyaupane, Mukti Ram Poudel Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/703 Culture technique of Tengra (Mystus vittatus) with short cycle fish species in the drought prone northern region of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-015 <p>The present study was to assess and evaluate the culture potential of Tengra with short-cycle species in the seasonal water bodies of farmers’ fields and disseminate the cultural technologies in a different part of the country. The study was conducted in farmers’ ponds located in the northern region of Bangladesh from May 2017 to September 2018 to find out the most suitable combination of Tengra (<em>Mystus vittatus</em>) with other short-cycle fishes. For this reason, combination <em>viz</em>; tengra+pabda+magur+rajpunti+GIFT was considered for trial (with three treatments/combinations and three replications of each) in seasonal farmers’ ponds at 18 upazilas of the greater Rangpur region to evaluate the growth and yield performance of tengra, <em>M. vittatus</em> under a polyculture system. Three different stocking densities of Tengra <em>viz</em>., 500, 600, and 700 with (100 Magur+10 Rajpunti+5 GIFT) were treated as T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2,</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> respectively. After 5 months of the culture period, (T<sub>1</sub>) showed significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher production of Tengra (2,035 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), total production of fishes (5,592 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), and benefit-cost ratio (1.60) among the treatments These combinations were chosen for multi-location testing (MLT) in different locations of the northern region of Bangladesh. Three locations such as Domar (Niphamari); Kaligonj (Lalmonirhat) and Niphamari Sadar were selected for demonstration. After 5 months of multi-location testing the trials with Tengra as the main species, the highest production of Tengra (2252 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), total production of fishes (5656 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), and benefit-cost ratio (1.65) were found in Kaligonj with significant (P&lt;0.05) difference among three locations. Thus, the results of multi-location trials clearly authenticated the previous findings. Therefore, the technologies of short-cycle fish species should be disseminated to fish farmers and entrepreneurs throughout the semi-arid zone of Bangladesh.</p> Khandaker Rashidul Hasan, Saokat Ahamed, Yahia Mahmud, Maliha Hosssain Mou Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-015 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Screening of rice genotypes for blast resistance in Gokarna-Lalitpur https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/702 <p>&nbsp;Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major cereal crop of Nepal which is crop belonging to the Gramineae family being faced by the devastating rice blast disease caused by Pyricularia oryzae Cavara. A rice disease screening nursery trial was conducted in Gokarna, Lalitpur in 2021 and 2022, consisting of 163 genotypes in 2021 and 181 genotypes in 2022, including two susceptible checks, Taichung-176 and Manjushree-2. Disease scoring was performed qualitatively at two stages: first at tillering for leaf blast and secondly at maturity for neck blast, following the rice standard evaluation system (SES) scale (IRRI, 2002). A total 163 genotypes were scored in 2021 and 181 genotypes were screened in 2022. Among them 114 genotypes were tested in both the years, while 49 and 64 genotypes were unique to the year 2021 and 2022 respectively. Altogether, 227 genotypes were screened for blast resistance in two years. Out of 114 recurring genotypes, only 16 genotypes for Neck Blast and 35 for Leaf Blast showed same resistant level in both the years. The information revealed from this study could be helpful for rice leaf blast disease management and utilizing these resistant and moderately resistant genotypes for further resistance breeding program<strong>. </strong></p> Pratiksha Sharma Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/702 Domestication performance of the striped snakehead Channa striata fry in pond conditions using different diets https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-014 <p>The experiment was conducted to assess the performance of growth, rate of survival and FCR of the different feed types in <em>Channa striata</em> fry at the freshwater station of the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute. The experiment was undertaken with 3 treatments (T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, and T<sub>3</sub>) and each having three <em>replications</em> (R<sub>1</sub>, R<sub>2</sub>, and R<sub>3</sub>). Each treatment included the provision of three different feed types, with a stocking density of 1,00,000 individuals per hectare. Fry in T<sub>1</sub> was fed a commercial feed that contained 40–35% protein at 40–10% of total body weight. In T<sub>2</sub>, 40–10% of the body weight of commercial feed, which included fish paste, was given. Contrarily, in T<sub>3</sub> live fish fry and chopped fish were provided at 30–10% of total body weight. The mean weight gains in T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, and T<sub>3</sub> were 128.7, 140.7, and 162.3g, respectively with percentage weight gains were 81279, 87867, and 100999 respectively, as well as SGR, were 3.34%, 3.37%, and 3.45%, respectively. T<sub>1</sub> revealed the lowest amount of weight gain, weight gain percent and SGR, whereas T<sub>3</sub> revealed the highest. The mean survival rates at T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, and T<sub>3</sub>, respectively, were 45.5%, 71.8%, and 82.67%, whereas the FCR values were 2.26, 2.05, and 1.79. T<sub>1</sub> had the lowest survival rate and FCR values, while T<sub>3</sub> showed the highest. These <br />experiment findings revealed that chopped fish and live fish fry had a more optimistic effect on the survival and growth of the <em>C. striata</em> fry compared with other commercial feeds.</p> Md. Rabiul Awal, Md. Saiful Islam, Maliha Khanom, Anuradha Bhadra, Yahia Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-014 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Seed Certification System in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/697 <p>Concept of seed certification was originated in Sweden during twentieth century by visiting agronomist and plant breeder to the progressive farmers, who took seeds from them, primarily with the objective of educating them on how to avoid contamination. This initiated field inspection process.</p> <p>Seed certification is the legal process to maintain the high quality seed and make its availability for the distribution. The process was started first in wheat in&nbsp;Nepal. Seed Act (1988) has been enacted for the system.</p> <p>Seed certification system is a legally sectioned system for quality control of seed during seed multiplication and production. It is a scientific and systematically designed process to secure, maintain, multiply and make available seeds of notified and related varieties to the farmers. Seed certification through field and laboratory inspections and continuous pedigree records provide a most practical and reliable method of verifying genetic identity and purity certified seed is the starting point to successful crop as well as an important risk management tool. Certified seed is the progeny of foundation seed and its production is supervised and approved by certification agency. The seed of this class is normally produced by the state and national seeds cooperation and private seed companies on the farms of progressive growers.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/697 Reproductive biology and length-weight relationship of the Pool Barb Puntius sophore (Hamilton, 1832) in Mymensingh, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-013 <p>The study was conducted within the Freshwater station of the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute in Mymensingh from November 2019 to October 2020. The main objectives were to acquire additional knowledge regarding length-weight connection, condition factor, sex ratio, gonadosomatic index, and fecundity of <em>P. sophore</em>. It was possible to determine the spawning season each month by comparing the levels of the gonadosomatic index for the two sexes. Both sexes of the <em>P. sophore</em> species showed negative allometric growth, as indicated by the length-weight relationships of TW=0.0165TL<sup>2.852</sup> for females and TW=0.035TL<sup>2.956</sup> for males. For females, the average condition factor was 1.17±0.096, while for males, it was 3.24±0.19. Both times, the condition factor's value was high (&gt;1), demonstrating that both sexes are in good health. From collected fish, 147 (55.12%) of the 264 fish samples that were taken were females, whereas 117 (44.88%) were males (Females: Males=1:0.82). The chi-square test showed that the male-to-female ratio during the sample months was not significantly different from 1:1 (χ2= 0.15, p&gt;0.05). The spawning season extended from May through July, with June representing both sexes' peak spawning time. According to the study, the month of June had the highest absolute fecundity, which was 7829 and the absolute fecundity value was found to be lowest in the month of October 803 with an average value of about 3560 throughout the study period. For the management and protection of this species, this data will be valuable to researchers and those who decide on fisheries policy.</p> Md. Rabiul Awal, Selina Yesmine, Anuradha Bhadra, A.H.M. Kohinoor, Yahia Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-013 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Study on Cyanoremediation of pollutants from aquatic bodies: A Green Approach https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/695 <p>Dumping of discarded effluents from industries, agricultural runoff, and from other anthropogenic activities leads to aquatic pollution which is the reason for the deterioration of the water quality of any aquatic ecosystem and as well as adversely impacts human health. Green technology involves microorganisms for the sequestration of heavy metals and organic pollutants in the form of dyes and pesticides. Few heterocystous and non-heterocystous cyanobacteria like <em>Anabaena variabilis</em>, <em>Westeillopsis prolifica</em> etc. have the potential for remediating wastewater from industrial effluents, municipal discharge, and crude-oil degradation.</p> Amina Jafri, Anand Mishra, Shweta Yadav Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/695 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PACKAGING MATERIALS ON SHELF LIFE AND QUALITY OF BANANA https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/694 <p>An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different packaging materials on the shelf life and quality of banana fruits. A laboratory experiment was laid out at Gokuleshwor Agriculture and animal science college in the month of March 2023. The experiment was conducted in a complete random design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were t1: control, t2: banana leaf, t3: straw, t4: polythene bag, t5: card box. The highest physiological weight loss (27.677gm) was recorded at the control (unpackage) whereas the lowest weight loss (12.61gm) was recorded from the polythene bag. The maximum value of TSS was recorded on fruits treated in a polyethylene bag (15.325 ˚Brix) whereas the minimum value of TSS was recorded in the control (12.725 ˚Brix). Titrable acidity was found to be highest in polythene bags (0.318) and lowest in cardboard and control (0.2437), titrable acidity decreasing as the ripening advances. Pulp firmness shows a decreasing pattern. The changes were observed faster on control all days, and a slower decrease in pulp firmness was observed in the polythene bag. As ripening advances banana pulp thickness shows an increased trend over the storage period. On 16 days higher pulp thickness was found in the control (2.78cm), whereas lower pulp thickness was found in the polythene bag (2.70cm). As seeing the overall trend the pulp thickness seems to be increased with time. As ripening advances banana peel thickness shows decreased trend over the storage period. On 16 days higher peel thickness was found in polythene (0.444cm) whereas lower peel thickness was found in the control (0.41cm). Therefore, it is clear that banana fruits packaged in polythene bags demonstrated remarkable quality and shelf life when compared to alternative packaging materials.</p> Lokendra Yogi Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/694 Effect of supplementing bacterial probiotics on microbial protein synthesis, blood indices and rumen ciliate protozoa population of lactating crossbred cattle in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-012 <p>In recent times, the dairy industry in Nepal has been recognized as a burgeoning agro-industry, successfully meeting the domestic demand for fluid milk. Nevertheless, further efforts are necessary to achieve self-sufficiency in dairy products. To enhance milk production, alongside breed improvement and health management initiatives, nutritional interventions have been identified as crucial. In this context, a study was conducted in Rampur, Chitwan, focusing on the supplementation of diverse strains of bacterial probiotics in lactating crossbred cattle to evaluate their effects on microbial protein synthesis, animal health assessed through blood indices, and changes in rumen fauna. The findings of the study revealed that the inclusion of bacterial probiotics resulted in notable improvements in the overall excretion of purine derivatives. Specifically, the individual excretion of allantoin, xanthine, and hypoxanthine significantly increased (<em>p&lt;0.01</em>) in the group supplemented with <em>Lactobacillus acidophilus</em>, while uric acid levels remained unchanged. Consequently, microbial nitrogen supply and absorption also showed a significant increase within the same group. However, blood hematological and biochemical parameters remained unaffected across all treatment groups. Moreover, the supplementation did not induce any notable changes in the individual or overall population of rumen ciliate protozoa. The study underscores that the use of <em>L. acidophilus</em> can enhance the overall protein economy of the rumen, thus potentially reducing production costs by substituting expensive sources of dietary protein for lactating crossbred dairy cows.</p> Tulasi Prasad Paudel, Dainik Bahadur Karki, Naba Raj Devkota, Megh Raj Tiwari, Ujjal Tiwari Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-012 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A, A Study on Family Farm-Enterprise of Producers in Rural Communities of the Gambia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/692 <p>The economic growth of any nation highly depends on agriculture and Gambia is not exceptional. Agriculture contributes 33% to GDP, provides food, and nutrition security, income generation, creates employment, reduces poverty, and improves the living standard of farmers. The objective of this research findings is to assess the contribution of family enterprises and problems associated with the business entity. The methodology of this finding is mainly on purposive sampling method based on observation and experience of field activities. From the research findings, the North Bank Region scored D2,709,225.00 while West Coast Region scored D910,250.00 while the lowest income earned was the Central River Region with D279,700.00 respectively. In addition, the situation of family enterprise in agriculture is associated with difficult working conditions, limited access to knowledge, land ownership, inadequate access to finance, and a negative image of farming, pushing youths out of business and restricting the active participation of entrepreneurs. The government has formulated national policies and strategies to improve the business environment, increase access to capital, and support innovation and capacity-building for farmers. In conclusion, family enterprises can boost the local economy of rural communities and thus the finding recommends, government create easy access to finance, market, and training on business management skills for the family farm enterprises engaged in agriculture.</p> Saikou E. Sanyang Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/692 Profitability and prospects of crop insurance of some selected crops in Kishoreganj district of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-011 <p>Crop insurance is an essential tool for managing risk in agriculture. The primary goal of this study was to investigate how farmers felt about crop insurance and their willingness to pay for it. . The study was conducted to profile the socioeconomic characteristics, measure the profitability of crops, assess farmer’s willingness to pay crop insurance, and determine the factors that influence willingness to pay (WTP). A total of 107 farmers were chosen at random from Kishoreganj district in Bangladesh. The data were collected through a field survey using a semi-structured interview schedule. Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient method was used. The study found that the majority of farmers have only had primary education or less. About one-third of the respondents could make savings of ten to twenty thousand taka each year. The most profitable crops were vegetables, jute, and wheat. Rice’s profitability, however, was hardly positive. Factors such as age, education, occupation, net income, and cultivable area have a positive correlation with the WTP for crop insurance for all crops except rice. However, the uptake of crop insurance is still relatively low in Bangladesh, and more efforts are needed to increase awareness and promote the benefits of crop insurance among farmers.</p> Nowshin Tabassom Prome, Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Ratna Begum, Md. Shishir Ahamed Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-011 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Different stocking densities and species combinations effects the growth and production in carp polyculture https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-010 <p>A comparative experiment was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of different carp species i.e., Rohu (<em>Labeo rohita</em>), Catla (<em>Catla catla</em>), Mrigal (<em>Cirrhinus cirrhosus</em>), and Silver Carp (<em>Hypophthalmicthys molitrix</em>) with variable stocking densities. Three treatments each with three replicates were maintained and the stocking densities of carps were 40, 80, and 120 fish/decimal in T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, and T<sub>3</sub>, respectively. The stocking ratio of Rohu, Catla, Mrigal, and Silver Carp was 2:1:2:1. The experimental diet included rice bran (25%), wheat bran (25%), fish meal (25%), and mustard oil cake (25%), with a total protein content of 28%. This dietary supplement was administered twice daily. The fish were supplemented with 5% of their body weight for the first month, 4.5% for the next three months, and 2% for the final two months. The water quality parameters i.e., pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and transparency were measured every 14 days interval. In T<sub>1</sub>, Silver Carp obtained the highest weight (188.86±17.86g) followed by Mrigal (106.78±14.23g), Catla (74.0±3.80g), and Rohu (67.72±6.03g). In T<sub>1</sub>, Silver Carp also attained the highest length at 26.33±0.63 cm, followed by Catla at 14.40±2.10 cm, Mrigal at 14.09±0.89 cm, and Rohu at 14.07±0.59 cm, respectively. Nevertheless, both weight gain and length gain were lowest for all species in T<sub>3</sub>. The highest SGR% was found in T<sub>1</sub> for Silver Carp (3.22±0.06), whereas the lowest SGR% was found in T<sub>3</sub> for Catla (1.69±0.06). In addition, T<sub>2 </sub> yielded the highest production (3090.91±119.57 kg/ha), followed by T<sub>3</sub> (2949.80±137.67 kg/ha) and T<sub>1</sub> (2946.21± 129.00 kg/ha). The experimental findings suggest that, the stocking density of 80 fingerlings/decimal (T<sub>2</sub>) yielded the highest production in carp polyculture.</p> Md. Hashibur Rahman, Mohammad Ashraful Alam, Flura, Md. Moniruzzaman, Sharmin Sultana, Anik Talukdar, Md. Rakibul Islam Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-010 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF INTEGRATED NITROGEN MANAGEMENT ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AT SUNDARBAZAR, LAMJUNG, NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/689 <p>Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) is a crucial approach to improving the sustainable yield of crops in an environmentally friendly manner. In this study, a field experiment was conducted at Lamjung Campus, Sundarbazar, Lamjung, from March 2022 to June 2022 to investigate the effect of integrated nitrogen management on the growth and yield of okra (cv. Arka Anamika) A randomized full block design was utilized in the investigation, with seven treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of a control (T<sub>1</sub>) and six other combinations of nitrogen sources, with each treatment receiving 50% of its nitrogen from chemical fertilizers and 50% from organic sources. The amount of organic manure was calculated based on the nitrogen content of the manures. Farmyard manure (FYM), poultry manure, vermicompost, mustard cake, and goat manure were tested as organic sources. The effect of treatment combinations was evaluated in terms of plant height, stem diameter, leaf numbers, days to first flower opening, days to first fruit maturity, number of pods per plant, length, and diameter of pods, and yield ha<sup>-1</sup>. The findings revealed that integrated nitrogen management strategies had a substantial impact on okra growth and output. Among all the treatments, 50% recommended N through chemical fertilizer + 50% N through poultry manure (T<sub>4</sub>), which gave the highest number of pods per plant (19.87), yield per ha (13.59 t/ha), and shortest days taken to first flowering (46.54 days) and plant height (54.80 cm), followed by T<sub>2</sub>, while the control treatment (T<sub>1</sub>) yielded the lowest. These findings suggest that the application of 50% recommended N through chemical fertilizer + 50% N through poultry manure is an effective strategy for obtaining a high yield of okra in the study area.</p> Niraj K C Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/689 IDENTIFICATION OF HEAT-TOLERANT WHEAT GENOTYPES USING STRESS TOLERANCE INDICES https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/688 <p>The production and productivity of wheat are mainly limited by terminal heat stress in the South Asian regions of the world. The limited production of wheat has posed a significant threat to the food and nutritional security of the world. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the heat stress tolerance of twenty elite wheat lines comprising fifteen Nepal lines, two Bhairahawa lines, and three commercial checks viz; Bhrikuti, Gautam, and RR 21. The field experiment was carried out using alpha lattice design at the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Paklihawa campus, Bhairahawa under irrigated and heat stress conditions. Heat stress environment was created by sowing the genotypes one month later as compared to irrigated and the evaluation was done using seven stress tolerance indices. The mean grain yield of wheat was reduced by 45.29% under heat stress conditions as compared to irrigated conditions. The correlation revealed the grain yield under irrigated (Yp) had a highly significant positive association with TOL(0.657), MP (0.916), GMP (0.917), and STI (0.836) and the grain yield under heat stress condition (Ys) had a significant positive correlation with YSI (0.694), MP (0.855), GMP (0.853), and STI (0.927). The grain yield under both conditions (Yp and Ys) had a significant positive association with MP, GMP, and STI (p&lt;0.01), so these indices can be used for the evaluation of high-yielding heat-stress tolerant genotypes. The principal component analysis revealed NL1402, NL1488, and NL1447 were the heat-tolerant genotype and can be recommended to increase the production and productivity of wheat in the tropical region of Nepal.</p> Anjali Dhakal, Radhakrishna Bhandari, Shivalal Nyaupane, Binod Panthi, Harikala Paudel, Muktiram Poudel Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/688 Effects of substituting plant-based protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-09 <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional adequacy and suitability of rice polish and mustard oil cake as protein sources in the diet of Nile Tilapia (<em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>). To assess the growth performance and feed utilization of Nile Tilapia, three diets containing rice polish (0, 8, and 16%) and mustard oil cake (8, 16, and 24%) were formulated and fed to the fish over a period of 60 days. According to the findings, the growth performance tended to decline as the levels of rice polish and mustard oil cake increased. The control diet (30% Fish meal) resulted in the highest weight gain (373.79±49.78%), whereas the diet (20% Fish meal) resulted in the least weight gain (341.24±27.23%). The specific growth rate (SGR) followed the same pattern, and there were no statistically significant differences in SGR between diets (p&gt;0.05). At the end of this trial, the feed intake (FI) of the various diets ranged between 32.37 g and 37.78 g per fish. Although feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were not significantly different among diets (p&gt;0.05), feed intake decreased as the incorporation of rice polish increased.</p> Md. Hashibur Rahman, Mohammad Ashraful Alam, Flura, Md. Moniruzzaman, Sharmin Sultana, Anik Talukdar, Md. Rakibul Islam Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-09 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Alternative protein sources as a replacement of fish meal in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus: A review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-024 <p>The farming of Tilapia (<em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>) has conquered the significant popularity in tropical and subtropical regions, primarily due to its remarkable faster growth rate. The growth performance of the species makes it an attractive choice for many fish farmers. Additionally, Tilapia exhibits a commendable resilience to disease, further enhancing its appeal as a farming option. Furthermore, the low trophic feeding levels of Tilapia contribute to its desirability, making it an efficient and sustainable choice for nutrition-conscious individuals. Due to the increasing prevalence of aquaculture production, there has been a significant surge in the demand for fishmeal. This particular protein source has relished the widespread popularity for many years and its demand has now more than doubled. The current growth rate of the aquaculture industry is outpacing the available fishmeal supplies, which are insufficient to meet the demand. According to scientific studies, it has been found that fishmeal can be effectively replaced with alternative sources without compromising the overall performance of the fish. This article presents a compelling case for the practicality of replacing fishmeal with alternative protein sources in the diet of Tilapia. These alternatives include terrestrial animal by-products, oilseed plants, single-cell proteins, and protein-rich plant derivatives. In order to mitigate the environmental impact of the fishmeal industry, it is crucial to implement measures that can effectively address this concern. Moreover, it is crucial to highlight the significance of these sources from a nutritional perspective. The blood meal, meat and bone meal are highly beneficial options for incorporating essential amino acids and protein into the diet of Tilapia. These alternatives offer a rich source of nutrients that can effectively replace fishmeal. The minerals instead of amino acids could improve plant protein performance. Due to inconsistent findings, aquatic plants and single-cell proteins in Tilapia meals should be carefully considered. Fishmeal replacers need biological and economic analyses. Long-term evaluations should be done in practical culture systems rather than labs. In conclusion, it is imperative for Tilapia producers to contemplate the utilization of alternative dietary sources, as extensive research has demonstrated the scientific feasibility of substituting the fishmeal in the diet of Tilapia.</p> Md. Hashibur Rahman, Mohammad Ashraful Alam, Flura, Md. Moniruzzaman, Sharmin Sultana, Md. Rakibul Islam, Anik Talukdar Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-024 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of nutrient solution concentrations on the growth and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties grown from apical rooted cutting in a hydroponic system https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-08 <p>This study evaluated the effects of nutrient stock solution concentrations on the growth and yield of potato varieties grown from apical rooted cuttings (ARCs). A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Climate and Water Smart Agriculture Center at Egerton University, Kenya. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design, where the main plot comprised three nutrient concentrations, i.e., 75% (N75), 100% (N100) and 125% (N125) of the ADC-Molo’ nutrient formulation. The subplots were allocated to four potato varieties (Shangi, Wanjiku, Nyota and Unica). The results showed that there were no significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) interaction effects of the nutrient stock solution concentrations application rates on the growth attributes of ARCs. The main effects of N125 gave the tallest plants (32.29cm) at 60 days after planting (DAP), highest normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) (0.60) at 75 DAP, plant survival rate (82.15%) at 75 DAP, and fresh weight (79.04g) and dry matter (31.26%) of aboveground biomass (AGB). Nyota variety produced taller plants (26.90cm) at 60 DAP, gave higher NDVI values (0.53) at 75 DAP, and higher fresh weight (64.87g) and dry matter (27.60%) of the AGB. Significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) interactions were observed in the yield parameters. The interaction between N125 and Nyota (11.33) and Wanjiku (10.67) gave the highest number of minitubers, the highest yields were obtained between the interaction of N125 and Unica (16.38t/ha). Therefore, to achieve high growth and yields of ARCs under hydroponic system, seed potato producers should use 125% of the ADC Molo nutrient formulation.</p> Winnie Chebet Wambugu, Arnold M. Opiyo, Anthony M. Kibe Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-08 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PACKAGING MATERIALS ON SHELF LIFE AND QUALITY OF BANANA https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/684 <p>An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different packaging materials on the shelf life and quality of banana fruits. A laboratory experiment was laid out at Gokuleshwor Agriculture and animal science college in the month of march 2023. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design (RBD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were t1: control, t2: banana leaf, t3: straw, t4: polythene bag, t5: card box. The highest physiological weight loss (27.677gm) was recorded at the control (unpackage) whereas the lowest weight loss (12.61gm) was recorded from the polythene bag. The maximum value of TSS was recorded on fruits treated in a polyethylene bag (15.325 ˚Brix) whereas the minimum value of TSS was recorded in the control (12.725 ˚Brix). Titrable acidity was found to be highest in polythene bags (0.318) and lowest in cardboard and control (0.2437), titrable acidity decreasing as the ripening advances. Pulp firmness shows a decreasing pattern. The changes were observed faster on control all days, and a slower decrease in pulp firmness was observed in the polythene bag. As ripening advances banana pulp thickness shows an increased trend over the storage period. On 16 days higher pulp thickness was found in the control (2.78cm), whereas lower pulp thickness was found in the polythene bag (2.70cm). As seeing the overall trend the pulp thickness seems to be increased with time. As ripening advances banana peel thickness shows decreased trend over the storage period. On 16 days higher peel thickness was found in polythene (0.444cm) whereas lower peel thickness was found in the control (0.41cm). Therefore, it is clear that banana fruits packaged in polythene bags demonstrated remarkable quality and shelf life when compared to alternative packaging materials.</p> Lokendra Yogi Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/684 Urea Molasses Mineral Block: Boon for Ruminants https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/683 <p>Nepal is an agricultural country. Agriculture plays a vital role in Nepalese economy. It contributes 39.4% of share to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and supports near about 65.7% of the population (MOAC, 2004). Among the agricultural commodities, livestock sector plays significant role in the agricultural development and economy of the country. It contributes 31% in the national Agricultural Gross Domestic Product (AGDP) (CBS, 2004). Milk forms a bulk share in livestock products (MOAC, 2005/06).</p> <p>Among various sub-sectors of Nepalese economy, milk production is an important area. The total animal population in Nepal is 42,014,947 which produces 1,195,931 metric ton of milk every year (MOAC, 2004) in Nepal, the total milk production from cattle and buffalo per year is around 1,312,140 metric ton in which the dairy cattle produces around 385,290 metric ton of milk and buffalo produces about 926,850 metric ton of milk (MOAC,2005/06). The population of dairy cattle and buffalo is estimated to be 903,376and 1,084,764 respectively (MOAC, 2005/06). Dairying account about two-third of the livestock section. The average growth of the milk production over the last decade is about 2.6% per year (MOAC, 2004). In 1995-96 Nepal introduced agriculture led economic growth or economic rural poverty alleviation by implanting the twenty-year agriculture perspective plan (APP) which envisages reaching as annual growth rate of 5.5 %.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ishowari Datta Pandeya Eshor Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/683 Culture suitability of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis in homestead tank: Selection of suitable stocking size https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-07 <p>The present experiment was conducted for a period of 150 days to assess the effects of different stocking size on growth and production of stinging catfish (<em>Heteropneustes fossilis)</em> in three homestead cemented tanks (12×10×4 ft). Three different size groups of fish viz., 3.79±0.11, 3.09±0.13 and 2.53±0.18 cm was stocked at treatment T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>, respectively at a stocking density of 5000 individuals/tank each with three replications. Fish were feed twice daily with floating feed containing 35-40% protein at the rate of 15-10% for 1<sup>st</sup> 60 days, 8-6% for 2<sup>nd</sup> 60 days and 5-2.50% for rest of the culture period. The water quality parameters were within the suitable ranges for the fish culture. Mean weight gain (g) of stinging catfish was 49.03 ± 1.04, 36.72 ± 1.59 and 28.09 ± 0.41g, specific growth rate was 1.76 ± 0.02, 1.70 ± 0.04 and 1.66 ± 0.05 %/day in T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>, respectively. Food conversion ratio was 3.45 ± 0.82, 3.31 ± 0.10 and 3.30 ± 0.06 and survival rate were 90.67 ± 1.51, 88.20 ± 2.62 and 87.56 ± 1.26% in T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>, respectively. Higher stocking size also resulted in a significantly higher economic output in the form of benefit cost ratio (BCR) at T<sub>1 </sub>(2.13 ± 0.05) and the lowest at T<sub>3</sub> (1.21 ± 0.03). The findings of the present study revealed that the highest weight gain and BCR was found in T<sub>1</sub> which dictates that larger stocking size has a significant impact on better production.</p> Md. Tofazuddin Ahamed, Md. Abu Bakar Siddique, Sharmin Akter, Md. Nahiduzzaman, Md. Hashibur Rahman, Md. Ayenuddin Haque Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-07 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 FOREIGN LABOUR MIGRATION AND ITS IMPACTS IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR OF NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/681 <p>This research review aims to investigate the impacts of foreign labor migration on Nepalese agriculture. Nepal’s agriculture sector is largely dependent on manual labor, but due to lack of opportunities prospects. The study will analyze the effects of this migration on agriculture, including charges in agriculture practices, production and productivity. The research will also explore the socio-economic impacts of labor migration on household and communities left behind by migrant workers. Migrants depart for a variety of locations which have been broadly classed as India and elsewhere for the purpose of this study, work, etc. To achieve these objectives, a mixed –methods approach will be used including surveys, interviews and focused group discussion. The findings of this study will provide insights into the implications of foreign labor migration on the agricultural sector and inform policy makers or how to manage this phenomenon in a way that benefits both migrant workers and the agricultural sector.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ishowari Datta Pandeya Eshor Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/681 EFFECT OF ZINC AND BORON FOLIAR APPLICATION ON TOMATO GROWTH AND YIELD UNDER PROTECTED STRUCTURE https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/680 <p>Tomato is the one of most important promising vegetables worldwide which is rich in minerals, vitamins, essential amino acids, sugars and dietary fibers. An experiment was conducted at Kernel Agro Farm in Buddhabhumi municipality, Kapilvastu,Nepal, in 2023 to optimize the concentration of zinc and boron foliar application on tomato growth and yield related attributes.&nbsp; &nbsp;A randomized complete block design (RCBD) experiment with five treatments and four replications was set up to explore the "Effect of zinc and boron foliar application on tomato growth and yield under protected structures." Treatments included control (no foliar spray), zinc 0.5%, zinc 1%, boron 0.25%, and boron 0.5%. A variety of observations were made, including plant height (cm), flower and fruit numbers, yield (ton/ha), and quality indicators (Total Soluble Solid, Titratable Acidity, and pH). The results revealed a noticeable difference between the treatments in terms of contributing features. Zinc 1% showed significantly superior outcomes for plant height (177 cm), flower and fruit production (63.1), number of fruit(61.3), and yield(40.57 tons/ha). Similar outcomes were also seen for boron at 0.25 percent as compared to zinc1% for yield and yield-attributing features.Boron0.25% showed significantly outcomes for plant height (176cm),flower and fruit production(53.8), number of fruit per plant(50.7) ,and yield(31.32tons/ha). The results for quality parameters were not significant. Therefore, tomato development and production can be improved by applying a foliar spray with 1% zinc and 0.25% boron.</p> Dhurba Banjade, Dipak Khanal, Aman Shrestha Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/680 A Review on Priming Methods of Vegetable Seeds https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/677 <p>Seed priming, a pre-sowing seed preparation, prevents radical emergence through the seed coat while allowing seeds to be controlled moist to absorb water and progress through the initial stage of germination. Priming frequently entails soaking the seed in a set amount of water or limiting the imbibition period. Even under challenging soil conditions and under adverse environmental conditions, seed priming speeds up the germination process and improves the rate of seedling emergence. Hydropriming, Osmo priming, halopriming, hormonal priming, and biopriming are some of the numerous methods of seed priming, all of which have significant positive effects on crops. The priming or physiological advancement of the seed lot is a technique to increase the pace and consistency of germination. The practice of priming seeds helps to increase germination rates and ensure that seedlings emerge uniformly in field circumstances. The breaking of dormancy, increasing crop vigor, better crop stand, acceleration and synchronization of germination as well as improved growth, faster flowering, increased resistance to abiotic stress, and larger yields are all made possible by priming of seeds. The most recent research on the numerous physiological and subcellular processes connected to priming that improve vegetable seeds are summarized in this review article.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/677 Genotypic variability and genetic parameters for root yield, dry matter and related traits of cassava in the Guinea Savannah ecological zone of Ghana https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-06 <p>The aim of this study was to assess the agronomic performance and genetic parameters governing storage root yield and related traits in cassava genotypes in order to identify superior genotypes. The study involved 18 elite cassava genotypes which were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and assessed for storage root yield and yield components (12 months after planting) in the Guinea savannah ecology of Ghana for three seasons. Analysis of variance indicated significant (<em>p &lt; 0.05</em>) genotype and year main effects for fresh and dry root yields, dry matter content, starch yield and harvest index. Genotype × year effect was significant (<em>p &lt; 0.05</em>) for fresh root yield, dry root yield and starch yield. Estimates of the variance components revealed greater genotypic influence for starch yield, fresh and dry root yields implying the potential for genetic gain with selection for these traits among the genotypes. Relatively high (69 %) broad sense heritability estimate was observed for dry storage root yield indicating the depth of genetic influence. Path coefficient analysis revealed a direct positive effect of dry matter content on dry storage root yield whilst dry storage root yield had direct positive effect on starch yield suggesting the possibility of indirect selection for starch yield through dry storage root yield. The study revealed ample genotypic variability among the cassava genotypes to warrant selection. Four genotypes, IBA 070134, IBA 419, IBA 950289 and IBA 980581 were identified for high and stable fresh and dry root yields for multilocational testing.</p> Joseph Adjebeng-Danquah, Kwabena Acheremu, Emmanuel Boache Chamba, Issah Alidu Abukari, Ayishetu Sumaila, Richard Yaw Agyare, Isaac Kodzo Amegbor, Freda Ansaah Agyapong, Ophelia Asirifi Amoako, Flora Christine Amagloh, Yussif Baba Kassim, Elizabeth Parkes Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-06 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of slope-cut landslides along Pokhara-Baglung Highway, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-05 <p>The study addresses the ramifications of development initiatives in delicate mountainous terrains, unveiling significant economic constraints and multifaceted environmental challenges. It focuses on investigating substantial landslides triggered by excavations along a specified stretch of Nepal's Pokhara-Baglung Highway. This research holds significance for policymakers engaged in devising highway development strategies that mitigate future landslides, minimizing both costs and the toll on life and assets. The investigation encompassed on-site cataloging of landslides, lab test of sampled soils and a structured questionnaire distributed among local residents. This comprehensive approach facilitated a thorough assessment of landslide occurrences and their consequential effects. The identified landslides exhibited a consistent rotational pattern, characterized by abundant quartzite and phyllite rock formations. The predominant soil composition consisted of fine-to-medium sands, exhibiting a Plasticity Index (PI) range of 0.5 to 3, indicating marginal plasticity. Significantly, a substantial portion (70%) of the populace reported tangible impacts from landslides, with about 32% of affected individuals confirming an average agricultural productivity loss of 4330 kg/km<sup>2</sup>. Statistical analysis using the Chi-square test indicated a uniform impact across various demographic categories, including gender, education, proximity to the affected site, and social caste. Although fluctuations in the region, the observed temporal precipitation consistency over decades suggests as an accelerating rather than primary causative factor for landslides. Thus, principal causes of slope failures predominantly link to inadequately managed bedrock excavations and suboptimal road drainage systems underscoring the necessity for systematic inquiries into soil stability post-slope incisions. These measures are pivotal in guiding the construction and expansion of road networks within Nepal's Himalayan region.</p> Sundarmani Dhungana, Menuka Maharjan Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-05 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NUTRIENTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF GREENGRAM (Vigna radiata L.) AT RUPANDEHI, NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/673 <p>A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy farm of Paklihawa Campus from March to June, 2022 to investigate the effect of organic and inorganic nutrients on growth and yield of green gram<em>. </em>The research was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design with 7 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were T<sub>1 </sub>= Control, T<sub>2</sub>= RDF @ 20:40:20 NPK kg/ha), T<sub>3</sub>= Vermicompost @5 ton/ha, T<sub>4</sub>= Goat Manure @5 ton/ha, T<sub>5</sub>= Panchagavya 0.3% @60 liter/ha, T<sub>6</sub>= NPK + MnSO<sub>4</sub> @20kg/ha and T<sub>7</sub>= NPK + ZnSO<sub>4 </sub>@20kg/ha. The growth parameters studied under this research were plant height, leaf area index and number of trifoliate leaves while the yield and yield attributing characters studied were pod length, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, grain yield, stover yield, biological yield and harvest index. There was significant difference in leaf area index, pod per plant, grain yield, biological yield, stover yield and harvest index. T<sub>3</sub> was found to be most effective in case of plant height, leaf area index, number of trifoliate leaves, grain yield (977.89 kg/ha), stover yield (2485.69 kg/ha), biological yield (3463.58 kg/ha) and harvest index (28.29). T<sub>3</sub> was followed by T<sub>7</sub> and had a grain yield (877.94 kg/ha), stover yield (2371.70 kg/ha), biological yield (3249.64 kg/ha) and harvest index (27.04). To conclude, vermicompost was most effective nutrient as compared to other nutrient sources.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/673 Preparation of floral calendar of bee flora available in Lamjung district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-04 <p>Between March and May 2022, researchers conducted a broad survey in the Lamjung district to ascertain the presence and accessibility of bee-friendly flora to compile a floral calendar. In the PMAMP Bee Zone, 62 respondents were chosen for the interview through a simple random sampling approach, from a pool of 382 registered beekeepers. Primary data collection involved using personal interviews, focus group discussions, and key informant surveys. Secondary data were gathered from publications related to the topic from various institutions. The collected data were then analyzed using IBM SPSS V.26 and Microsoft Excel. Nearly all farmers in the study area kept <em>Apis cerana </em>bees, but due to insufficient irrigation, the crop fields provided limited forage for the bees during certain periods. The lowest number of frames covers by bees was four during the dearth period. Farmers in the Lamjung district did not practice migratory foraging. The majority of the respondents reported an increase in productivity compared to the previous year. However, only 37.1 percent of them cultivated bee flora. The colony carrying capacity of the forage area was not estimated. Additionally, an increase in deforestation was identified as the major problem affecting bee foraging. To address these issues, it was recommended to plant and cultivate perennial trees such as butter trees <em>(Vitellaria paradox)</em>, bottle brush <em>(Callistemon speciosus)</em>, litchi <em>(Litchi chinensis)</em>, sissoo <em>(Dalbergia sissoo)</em>, and sunflower <em>(Helianthus annus)</em> with assured irrigation. This approach could ensure year-round forage availability and reduce the need for artificial feeding. The research aimed to explore the current status of honey bee flora and investigate major flora that could be introduced in the study area.</p> Sabin Bhattarai, Seema Adhikari, Ankit Ojha, Yagya Raj Joshi, Sagar Manandhar, Sushrita Acharya, Dikshya Bist Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-04 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in endangered captive Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) of Chitwan National Park in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-03 <p>In order to ascertain the comprehensive prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among captive Asian elephants in Chitwan National Park, a cross-sectional investigation was conducted. A total of 103 samples was purposefully collected. Demographic details encompassing age and gender, along with epidemiological information concerning deworming status, timing intervals, and nutritional condition for both government-owned and privately-owned elephants, were procured through a structured questionnaire survey. The process involved microscopic identification and quantification of gastrointestinal parasites through sedimentation, centrifugal floatation, and MacMaster Egg Per Gram (EPG) count methods. The resultant data indicated an overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites at 47.57% (49 out of 103 samples). The dominant class of parasites observed was Nematodes (n=30, 61.22%), followed by Trematodes (n=14, 28.57%) and Cestodes (n=5, 10.20%). Six distinct parasite genera were identified with positive results: Strongylus (26.53%), Trichostrongylus (24.48%), Fasciola (16.35%), Paramphistomum (12.24%), Anoplocephala (10.20%), and Ascaris (10.20%). Notably, the prevalence was markedly higher in females (39.80%) in comparison to males (7.76%), with the disparity being statistically significant (p&gt;0.05). Additionally, a noteworthy correlation was observed between parasite prevalence, age groups, and deworming history, with statistical significance (p&lt;0.05). The Egg Per Gram (EPG) count analysis demonstrated that the majority (87.75%) of the positively identified samples exhibited mild infection (100-500 eggs), while a relatively low percentage (6.12%) displayed heavy infection (1000-1500 eggs). The mean EPG was calculated as (248.39 ± 54.25). Consequently, the heightened prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive elephants within Chitwan National Park underscores the necessity for targeted interventions to mitigate the risk of parasitic infestations.</p> Ghanshyam Dahal, Amir Sadaula, Monica Gautam, Aakash Rana Magar, Sonu Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-03 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of seedling age and integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of aromatic rice (cv. BRRI dhan34) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-014 <p>To investigate the performance of aromatic rice (cv. BRRI dhan34) in response to seedling age and nutrient management, an experiment was carried out at the Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka from July to December 2021. The experiment includes three different ages of seedlings to be transplanted viz., 30, 45 and 60 days old and six nutrient management practice viz. control (no manures and fertilizers), recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers (RDF), 50% of RDF + cow dung @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, 75% of RDF + cow dung @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, 50% of RDF + poultry manure @ 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and, 75% of RDF + poultry manure @ 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that in the case of transplanting of different aged seedlings, the highest leaf area index (5.74), dry matter hill<sup>-1</sup> (32.86 g), number of tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (13.17), number of effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (11.53), plant height (113.34 cm), total grains panicle<sup>-1</sup> (135.14), 1000-grain weight (12.45 g), grain yield (3.29 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (4.01 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), biological yield (7.30 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and were recorded from transplanting 30 days old seedlings. Different levels of nutrient management showed a significant impact on most of the parameters under study. The highest total dry matter hill<sup>-1</sup> (34.02 g), the maximum LAI (5.35), plant height (115.70 cm), chlorophyll content (42.87), number of effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (12.99), panicle length (24.63 cm), total grains panicle<sup>-1</sup> (140.17), 1000-grain weight (12.54 g), grain yield (3.27 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (4.15 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), biological yield (7.42 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and harvest index (43.03%)&nbsp; were also recorded in F5 (75% of RDF + poultry manure @ 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) treatment. While considering the interaction effects between the age of seedlings and nutrient management, transplanting 30 days old seedlings along with the nutrient <br>management of 75% of RDF + poultry manure @ 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> treatment improved yield contributing parameters and provided the highest yield (3.76 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) of BRRI dhan34 compared to other treatment combination. So, the application of 75% of RDF + poultry manure @ 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> along with 30 days old seedlings appeared as a promising practice to obtain better performance of fine aromatic rice (cv. BRRI dhan34).</p> Annika Sal Sabil, Md. Moinul Haque, Kamal Uddin Ahamed, Md. Rakib Hasan, Newton Chandra Paul, Md. Asif Mahamud Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-014 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of eight bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) accessions for agronomic characters and proximate composition in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-013 <p>Bambara groundnut (<em>Vigna subterranea</em> [L.] Verdc.) is a valuable but underutilised legume crop grown in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and yield components of eight Bambara groundnut accessions obtained from the National Root Crops Research Institute in Umudike, Nigeria.&nbsp; The experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research farm of the University of Uyo, Uyo Southern Nigeria during the 2021 cropping seasons, using a randomised complete block design with three replications. Growth, yield and nutritional parameters were collected and subjected to analysis of variance, correlation and principal component analysis. Plant height, number of leaves, and leaf area were all significantly different (P≤0.05) among the accessions three months after planting. Number of pods per plant, seed weight, and 100-seed weight differed significantly (P≤0.05). Caly PSC (2853 kg/ha), Caly SK 46 (2803 kg/ha), Zeina (2538 kg/ha), and BNT (2488 kg/ha) were the top yielders among the accessions. Yields of Bambara groundnut differ significantly (P≤0.05) between accessions studied, ranging from 1624.67 kg/ha to 2853.33 kg/ha. Principal component (PC) analysis identified eight influential components, two of which, PC1 and PC3, contributed 27% and 17% of the total variation, respectively. In this study, the correlation analysis revealed that plant height and petiole length, plant height and number of seeds per plot were all negatively correlated. The leaf area and the number of pods per plot, the number of seeds per pod and the fibre content, the leaf area and seed weight, and the plant height and seed weight were all noted positively correlated. The nutritive value of the eight Bambara groundnut accessions varied significantly (P≤0.05). The mean protein levels of eight Bambara nut accessions studied ranged from 18.82 to 20.39%. Findings from this study clearly indicate that Bambara groundnut is suitable for production in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. Thus, high yielding accessions identified in this study are recommended for increased production in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria.</p> Gamaliel I. Harry, Joseph I. Ulasi, Edith G. Okoiseh Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-013 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Maximizing yield of aromatic fine rice through application of zinc and poultry manure https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-07 <p>Zinc (Zn), one of the most important micronutrients for plants which play vital role in various metabolic functions and deficiency of this nutrient in agricultural soils associated with lower yield of rice in many regions of the world. The integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizer has been found to be promising for sustainable crop production and poultry manure could be a rich source of organic matter. Considering these factors, a field experiment was conducted to observe the effect of zinc and poultry manure-based fertilization on the yield of aromatic fine rice, BRRI dhan34. Four levels of zinc and three levels of poultry manure (PM) were tested as treatment including control. Application of zinc, PM and their interaction significantly influenced the growth and yield of rice that result the tallest plant (131.33 cm), maximum number of effective tillers/hill (13.89), grains/panicle (128.54), 1000-grain weight (12.09 g) and highest grain yield (3.21 t/ha) where 4 kg Zn/ha were applied. On the other hand, tallest plant (129.92 cm), maximum number of effective tillers/hill (9.13), grains/panicle (128.23), 1000-grain weight (12.05) and grain yield (3.24 t/ha) were obtained where 10 t/ha of PM were applied. The interaction between application of 4 kg Zn/ha and 10 t PM/ha performed best in all yield contributing characters and results maximum grain yield (3.64 t/ha). Therefore, 4 kg Zn/ha along with 10 t PM/ha was found to be suitable combination for cultivation of aromatic fine rice.</p> Md Abu Rasel, Shivanand Jha, Sultan Md. Monwarul Islam, Ahmed Khairul Hasan, Md. Harun Rashid, Swapan Kumar Paul Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-07 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Wolbachia as biocontrol agent on fecundity and survival of cassava whitefly in northwest Nigeria https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-05 <p>Whitefly (<em>Bemisia</em> <em>tabaci</em> Genn.) is known to vectored <em>Cassava mosaic virus</em> (CMV) and <em>Cassava</em> <em>brown</em> <em>streak</em> <em>virus</em> (CBSV), these viruses caused major diseases of cassava in Africa. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of <em>Wolbachia</em> as biocontrol agent on fecundity and survival of whitefly infesting cassava. Whiteflies infesting cassava were captured and reared using rearing cages. <em>Wolbachia</em> was isolated from infected cassava whiteflies, cultured and used for the inoculations. The experiment was conducted under control conditions using glass cages. Results of this research revealed that number of eggs lay by <em>Bemisia</em> <em>tabaci</em> inoculated with <em>Wolbachia</em> significantly (P = 0.05) reduced weeks after inoculation which significantly differ among the cassava genotypes. Number of eggs lay by <em>B.</em> <em>tabaci</em> free of <em>Wolbachia</em> was significantly higher (964.35) than those inoculated with <em>Wolbachia </em>(46.541) at 4 weeks after inoculation (4WAI). The genotype ‘Dan Aliero’ had the highest number (4WAI 82.33), while, ‘Farin rogo’ had the lowest number of eggs (4WAI 23.33). Number of whitefly nymphs and adults also significantly reduced when <em>B.</em> <em>tabaci</em> was inoculated with <em>Wolbachia</em>. ‘Dan Aliero’ had the highest number of whitefly nymphs and adults (4WAI = 59.00) and (4WAI = 51.00), respectively. ‘Farin rogo’ recorded the lowest number of whitefly nymphs (17.67) and adults (13.00) at 4WAI, respectively. For the first time, Wolbachia were evaluated for whiteflies <br>management. From the finding of this study, <em>Wolbachia </em>can be used as biocontrol agent to suppress whiteflies infestation on cassava and other vegetable crops.</p> Muhammad Dan Yaro Magaji, Ibrahim Umar Mohammed, Ibrahim Yusuf Jega, Abdulrahman Musa Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-05 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of eco-friendly insecticides against yellow stem borer under spring rice crop ecosystem of Saptari district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-03 <p>The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of eco-friendly insecticides in controlling yellow stem borer in spring rice crops of Hardinath-1 variety in Saptari district, Nepal. For this experiment, a Randomized Block Design was used with seven different treatments and an untreated control group. The treatments tested included <em>Bacillus thuringiensis var kurtaski</em>, <em>Beauveria bassiana</em>, <em>Azadiractin </em>2.00%, garlic extract, tobacco extract, larvosin, and an untreated plot.&nbsp; The plots used were 3 × 4 meters in size and the plants were spaced 20 centimeters apart in both rows and between plants. The crop was sprayed twice, once during the vegetative stage and once during the reproductive stage, when the pest population reached a certain level. The incidence of dead heart was observed on ten randomly selected hills from each plot before and after the insecticide application, and observations on yellow stem borer incidence were recorded. Results showed that <em>B. thuringiensis var kurtaski</em> had the lowest dead heart infestation (0.4889%) and the minimum white head infestation (0.367%), as well as the highest mean yield (5.755mt/ha). Neembicide and <em>B. bassiana</em> also showed promising results.</p> Sonam Sah, Rohit Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-03 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the inland fisheries in Basrah province in Iraq during 2020-2021 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-02 <p>The study was aimed to update the knowledge on the fish landings of the inland fisheries in Basrah province, Iraq. The species composition, species and total landings, and their trends in six landing sites throughout the study region were evaluated during the year 2020-2021. Species compositions were included seven cyprinids’ species, three cichlids’ species, three mullet’s species, and two species from sparids and silurids. The exotic species, <em>C. carpio</em>, tilapias species and <em>C. auratus</em> dominated the landings constituting 44.2% of the total catch, whereas the highly valued native species (<em>M. sharpeyi, L. xanthopterus, C. luteus</em> and <em>A. grypus</em>) forming only 12.4% of the total catch. The total landing reached 2,427.78 t in 2020 and 2,365.15 t in 2021, and these values were higher than what was recorded during the past years since the year 2009. This is due to the prevalence of aliened species and the increase in the fishing effort, such as the numbers of fishermen and fishing boats. Therefore, in fisheries management point of view, it is essential to enhance the stocks of the native species, minimize the dispersal and impacts of some exotic species, and activate the national regulating fishing, exploitation and protection of aquatic organisms to improve the inland fisheries.</p> Abdul-Razak M. Mohamed, Abdullah N. Abood Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-02 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Value chain analysis of carp fish seed farms in some selected areas of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-01 <p>This study is an attempt to analyze the prevailing value chain of fish seed farms in some selected areas of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 280 fish seed farms owners (56) and traders (224) covering four Upazilas of Mymensingh district namely Mymensingh Sadar, Gauripur, Muktagacha, and Trishal from the period of July 2019 to October 2019 through purposive random sampling technique. Three important fish seed <br>species of carp; namely Rui, Catla, Mrigel were selected to address the following objectives: typical value chain map and marketing system of fish seed farms, determination of the net value addition of fish seed production and marketing, and problems impacting different actors in the value chain. Total net marketing margin per 10 Kg. spawn and per 100000 pieces’ fingerlings are Tk. 20204 (190.43 USD) and Tk. 43148 (406.69 USD), respectively. Among all three intermediaries, the net marketing margin of the retailer is the highest. A large percentage of value addition is covered by paiker for both cases and that is 20.85% and 31.2%. The study finds that fish seed farms with hatcheries are more profitable than fish seed farms with nursery. The yearly net return from spawn production in the hatchery is Tk. 4324775 (40763.15 USD) and from fingerling production in the nursery is Tk. 2388126 (22509.27 USD). The <br>owners and traders have currently been facing some difficulties. Lack of information about good quality seed, the higher price of inputs, and lack of extension service is some of the examples. If these problems could be solved, fish seed farms and market intermediaries could earn a higher profit than the existing level.</p> Nazia Tabassum, Dilshad Zahan Ethen, Eshrat Jahan Mahfuza, Md. Asraf Mahmud Hasif Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-01 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 RESPONSE OF WHEAT TO DIFFERENT ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/659 <p>Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. The production and productivity of wheat are greatly influenced by global warming and climate change that had created abiotic stress environments such as drought, heat stress, and saline conditions all over the world. To address the advances in the response of wheat against such climatic implications, a review was done. Abiotic stress mainly affects the morphology, phenology, and physiology of wheat. Abiotic stress induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wheat causing a reduction in root, shoot, and reproductive growth. Furthermore, abiotic stresses induce earliness in maturity by reducing days to booting, heading, and anthesis and have an impact on yield-related traits like spike length, number of grain per spike, grain weight per spike, thousand-grain weight, and ultimately reduces the grain yield.&nbsp; A proper study of these effects at the genetic and molecular level is necessary to cope with the existing yield gap in a farmer's field as compared to normal conditions. The study of wheat against such circumstances would help plant breeders to identify stress-tolerant genotypes that could significantly contribute to eradicating existing hunger and malnutrition in the world.</p> Harikala paudel, radhakrishna bhandari, shivalal nyaupane, binod panthi, anjali dhakal, muktiram poudel Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/659 Assessment of agricultural mechanization status in rice production and its challenges in the western Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-021 <p>There is a difference of 45% to 55% between the attainable yield and the potential yield of rice. This gap may be due to insufficient inputs and poor mechanization status. In this regard, agricultural mechanization is of the utmost importance to obtain satisfactory yield. This study was conducted to determine mechanization level, power per unit area, probit regression, and challenges faced by farmers to understand the mechanization status in rice cultivation. For this, 98 households in the Pyuthan municipality of Pyuthan district and 87 households in the Bhimdutta municipality of Kanchanpur district were selected using a simple random sampling method. The highest mechanization level was found in the main field tillage (90.92%), followed by threshing (85.24%), the seedbed tillage (52.42%), and irrigation (20.10%). Mechanization is lacking in transplantation, bund preparation, fertilizer application, weeding, and harvesting. Power per unit area was found to be 4.67 hp/ha. Age and family size have a negative impact while male household heads have a positive impact on mechanized tillage and threshing, both statistically significant at a 5% level. The unavailability of farm machinery and land fragmentation were the major challenges in the adoption of farm mechanization. The mechanization status in the study areas is not satisfactory, thus, the strict policy against land fragmentation, dissemination of extension services at the grass root level, and the provision of subsidies for required farm machinery could help the improvement of mechanization status in rice production in Nepal.</p> Sagar Bhandari, Sarita Bhandari, Sanat K.C., Ramita Badu, Pankaj Raj Dhital, Aditya Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-021 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical properties and shelf life of velvet apple germplasm https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-011 <p>The study was undertaken to evaluate bio-chemical properties, shelf-life determination and expansion of ripe fruits of four velvet apple germplasm. The selected germplasm were local red variety, local yellow variety, PSTU Bilati gab-1 and PSTU Bilati gab-2. Ripe fruits were collected from Germplasm Center, Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU) and different locations of Patuakhali district of Bangladesh. Results expressed that maximum TSS (13.93%), vitamin-C (3.68 mg/100g), non-reducing sugar (5.15%) and total sugar (7.95%) were recorded from PSTU Bilati gab-2, the highest TA (1.30%) was found in PSTU Bilati gab-1 but highest pulp pH (7.50) and TSS to TA ratio (11.11) were recorded from local yellow variety whereas highest reducing sugar (3.17%) was recorded from local red variety. The shelf life of ripe fruit varied from 3.25 – 4.75 days where the longest shelf life was obtained from PSTU Bilati gab-2 and the shortest shelf life was recorded in local red variety. But the storability was extended more than 27 days when stored in “Refrigerator” followed by “Non-perforated polybag (NPP)” (10 days), perforated polybag (8 days) and paper bag (6 days). The firmness of fruits were decreased gradually with days but the reduction was minimized when stored in different storage condition where more firmness hold in refrigerator treatment followed by NPP. Similarly, the weight loss was controlled in refrigerator followed by NPP treatment. The results of the experiments revealed that PSTU Bilati gab-2 provides superior chemical properties among the germplasm and ‘Refrigerator’ treatment exhibited best performance among other.</p> Md. Shaon Sharif, Mahbub Robbani, Prianka Howlader, Mohammad Zillur Rahman, Mst. Ami Begum Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-011 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Value chain analysis of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) in Dolakha district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/655 <p>Kiwifruit is one of the emerging, and high value fruit crops having tremendous nutritional and medicinal value that is being popular in Nepal. Under this context, research was done with the objective to carry out an in-depth value chain analysis of kiwifruit sub-sector in Dolakha district, Nepal. A total of 72 respondents, including 60 kiwifruit growers, 2 nursery owners, 2 wholesalers, 5 retailers and 3 consumers were selected for interview by using simple random sampling technique. Economic analysis revealed kiwifruit cultivation was running as a profitable agriculture enterprise in the district with the benefit-cost ratio value of 3.2. Additionally, kiwifruit production alone had 27.2% contribution in annual household income of growers. Five different marketing channels were observed, and majority of producers were found selling kiwifruit to consumers directly. On an average price spread was NRs. 87.4 per kg and producer's share was 73.24% in existing marketing channels. Value addition activities such as grading, packaging, and processing were relatively poor in the study area. Furthermore, indexing identified inadequate technical knowledge and lack of storage facility as the major problems associated with production and marketing of kiwifruit, respectively. The findings of this research suggests that farmers are to be focused more on quality improvement practices and concerned authorities to prioritize their support in establishing proper marketing mechanism through provision of storage structures, processing units with least possible involvement of market intermediaries would be the best course of action to enhance future production and marketing of kiwifruit in the region.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/655 First record of important biological parameters of Badis badis: A small indigenous species in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-020 <p>A total of 286 <em>Badis badis</em> were collected from the Sutiyahali Reservoir in Mymensingh from January to December 2022, and their sex ratios, first sexual maturity, length-weight relationships and condition factors were evaluated. The weight and length of <em>B. badis</em> varied from 0.81 to 1.01g (0.89±0.30) and 4.08 to 4.60cm (4.36±0.31), respectively. Logistic curves depicting a sex ratio and 50% maturity (L<sub>50</sub>) estimated at 4.5cm for females and 4.05cm for males, as well as males reaching first sexual maturity with a shorter length than females. Regression coefficients in every month differ significantly (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>), according to the regression equations. Each month, the values of the exponent b were less than 3 (b&lt;3), with the highest value of b recorded in August (2.80) and the lowest value recorded in January (2.33). This led to a monthly negative allometric growth being seen. A strong positive relationship is evident from the coefficient of determination (r<sup>2</sup>) values, which ranged from 0.92-0.98 with an average of 0.961. During the study, the average condition factor (K<sub>n</sub>) value for <em>B. badis</em> was found to be 1.02±0.13, which is a positive indicator of the fish's physical well-being. The condition factor values varied between 0.84 to 1.39, making it abundantly clear that <em>B. badis</em> are in good health and the waterbody is an ideal habitat for their survival. Relative condition factor (K<sub>r</sub>) values, which varied between studies and ranged from 0.78 to 1.01, also exhibited a noteworthy difference (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>). For its long-term management, the above findings will be very helpful.</p> Md. Rabiul Awal, Subrina Nasrin, Md. Ashikur Rahman, Md. Nahiduzzaman Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-020 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the Genetic Diversity of Rice (Oryza sativa l.) Landraces of Terai, Nepal; Implications for Conservation and Breeding Programs https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/650 <p>Landraces are an important source of novel alleles for crop improvement; their characterization provides ample information in rice breeding for developing new rice cultivars. An experiment on rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.) landraces was conducted at Agriculture Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan with an objective to assess the genetic diversity and association among yield and yield attributes. Thirty rice landraces were laid out in rod row matrix design where landraces were characterized to study their phenotypic diversity using nine quantitative traits and 15 qualitative traits. Shannon diversity index was found ranged from 0.146 to 1.410 and Simpson index ranged from 0.246 to 0.754. Grain yield was found to be significant and positively correlated with 1000 grain weight, number of seeds per panicle, and panicle length while it was found positively correlated with culm length, culm number, panicle number, length, and width of the seed. Five different clusters were made from thirty genotypes. The member of cluster I and cluster III represented 20% of genotypes that were superior, and the selection of genotype could be done from a superior cluster. The inter-cluster distance ranged from 112.768 to 553.460 which revealed wide genetic diversity between genotypes. Diversity assessment is therefore the foremost step for germplasm to utilize in rice breeding and provides valued information on developing improved rice cultivars.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/650 Factors affecting the knowledge of vegetable farmers of Chitwan and Makwanpur district over pesticide use https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-019 <p>A study was conducted in two districts of Nepal to determine the factors influencing the knowledge of vegetable farmers regarding pesticide use. The use of pesticides in agriculture is considered necessary but can pose significant risks if handled inadequately or impractically. The study collected data from 136 vegetable growers, with 68 farmers from each district, and also involved 5 agro vets from both districts using random sampling techniques. The findings indicated that only 13.23% of the farmers were found to wear full personal protective equipment (PPE), while 83.08% used partial PPE, and 3.67% applied pesticides without any protective gear. This finding was statistically significant at the 10% level. Among the different types of protective gear, masks were the most commonly used by the farmers. The majority of farmers (62.5%) reported being poisoned during pesticide mixing and spraying, with eye irritation being the most frequently reported symptom. Farm households that underwent training in pesticide usage and vegetable cultivation experienced a statistical enhancement of 20.6% in their knowledge. Moreover, farmers who were educated, had access to extension services, had long experience in pesticide usage, or had a history of poisoning in their farm household witnessed corresponding improvements of 9%, 18%, 2.1%, and 9.3% in their knowledge of pesticide use. The study urges agricultural organizations to implement training, promote literacy, offer extension services, and raise awareness to enhance farmers' knowledge and safety, contributing to sustainable agriculture and farmer well-being.</p> Anish Shakya, Nobel Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-019 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Factors affecting the knowledge acquisition of vegetable farmers of Chitwan and Makwanpur district over pesticide use https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/645 <p>Pesticides, although deemed necessary in agriculture, can pose significant risks when handled inadequately or impractically. To determine the factors influencing the knowledge acquisition of vegetable farmers regarding pesticide use, a study was conducted in two districts of Nepal. This study utilized data from 136 vegetable growers’ 68 from each district farmers and 5 agro vets from both districts utilizing random sampling techniques. Results indicated that only 13.23% of farmers wore full PPE, while 83.08% wore partial PPE, and 3.67% applied pesticides without any protective gear, a finding that was statistically significant at the 10% level. Masks were the most commonly used form of protective gear. The majority of farmers (62.5%) reported being poisoned during pesticide mixing and spraying, with eye irritation being the most frequently reported symptom. In the event that the agricultural household has received education in the usage of pesticides and vegetable cultivation, the head of the farm family is literate, the household has access to extension services, for each added year of pesticide usage, and if a member of the farm household has previously been poisoned, there is a statistically significant improvement of 20.6%, 0.9%, 4%, 0.5%, and 9.3% respectively in the farmer's knowledge acquisition. These findings may serve as a valuable guide for organizations to implement safe pest management practices and minimize negative consequences.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/645 EFFECTS OF POSTHARVEST CHEMICAL PRESERVATIVES ON SHELF LIFE AND VARIOUS PHYSIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Srijana.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/644 <p><em>The present laboratory experiment was conducted at CRD design to study the effects of different chemical preservatives on various physiochemical attributes of tomato cv Srijana at ambient conditions (27.7 <sup>0</sup> C, 83.33%). The effects of preservatives were studied on Shelf Life, Disease Infestation Days, Total Soluble Solid (TSS), Titratable Acidity (TA), pH, and Weight Loss Percentage (WLP) at 2 days intervals during the storage period. The 7 treatments used were CaCl<sub>2</sub> 2%, CaCl<sub>2</sub> 4%, GA<sub>3</sub> 1%, GA<sub>3</sub> 3%, Sodium Benzoate 1000ppm, Sodium Benzoate 2000ppm, and control in distill water each having 3 replications. Each replication was dipped in chemical preservatives for 20 minutes and kept in a polythene bag. Among the treatments, fruits treated with GA<sub>3</sub> 3% recorded the longest shelf life (31.33 days) followed by GA<sub>3</sub> 1% (27 days) and CaCl<sub>2</sub> 4% (22 days) over control (15.667 days). Disease infestation days were recorded highest for GA<sub>3</sub> 3% (32.33 days) followed by GA<sub>3</sub> 1% (28.33 days) and CaCl<sub>2</sub> 4% (23 days) over control (16.667 days). Physiological weight loss percentage at the day of data record was minimum for GA<sub>3 </sub>&nbsp;3% treated fruits and maximum for control. Similarly, TA, TSS, and pH of treated fruits show significant results over control.</em></p> Bronika Thapa Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/644 Assessing participation of women in production of large cardamom in Ilam district of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/641 <p>women are key players in agricultural production of developing nations though their impact is least emphasized. The study analyzed the role of women and challenges they confront as well as the factors affecting their participation in cardamom production. Semi structured interview with purposive 102 cardamom growers of Ilam district was conducted in 2021. The result showed that more than half percent of women had significant role in the labor force whereas 42.2% acted as helpers. Women engagement in cardamom production is limited most prior to primary processing and intercultural operations.&nbsp;Although 46.1% women were participating in various organizations, they had limited access to productive assets, technology and innovation. Women’s decision in both farm and nonfarm activities had increased to some extent. Marketing was still dominated by men. Women participation played a crucial role in care and maintenance of orchards and the quality of cardamom. Both men and women played a significant role in certain tasks however they appear to be working together in general. Work burden, age, nature of farming and farming experiences had significant impact on women participation. Agricultural awareness, technical skills and women friendly agricultural production system would be supportive for enhancing women participation in large cardamom production.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/641 Seed priming influences on yield and protein content of wheat sown at different time https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-018 <p>The aim of this field experiment conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, was to investigate the impact of different seed priming techniques and sowing dates on the yield and quality of wheat. The study aimed to identify the most effective seed priming technique and optimal sowing date to enhance wheat productivity and minimize yield reduction. The experiment employed a split plot design with two factors: seed priming techniques (no priming, hydropriming with distilled water, osmopriming with PEG, and halopriming with CaCl<sub>2</sub>) and sowing dates (November 20, December 05, and December 20). The trial was conducted from November 2019 to April 2020 at the research field. The study consisted of three replications for each treatment combination. Osmopriming exhibited the most favorable results among all priming techniques, showing significantly higher values for effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (3.91), number of grains spike<sup>-1</sup> (43.82), number of spikelets spike<sup>-1</sup> (16.16), grain yield (3.87 tons hectare<sup>-1</sup>), biological yield (6.02 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), and harvest index (39.03%). No priming condition resulted in the highest protein content (12.11%), while osmopriming had the lowest protein content (11.77%). The sowing conducted on November 20 yielded the highest number of effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (3.57), number of grains spike<sup>-1</sup> (42.49), number of spikelets spike<sup>-1</sup> (15.75), grain yield (3.71 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), biological yield (9.70 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), and lowest protein content (11.74%). Sowing on December 20 resulted in the highest protein content (12.20%). Based on the study's findings, it can be concluded that the osmopriming technique, combined with sowing on November 20, offers the most promising approach to mitigate the yield reduction of wheat. This combination demonstrated the highest grain yield (4.23 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) compared to other treatments. Therefore, farmers and agricultural practitioners are recommended to adopt the osmopriming technique with a sowing date of November 20 for optimizing wheat production and enhancing overall crop quality.</p> Ishak Hosen, Sharifunnessa Moonmoon, Afsana Hannan, Md. Najmol Hoque, Shams Shaila Islam, Shishir Kanti Talukder, Md. Shafiqul Islam, Ahmed Khairul Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-018 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 First record of induced breeding and fry production techniques of Pialy fish, Aspidoparia jaya (Hamilton, 1822) in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-017 <p>This experiment was conducted for the development of induced breeding techniques of <br /><em>Aspidoparia jaya </em>using the pituitary gland (PG) extract at the Floodplain Sub-station, BFRI, Santahar, Bogura, Bangladesh. Three breeding trials were conducted in May, June and July, 2021 where in May, none of the fish was ovulated. But breeding response was observed in June and July when we applied 8 mg (T<sub>1</sub>), 10 mg (T<sub>2</sub>) and 12 mg (T<sub>3</sub>) PG/kg body weight of female, and 5 mg (T<sub>1</sub>), 6 mg (T<sub>2</sub>) and 7 mg (T<sub>3</sub>) PG/kg body weight of male fish. Among all the treatments, significantly <em>(P&lt;0.05)</em> highest breeding performance in terms of ovulation rate (78.87±1.71%), fertilization rate (79.39±1.40%) and hatching rate (86.98±1.20%) were observed in T<sub>3</sub> treatment in the month of July when injected with single dose of 12 mg and 7 mg PG/ kg body weight of female and male, respectively. Significantly (<em>P&lt;0.05</em>) higher values of mean gonado-somatic index were observed during June, July, August, December and January for females where July (10.15±1.50%) and January (9.55±1.30%) showed the highest peaks which indicated that they might be spawn twice in a year (from May to August and from December to January). The results from the present experiment reveals that induced breeding of <em>Aspidoparia jaya</em>, using PG extract is successful which might be helpful for the large-scale seed production of this species for the aquaculture as well as to conserve the species from being extinct from the biodiversity.</p> David Rintu Das, Md. Moniruzzaman, Maliha Khanom, Mahmudul Hasan Mithun, Yahia Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-017 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Production systems and contributions of grain legumes to soil health and sustainable agriculture: A review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-024 <p>Sustainable development of agriculture is essential, and there is unanimity that diversification of the cropping systems could support sustainable production. Grain legumes are essential in farming systems in terms of food and nutrition security and income generation. Under legume-based cropping systems, these crops are a potential remedy to pest and disease issues, low nutrient supply, biodiversity protection, and food and nutrition insecurity. In this chapter, we highlight the production systems of legumes and their use in sustainable agricultural production. Specifically, we have looked at the benefits of having a legume cropping system in the agroecosystem, production, and farming systems. The function of legumes in improving the potential of crop productivity is a promising approach to tackling the challenges of poor crop yields and improvement in sustainable production. Due to health and environmental benefits, the focus should shift to breeding grain legumes that can fully express their biological nitrogen fixation and other potentials under abiotic and biotic limitations.</p> Oliver O. Okumu, Hillary M. O. Otieno, Gidraf O. Okeyo Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-024 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of fermented banana pseudo-stem sap Musa acuminata L. on the growth and yield attributing characters of marigold Karma 555-Orange in Chitwan, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/636 <p>An experiment was conducted to determine the optimum concentration of banana pseudo-stem sap (BPS) to be administered by foliar spraying to marigold var. Karma 555 – Orange and to evaluate the subsequent growth and yield of the plant from July 2022 to November 2022 in Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. The BPS was mixed and enriched with different ingredients, such as cow urine, cow dung, neem leaf, green gram leaf, pulse flour, vermin-liquor, jaggery, and fermented curd. The mixture was incubated under anaerobic conditions before administering the foliar spray. The study was carried out in a completely randomized block design, with three replications and seven treatments. The treatments were 0.5% BPS, 1% BPS, 2% BPS, 3% BPS, 4% BPS, 5% BPS, and the control. Data were recorded at 50, 70, and 90 days after transplanting (DAT). Among the treatments, the 3% BPS solution showed significant effects on most of the growth parameters: plant height (85.07 cm), plant spread (63.47 cm) at 90 DAT, and yield attributes such as the number of flowers per plant (74.00), individual flower weight (8.10 g), individual flower diameter (7.55 cm), and flower yield (597.25 g/plant). It was found that growth and yield attributes increased with increasing concentrations of BPS up to 3% and decreased thereafter. The foliar spray of marigolds with 3% BPS (enriched solution) could be an effective alternative to synthetic hormones for enhancing the growth and quality of marigolds under field conditions.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/636 Reproductive biology and gonadal cycle of Indian Potasi, Neotropius atherinoides (Bloch 1794) in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-016 <p>The present study was conducted to investigate the reproductive biology of <em>Neotropius atherinoides</em> in Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Floodplain Sub-station, Santahar, Bogura, Bangladesh. A total number of 70 fish samples were collected on monthly basis from Atrai River and Jamuna River during the period from September 2021 to August 2022. The highest mean value of the gonado-somatic index (GSI) was recorded in July (12.55±2.50), whereas the lowest was found in January (0.46±0.11). Highest individual fecundity (7000±1900) and ova diameter (0.50±0.07 mm) was also observed in July. From the histological observation of the ovary, early peri-nucleolar stage, late peri-nucleolar stage, yolk vesicle stage, yolk granule stages were identified where the highest percentage (80%) of mature oocytes were observed in July. Based on the GSI, fecundity, and gonadal histology, the breeding season of <em>N. atherinoides</em> was observed from May to August and recorded a remarkable peak in July. In case of length weight relationship (LWR), the coefficient of determination value (r<sup>2</sup>) was found 0.95 and slope was found b=1.02 which indicated the pattern of negative allometric growth of this species as <em>b&lt;3</em>. In contrast, an increase was recorded in the fecundity associated with the rise of total length, body weight, and gonad weight, showed a significant linear relationship. This study would assist in the development of induced breeding techniques and provide valuable information for the sustainable management of this population in the inland open ecosystem.</p> David Rintu Das, Mahmudul Hasan Mithun, Md. Moniruzzaman, Shishir Kumar Dey, Nasima Begum, Yahia Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-016 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Adoption of post-harvest handling practices by ginger farmers in Palpa district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/634 <p>One of Nepal's most productive and export-friendly high-value spice crops is ginger. This study was done to evaluate the post-harvest handling procedures used by farmers in the Palpa district who cultivate ginger. The study also concentrated on farmer’s main issues while implementing postharvest management procedures. Sixty-six ginger farming households from three rural municipalities-Bagnashkali, Nisdhi, Purbakhola, and Rampur municipality—were chosen. According to a poll, women made up the majority of respondents (63.6%) and were heavily involved in ginger production. About 87% of household follows primary occupation as agriculture, especially ginger farming. Due to value addition, people are attracted to ginger farming. Most people use Bhakari (60.41%) for ginger storage, resulting in serious molds (72.2%) in the study area. No, any people manufacture ginger oil from ginger products. The most trend for post-harvest practices is the value addition of ginger by making Black sutho (65.2%). There are no other washing, grading, or packaging practices at the farmer’s level, showing a poor adoption of post-harvest technology. The major adoption problem of post-harvest is encountered to be the lack of knowledge for ginger growers; resulting in more training facilities in post-harvest management. The poor performance of the adoption of postharvest technology recalls all multifaceted sectors to make efforts to settle this problem. The overall study concludes that the quality deterioration of ginger day by day is due to old traditional postharvest handling practices.</p> Bidhya Poudel Chhetri, Suraj KC, Sudip Ghimire Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/634 The menace of Tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta): Its impact and control measures by Nepalese farmers https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/633 <p><em>The multi-location study on the impact and control measures of Tuta absoluta was sought in Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Kavre, and Pokhara, Nepal- which were purposively selected due to the prominence of the pest problem in these localities. A total of 480 households engaged in tomato cultivation were selected using the simple random sampling method. The most common vegetables grown were potato, tomato, cauliflower, cabbage, onion, garlic, and pea. The majority of the interviewee (88 percent) ranked Tuta absoluta as the major insect affecting tomatoes, with 99.73% indicating that the pest impacts the flowering stage. The pest caused significant yield loss, with an average of 45.8%, and severe infestations leading to losses of up to 85 percent. The high yield loss directly results in economic damage, as it increases crop protection prices and low products in the market. The overuse of chemical pesticides has led to the disruption of integrated pest management. Farmers are using different chemical, cultural, and physical control methods to manage pests, with all respondents affected by Tuta absoluta adopting chemical and cultural methods as control measures, while biological methods were not used due to a lack of knowledge. Physical methods were used by 77.27 percent of respondents. The Tomato Leaf Miner (TLM) lure was ranked first among control measures used, followed by chemical pesticides and sanitation. The study underscores the need to raise awareness about integrated pest management strategies, including the use of biological control methods, to manage Tuta absoluta effectively and sustainably.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sudip Ghimire, Bidhya Poudel Chhetri Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/633 Ethnobotanical study of the family Marantaceae R. Br in Bangladesh Agricultural University Botanical Garden https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-015 <p>The Marantaceae family is a diverse group of plants that has drawn the interest of scientists and researchers worldwide due to their distinctive morphological characteristics, ecological and economic relevance. The Bangladesh Agricultural University Botanical Garden is home to an abundance of Marantaceae species, making it a useful resource for examining the diversity and significance of this plant family. This present study was designed to survey and document the family Marantaceae with an overview of the family emphasizing its morphological, economic, and ethnobotanical relevance based on a literature review. During the study, we found 25 species (two of which have two varieties each) belonging to 8 genera of which <em>Goeppertia</em> contributed the most species, with 16, followed by <em>Maranta</em> with 4 (including varieties) and <em>Thalia</em> with 2; the remaining 5 genera each contributed one species. Our findings reveal the remarkable diversity and significance of Marantaceae plants in this region, highlighting the necessity for their conservation and protection.</p> Most. Morsada Khatun, Md. Jahid Hasan Jone, M. Ashrafuzzaman Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-015 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Post-harvest treatment of different concentrations of gibberellic acid on the physicochemical characteristics and shelf life of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Malda) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/631 <p>The physical and chemical properties and storage life of mango were examined in an experiment to determine the impact of post-harvest gibberellic acid treatment. The study contained five treatments (0ppm, 100ppm, 200ppm, 300ppm, and 400ppm) with four replications of each on a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). For each treatment destructive and non-destructive samples were prepared, non- destructive samples were used for the observation of weight loss whereas destructive samples were used for the observation of the potential of Hydrogen (pH), fruit firmness, Titratable acidity, Total soluble solids, and TSS: TA. The fruits were evaluated at the one-day interval after the initial reading taken on the storage day and further data were recorded after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 storage days. Among all the GA<sub>3</sub> treatments, 400ppm GA<sub>3 </sub>recorded the minimum physiological weight loss, total soluble solids at their peak (20.38), maximum fruit firmness (1.875kg/cm<sup>2</sup>), maximum titratable acidity (0.1910%), maximum TSS: TA ratio (124.7) and minimum pH (6.725).) Fruits treated with a 400ppm concentration of gibberellic acid showed a maximum shelf life (12.75 days) similar to 300ppm of GA<sub>3</sub> (12 days). Maximum retardation of physicochemical changes and mango fruit shelf life prolongation was observed at 400 ppm Gibberellic acid. 400ppm concentration of gibberellic acid can be the appropriate post-harvest treatment in preserving the quality and prolonging the fruit’s ability to be stored in mango</p> Bidhya Poudel Chhetri Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/631 Production dynamics of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Surkhet district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/630 <p>The study sought to examine how potatoes are produced in Panchapuri Municipality, Surkhet, and randomly eighty farmers from the command area for analysis. The required information was obtained with the help of a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and one focus group discussion. Out of the respondents, 52.4% were male, and 47.6% were female. The study discovered that only a quarter of farmers had received training, with 37.5% having access to extension services. The majority of the respondent (90%) did not practice seed treatment during cultivation, and only 10% of respondents practiced seed treatment. Although a high-value crop, many problems were encountered during potato production and marketing. The significant problems in potato production were limited land, lack of quality seed, fertilizer, and water, disease, and pest, and monopolistic behavior of intermediaries. Major market problems were poor road infrastructure, high transportation loss, unavailability of the vehicles on time, high cost, lack of collection center and cold storage, less producer share and price fluctuation, micronutrients, cold storage, seed treatment, training and extension services, marketing channels and variety were determinants that hinder potato production and marketing. So, information and training, good road and market infrastructure, proper nutrient and irrigation management, more extension services, agricultural loans and subsidies, technical and management expertise in agricultural techniques, technical expertise in disease control, and disease-resistant improved varieties should be provided to improve production and potato marketing in this region.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sudip Ghimire, Dipak Kandel Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/630 Comparative study on the seed health of five commonly cultivated wheat varieties (Tritium aestivum) in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/629 <p>Producing profitable and sustainable food requires seeds that are free from seed-borne and seed-transmitted pathogens. Pathogens can be present in seeds, and to prevent their negative effects on germination, plant health, and yield, seeds are routinely tested and treated. The study conducted at the Central Agriculture Laboratory in Hariharbhawan, Lalitpur, aimed to identify seed-borne pathogens of wheat. Various parameters, such as germination percentage, pathogen incidence percentage, shoot length, and seedling vigor index, using the Standard Blotter Method. The study utilized a controlled environment at 24°C using a Complete Randomized Design with 4 replications and 5 treatments. Five wheat varieties (Gautam, Aaditya, Bijaya, Dhaulagiri, and NL971) were sown in petri dishes containing blotting paper wetted with sterilized distilled water to assess the incidence and severity of <em>Bipolaris sorokiniana</em>. The data obtained were tabulated in Microsoft Excel and analyzed using Gen Stat. Gautam showed the highest <em>Bipolaris</em> infection (18.25%), while NL971 showed the lowest (11.25%), followed by Bijaya, Dhaulagiri, and Aaditya. The results showed that Dhaulagiri had the highest germination (99.50%), followed by Aaditya, Bijaya, and NL971, while Gautam had the lowest (79%). Aaditya showed the highest shoot and root weight, shoot length, and seedling vigor index, while Gautam had the lowest. The study found Gautam was vulnerable to low seed health, while Aaditya and other varieties demonstrated stronger seed health and resistance to the pathogen <em>Bipolaris sorokiniana</em>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sudip Ghimire, Santoshi Neupane, Rabin Kushma Tharu Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/629 Machine learning approach to detect Land Use Land Cover (LULC) change in Chure region of Sarlahi district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-012 <p>Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) changes are major global environmental issues, affecting ecological systems, climate change, and biodiversity. The Chure region of the Sarlahi district in Nepal is a critical ecological zone that has experienced significant LULC changes in recent years. In this study, our aim was to apply a machine learning approach to detect LULC changes in the Chure region using Google Earth Engine (GEE) and the Random Forest classifier. We utilized Landsat imagery of 2007 and 2022 to generate land cover maps for each year, which were then compared to identify changes over time. The major findings of this study indicate that the forest cover in the region has increased by approximately 16% over the past 15 years, while the agriculture and built-up areas have also shown a significant increase. Conversely, the barren land and water areas have decreased. The classifier obtained an overall accuracy of 85.7% and a kappa coefficient of 81.2% for the year 2022, and an overall accuracy of 82.2% and a kappa coefficient of 76.8% for the year 2007, which demonstrates the high accuracy of the proposed approach. The use of GEE and random forest classifiers provided a cost-effective and efficient method for analysing large datasets and producing accurate LULC maps. Our findings can inform policymakers and conservationists about the need for sustainable land management practices to preserve the ecological integrity of the Chure region. The approach can be applied to other regions to monitor and manage LULC changes and support effective conservation efforts.</p> Samit Kafle, Sandeep K.C., Beeju Poudyal, Sujan Devkota Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-012 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Protected cultivation of horticultural crops in Nepal: Current practices and future needs https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-025 <p>Protected cultivation infers the cultivation under guarded conditions or we can say simply, cultivation under a modified atmosphere or man-made micro-climatic conditions such as alteration in the CO<sub>2</sub> concentration also use of different temperature levels on specific protected structures such as hoop houses, cold houses, shade houses, hot frames or hotbeds, hot-bed manures as well as high tunnels which are less costly as well and can be easily afforded by Nepalese farmers. Horticultural crops rely heavily on specific environmental conditions i.e., temperature, soil moisture, sunlight, and soil fertility. However, with climate change, weather patterns worldwide are shifting, significantly impacting horticultural crops directly and indirectly in the mid-hills as well as high-hills of Nepal. The people of the mountainous region are getting malnutrition due to the scarcity of food. By adapting the different climate-smart practices we can increase the productivity of the seasonal crop as well as the availability of off-season crops throughout the year which not only improves the malnutrition status of Nepalese people but also helps the country to lower the vulnerability towards climate change. This review highlights the common protected practices used in Nepal and their need in the future.</p> Pratikshya Lamichhane, Janak Adhikari, Anju Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-025 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Machine Learning approach to Detect Land Use Land Cover Change (LULC) in Chure Region of Sarlahi District, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/623 <p>This article presents a novel machine learning approach for detecting Land Use Land Cover (LULC) change in the Chure region of Sarlahi district, Nepal between 2007 and 2022 AD. The region has experienced significant land use changes over the past 15 years due to various anthropogenic activities. Traditional methods for monitoring LULC changes are time-consuming and require significant resources. The proposed approach utilizes high-resolution satellite imagery and machine learning algorithms Random Forest (RF) to identify and classify LULC changes in the region. We obtained an overall accuracy of 85.7% and a kappa coefficient of 81.2% for the year 2022 and an overall accuracy of 82.2% and a kappa coefficient of 76.8% for the year 2007, which indicates that the classifier performed well in accurately identifying the different LULC classes. Our results indicate that the forest cover in the region has increased by approximately 16% over the past 15 years, while the agriculture and built-up areas have also shown a significant increase. However, the barren land and water areas have decreased. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly accurate in detecting LULC changes and can provide valuable insights for policymakers and stakeholders in making informed decisions regarding sustainable land management. The approach presented in this study can be applied to other regions facing similar environmental challenges.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/623 Climate Change Effects on Agricultural Water Availability and Water Stress Incidences and Possible Strategies to Cope with the Projected Impacts https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/620 <p>Agriculture is one of the most susceptible sectors to climate change and ensuring the availability of irrigation water in the context of climate change presents a great challenge. The local climate dramatically influences the availability of water resources in semi-arid regions like India and Nepal where scheduled irrigation is significant for better productivity and is directly related to food security. This review aims to project the effects of climate change on agricultural water availability and water stress incidences and possible strategies for adoption. It was found that an increase in conflict and tension over freshwater and altered water supply-demand balance are the significant climate change consequences leading to water stress incidences with a decrease in crop water availability (CWA) and an increase in crop water demand (CWD) in arid and semi-arid regions. Improved water harvesting and the construction of micro-storage facilities in watersheds, increasing water availability and water use efficiencies, drought tolerance, and use of better-adapted crops may effectively reduce the effects of climate change on water supplies.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/620 Effect of zinc and boron on the performance of rainy season local potato variety “Sete” (Solanum tuberosum L.) at Rukumkot, Rukum East, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-010 <p>A field experiment was carried out at Rukumkot, Rukum East, Nepal during the rainy season of 2021 to study the effect of boron and zinc on vegetative growth and yield parameters of the local “Sete” variety of potato. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications, and 7 treatments i.e., control, boron @2kg/ha soil application, zinc @4.5kg/ha soil application, boron @2kg/ha + zinc @4.5kg/ha soil application, 0.1% boron spray, 0.1% zinc spray and 0.1% boron+ 0.1% zinc spray. The highest tuber yield per hill and productivity was reported in boron @2kg/ha + zinc @4.5kg/ha soil application i.e., 2888.52 grams and 27.51 ton/ha, respectively. A similar result was shown by zinc @4.5kg/ha soil application. Plant height (26.33cm, 46.57cm), number of branches (4.85, 12.02) and number of leaves per plant (30.05, 73.70) were significantly high in boron @2kg/ha + zinc @4.5kg/ha soil application at both 45 DAP (days after planting) and 60DAP. Soil application of only boron, only zinc and boron + zinc increased the total yield of tubers by 10.23%, 24.66% and 25.66%, respectively over the control. The foliar application of only boron, only zinc and boron + zinc increased the total yield of tubers by 4.22%, 2.07% and 12.37%, respectively over the control. Hence, research suggested combined soil application of zinc and boron at the rate of 4.5kg/ha and 2kg/ha, respectively over the foliar cum solitary application of micronutrients for increasing number of medium and large sized tubers and get an overall high yield of potato.</p> Dhaniraj Kohar, Akash Gupta, Prem Prasad Siwakoti, Sandeep Gouli, Prajwol Shrestha, Rajan Sah Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-010 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of potato cyst (Globodera spp.) nematode and potato root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematode in Kenya and potential management strategies: A review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-023 <p>Nematodes are very diverse and could be free-living or plant parasite species. Amongst the existing categories, the most aggressive ones are the root lesion nematode (<em>Pratylenchus spp.</em>), root-knot nematode (<em>Meloidogyne spp.</em>), and cyst nematode (<em>Globodera spp.</em>). These categories affect over 2000 susceptible crop species causing varying yield losses, reaching 100% under heavy infestations in potatoes. The common root-knot nematode and cyst nematode hosts include tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em>), African eggplant (<em>Solanum aethiopicum</em>), eggplant (<em>Solanum melongena</em>), and other solanaceous plants, including <em>Physalis spp.,</em> <em>Datura spp.,</em> <em>Hyoscyamus spp.,</em> <em>Physocla</em>ina spp., <em>Salpiglossis</em> spp., and <em>Saracha</em> spp. These nematodes are disseminated mainly through irrigation water, rainfall runoffs, infested soil particles, commercial seed potato tubers, contaminated footwear, animal hooves, farm implements, and machinery. Effective control of nematodes requires farmers to practice integrated nematode management systems with a combination of at least two management practices. Several cultural and agronomic practices have shown some decent levels of efficacy, thus recommended for adoption. Timely application of these practices is critical for achieving better outcomes. Among the management strategies, applying nematicides is the most effective in the short term. It is important to be cautious when using these chemicals, as they pose significant risks to humans and the environment. Again, these products are costly, especially those within moderate to low toxicity, making them unsustainable and out of reach for most small-scale farmers.</p> Hillary Otieno Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-023 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Alternative fertilization approaches in enhancing crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency: A review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-022 <p>The greatest challenge of our time is to meet the global food demand by producing enough food without harming the environment. Over application and misuse of synthetic fertilizer is a major challenge that results in lower fertilizer use efficiency (FUE), stagnated crop yield, and environmental pollution. In this review study, three alternative fertilization options (AFOs), such as the use of organic fertilizer enhanced-efficiency fertilizer (EEFs), and secondary, and micronutrient fertilizers were evaluated. The adoption of appropriate fertilization practices was believed to improve crop yield and FUE over the conventional fertilization approach. As of late, the use of organic fertilizers has received more attention as a better alternative to counter the challenges posed by the inappropriate use of chemical fertilizers. The formulation of slow or controlled-release fertilizers contributes to preventing nutrient losses by slowing down nutrient release patterns in the soil and allowing better synchrony between crop nutrients requirement and nutrient supply. The use of secondary macronutrients and micronutrient also has considerable importance to improve nutrient uptake, grain yield, and quality. In summary, the review result showed that the adoption of AFOs can enhance crop yield and nutrient use efficiency.</p> Solomon Yokamo, Amani Stephen Milinga, Buana Suefo Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-022 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of different weed management practices on production of spring maize in Dang, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-09 <p>The study was carried out at Lamahi-8, Satbariya, Dang to evaluate the effect of different weed management practices on the production of spring maize. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design using three replications and seven treatments. Rampur hybrid 10 variety and early post emergence (EPoE) herbicide were used in the experiment. The treatment consisted of single as well as combined weed management methods as T<sub>1</sub>: Broadcasting-One hand weeding, T<sub>2</sub>: Broadcasting-Herbicide, T<sub>3</sub>: Line sown- One hand weeding, T<sub>4</sub>: Line sown-Herbicide + one hand weeding, T<sub>5</sub>: Line sown- Mini tiller weeder, T<sub>6</sub>: Line sown- herbicide + mini tiller and T<sub>7</sub>: Line sown- One hand weeding + mini tiller. The experiment result showed that the combined application of early post emergence herbicide and mini tiller resulted the highest grain yield (8.62 Mt/ha) with minimum total weed density at 60 DAS (41.33/m<sup>2</sup>) and at harvest (68/m<sup>2</sup>) thus resulting minimum weed dry weight at 60 DAS (5.45 g/m<sup>2</sup>) and at harvest (10.64 g/m<sup>2</sup>). Sixteen different weed species belonging to 9 different families were identified in the experimental field. The highest benefit: cost (3.37) was obtained in the treatment Line sown-Herbicide + mini tiller weeder which was significantly higher compared to other treatments. Among the treatments applied, one with the application of herbicide in combination with mini tiller weeder was found to be the most effective one that resulted in the minimum weed density and minimum dry weight, higher grain and biological yield with the highest benefit cost ratio thus proving to be the most economical one. At the same time, application of mini tiller weeder as a single method was found to be the next better alternative for weed control in spring maize that could benefit the farmers in comparison to other single weed management practices.</p> Dikshya Bist, Kajol Somai, Sushrita Acharya, Prajwal Acharya, Seema Adhikari, Ujjal Tiwari, Mahesh Regmi Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-09 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A review of current water governance in Bangladesh: A Case study on administrative and performance of water policy https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/613 <p>Being a riverine country with a huge population, Bangladesh is facing numerous problems in water governance. Bangladesh is facing unprecedented water pollution, water-borne diseases, river sedimentation, water scarcity in the dry season, flooding in monsoons, and discharging wastewater into the rivers. Most of the southern part is affected by salinity. Groundwater Arsenic contamination has reached the worst level in the world. Ninety-seven percent of the population in the country uses groundwater for drinking and domestic purposes as surface water is mismanaged. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to highlight Bangladesh's water governance current preview and its challenges.</p> Faisal Ahmed, Mr. Abdul Kadir Ibne Kamal, Hossain Idrish Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/613 Productivity of strawberry as influenced by mulch materials and gibberellin under net house condition https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-08 <p>Plant growth regulators in combination with mulch materials have been shown to regulate physiological processes related to plant growth and development. The experiment was conducted to investigate the responses of different mulch materials and GA<sub>3</sub> on plant morphological, physiological and yield attributes of strawberries during the period from November 2020 to March 2021. The experimental treatments included three different mulch materials: black polythene, white polythene, saw dust, and control (no mulch); and GA<sub>3</sub> (0 and 200 ppm) were studied. According to the findings, strawberries grown with sawdust and GA<sub>3</sub> had the highest chlorophyll content (SPAD value) (48.23), relative water content (76.45%), leaf area (48.23 cm<sup>2</sup>), maximum number of fruits (19.66) and fruit yield (321 g/plant). In contrast, individual fruit weight (18g) was the highest for plants grown in sawdust without GA<sub>3</sub>. Black polythene mulch showed no satisfactory improvement in the growth and yield characteristics of strawberry plants. Therefore, sawdust based mulching and GA<sub>3</sub> may be recommended to obtain better strawberry growth and yield.</p> Shahjahan Ali, Nazrul Islam, Shormin Choudhury Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-08 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of different processing methods on functional and physiochemical properties of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) rhizome Var. Kapurkot Haledo-1 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-01 <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of different processing methods on the functional and phytochemical properties of turmeric rhizomes. The experiment consisted of four treatments: Treatment 1 involved oven-drying the turmeric powder, Treatment 2 involved blanching followed by oven-drying, Treatment 3 involved cooking followed by oven-drying, and Treatment 4 involved sun-drying. Each treatment was replicated four times. The major findings of the study revealed that sun-drying (68.50%) and blanching/oven-drying (66.50%) positively influenced the dispersibility of turmeric powder. Blanching/oven-drying (0.32 g/ml) and cooking/oven-drying (0.30 g/ml) significantly improved the bulk density of turmeric powder (p&lt;0.001), with no significant difference observed between these two treatments. The water absorption capacity of the turmeric powders ranged from 3.35 to 5.35 g/ml, with the sun-dried sample displaying the lowest capacity and the cooked/oven-dried sample demonstrating the highest capacity. Similarly, sun-dried powder exhibited the lowest swelling power and solubility, while heat treatment resulted in a substantial increase in both of these parameters. Additionally, the curcumin content was found to be highest in the cooked/oven-dried (3.11%) and sun-dried (2.99%) turmeric powder. In conclusion, this study suggests that blanching and cooking methods have wide applicability in the food industry to enhance the bulkiness of turmeric powder for appropriate packaging and handling. Moreover, these methods contribute to the characteristic flavor and aroma of turmeric. The findings emphasize the importance of considering different processing techniques for optimizing the functional and phytochemical properties of turmeric, thus enabling its effective utilization in various food applications.</p> Govinda Dhami, Satish Paudel, Saroj Sapkota Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-03-01 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Freshwater icthyo-faunal checklist of Roktodaho Beel in Bangladesh: Threats and conservation https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-06 <p>A checklist of the native fishes of the Roktodaho <em>beel</em> of Adamdighi and Raninagar Upazila under the Bogura and Naogaon districts of Bangladesh, where data were collected monthly by field survey, focus group discussions, and personal interviews by using a semi-structured questionnaire and a pictorial check list of fish species from a professional fishing boat caught by different nets, traps, and hooks from July 2021 to June 2022. A total of 36 species under 8 orders belonging to 19 families were recorded, of which 29%, 28%, 25%, and 8% were available, seasonal, rare, and very rare, respectively. Among those, 8 fish species (22.22%) were in the threatened category (1 critically endangered, 2 endangered, and 5 vulnerable), according to the IUCN Bangladesh. Notably, the globally threatened <em>Channa orientalis </em>and<em> Wallago attu </em>were available in the study area. According to their place of residence, 24 (66.67%) of the fish were floodplain residents except <em>Glossogobius giuris,</em> which is a mixed residence (reverine, estuarine, and floodplain) species. This residence status of fish indicates that the species have chosen their ideal environment. Dewatering, <em>katha</em> fishing, and the use of unlicensed technology were the main dangers. Creating and maintaining fish sanctuaries, reducing human effects, passing fishing regulations, and increasing consciousness may all help to preserve the current supply of fish. Strategies for restoration must be performed in the Roktodaho <em>beel</em> to preserve the fish range.</p> David Rintu Das, Nasima Begum, Md. Moniruzzaman, Ehsanul Karim, Yahia Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-06 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Socio-Economics of Rice Grain and Seed Production in Kanchanpur, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/607 <p>Rice is the number-one staple crop in Nepal. However, its production economics may differ when it is grown as grain for immediate consumption or as seed for further planting. Therefore, a study was conducted to compare the input use, productivity, and profitability of rice seed and grain production in the Kanchanpur district of Nepal. Altogether 94 samples were taken: 30 from rice seed growers and 64 from rice grain growers. Selected households were interviewed with a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS and MS Excel. The study showed that the productivity of rice as a seed crop (4.73 ± 0 t/ha) was found to be significantly higher than grain production (3.72 ± 0 t/ha), as well as that the benefit/cost ratio (BCR) of seed production (1.71) was much higher than that of rice grain production (1.23). When it comes to the use of the inputs, the majority of respondents who were rice seed producers employed herbicide to control weeds, insecticide to control insects, a mechanical mode of harvesting, and burning the stubble in the field. The major production constraint was found to be the unavailability of quality inputs (I = 0.76), and the major marketing bottleneck was found to be the unavailability of processing units (I = 0.71). This research suggests that input requirements and some agronomic management practices differ between rice seed and grain growers. Further, the productivity and profitability of seed production are higher than grain production in rice.&nbsp;</p> Ramesh Prasad Bhatt Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/607 Blast resistance (Pi54) introgression in temperate rice (Oryza sativa L.) K343 using marker assisted backcrossing https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-09 <p>In hill rice ecologies, <em>Magnaporthe oryzae</em> causes rice blasts and a significant biotic constraint. The study was aimed to develop rice blast-resistant lines/varieties through marker-assisted selection (MAS) by using the <em>Pi54</em> gene, which provides resistance against the most prominent blast fungus isolate (PLP-1). The blast resistance gene <em>Pi54</em> from the <em>indica</em> rice genotype DHMAS has been inserted into the genetic makeup of the temperate rice variety K343 in the current study. Three SSR markers (TRS26, TRS33, and RM206) are closely linked to the <em>Pi54 </em>locus used in this study. Marker RM206, located 0.7cM from the <em>Pi54 </em>gene, distinguished between donor and recipient alleles and co-segregated with the target gene. Thus, RM206 is used for <em>Pi54</em> gene foreground selection. Sixty-one plants have the homozygous allele for the <em>Pi54</em> in BC<sub>1</sub>F<sub>2</sub>, accounting for roughly 50% of the homozygous population. Polymorphic genome-wide SSR assessment of the BC<sub>1</sub>F<sub>2</sub> genetic stock (K343*2/DHMAS) revealed recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery above 75% in 4 plants. Therefore, <em>M. oryzae</em> race PLP-1, the dominant race used in this study, showed high resistance to the resistant response after inoculation.</p> Sharmishta Hangloo, Gazi Muhammad Abdullah Mahdi, Manmohan Sharma, Romesh Kumar Salgotra, Deepika Sharma, Rohini Bhat Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-09 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Spot blotch disease resistance and heat stress tolerance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-04 <p>Spot blotch caused by <em>Bipolaris sorokiniana</em> is a major disease of wheat in warm and humid regions of Nepal. The fungus has a worldwide distribution but as a pathogen, it is the most aggressive under the conditions of high relative humidity and temperature associated with the low fertility of soils in Nepal. The yield loss due to the disease is very significant in Nepal. This experiment was conducted to identify the genotypes having a good level of resistance against spot blotch. Canopy temperature measurements using infrared thermometry, to assess variation in foliar blight resistance along with heat tolerance as an integrative selection criterion. The experiment set was comprising 52 genotypes and arranged in alpha lattice design with two replications in 2017/-2018 Directorate of agricultural research center, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal. Each plot size was 8 rows of 3 meters long. Three times disease scoring was done in Flag leaf, and Penultimate leaf method and calculated the Area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). Other data were analyzed by using R software (4.2.2). Canopy temperature, heading days, days to maturity, plant height, number of grains per spike (NGPS), number of tillers per meter square (NTPM), thousand-grain weight (TGW), and grain yield were found highly significant. The genotype 32 was found the highest yielder (5141 kg/ha) and canopy temperature 16.5<sup>0</sup> C with a 279; 610 F; F-1AUDPC, respectively.</p> Roshan Basnet, Laxman Aryal, Biswash Raj Bastola Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-04 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Brewery Spent Grain (BSG) included poultry diet on growth performance and meat quality of New Hampshire chicken https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-03 <p>An experiment was conducted to evaluate the inclusion effects of Dried Brewery Spent Grain (DBSG) to know its effect on growth performance and meat quality on poultry. Completely randomized design was used to compare the treatments in five replications. The treatments used were 15% DBSG (T1), 20% DBSG (T2), 25% DBSG (T3), Commercial feed (T4) and (0% DBSG) scavenging bird was used as a control. Each treatment contained 10 birds including 200 chickens in the whole investigation. The major factors body weight, carcasses and organs weight, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and calcium were evaluated. Results showed that mean body weight of the experimental bird after 60 days was not significantly different (p&gt;0.05) among the dietary treatments, i.e., T1 (781.46 g), T2 (738.36 g), T3 (728.91 g) and T4 (753.38 g). Carcass, breast muscle, thigh, wing, shank, liver and spleen were not significantly different (p&gt;0.05) in weight between DBSG included diet and commercial feed. However, dressing percentage (59.3%) of T4 and gizzard (43.20 gm.) in T3 was significantly higher than other treatments. The significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) amount of cholesterol found in T4 (312.01 mg/dl) followed by control diet (239.46 mg/dl), both of which were above than reference range (129-297 mg/dl). However, in other treatments i.e., T1, T2 and T3, the cholesterol content was in between the reference range. Similarly, same level (p&gt;0.05) of total protein, albumin and calcium content in blood serum observed in BSG included diet and commercial diet. Hence, 15% to 20% inclusion of BSG could be the optimum level in diets of New Hampshire chickens.</p> Luma Nidhi Pandey, Riddi Shrestha, Sarad K.C., Purna Bhadra Chapagain, Raju Kadel Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-03 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of mulch on yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-02 <p>Weeds are the most important biotic constraints to groundnut production in Nepal. They hinder the plant growth and increase the cost of production. A field based study was conducted from June, 2022 to December, 2022 at Oilseed Research Program, Sarlahi, Nepal to study the effect of mulch on the productivity of groundnut. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 7 treatments viz., rice husk, rice straw, black polythene sheet, <em>Lantana camara,</em> living mulch, sawdust and control in three replications. The fertilizer dose used for groundnut was 20:40:20 NPK kg per hectare. The pod yield in rice husk mulch and living mulch treatments were significantly higher (2.07 and 1.84 tons per hectare, respectively) whereas the lowest yield (0.83 tons/hectare) was observed in plot with no treatment). Lower weed infestation with weed biomass 0.046 tons/ha for narrow leaf weeds and 0.021 tons/ha for broad leaf weeds was observed in <em>L. camara</em> mulching.&nbsp; Rice husk mulching produced significantly higher number of pods (29 pods per plant) with the highest benefit cost ratio (1.15) whereas black polythene mulching produced lower number of pods (23 pods per plant) with lowest benefit cost ratio (-0.33). Conclusively, the study's finding suggests that rice husk can be used as a mulching material to increase the productivity of groundnut.</p> Sovika Bhattarai, Pramod Wagle, Biplov Dahal, Kalpana Jaggi Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-02 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Climate Trend and Farmers’ Perception to Climate Change and Variability in Hadero Tunto District, Southern Ethiopia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/601 <p><em>Currently, climate change and variability are a hot issue, and more attention needs to be paid to their impact on Ethiopia. Farmers’ perception plays a big role for successful implementation of adaptation strategies to reduce climate change impacts. The main objective of this study was to assess climate trend and farmers’ perception in Hadero Tunto district, Kembata Tembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia. To determine historical climate trends, 30 years of rainfall and temperature data were obtained from the Hawassa branch of the Ethiopian National Meteorological Service, and trend analysis was performed. The multistage sampling technique was used to select 150 farm households to be surveyed. The modified Mann–Kendall and Sen’s slope estimator trend tests were applied to detect the statistical significance of the trend as well as the magnitude in the time series data. The historical average annual maximum and minimum temperatures both showed a significant upward trend. Historical annual rainfall shows a negligible downward trend over the period 1987-2016. This trend of rising temperatures and changing rainfall threatens the agriculture of smallholders, who are already limited by access to basic equipment and land use challenges. The descriptive result revealed that most of the people perceived long-term variability in pattern of rainfall amount and distribution and an increasing trend and variability of temperature. Based on these results, the study recommends that agricultural extension services be enhanced to sensitize the farmers about climate change thus improving their perception. Further, studies at a larger scale to illustrate the associations between farmers’ perceptions of climate change with meteorological data to figure out the risk of climate change are also critical</em>.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/601 Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change: Evidence from Rural Communities in Wenchi Municipality, Ghana https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/600 <p>This paper assessed farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change in Wenchi municipality of Ghana. The qualitative research methodology was used in the study. The target population was made up of household farmers in six selected communities and officials of MoFA and GMA. Questionnaires and structured interview guides were used to collect the datasets and administration was done through face-to-face interactions. Descriptive statistics were used to organize and interpret the data obtained. The data were analyzed thematically based on the objectives of the study. The major rainfall changes reported by respondents include the shortening of the planting season, reduction in rainfall amounts, extreme dry spells, heavy rainfall, erratic rainfall pattern, and late-onset and early cessation of rainfall. Temperature changes observed by respondents also include increased daytime temperatures and nighttime temperatures. The respondents agreed that temperatures and rainfall changes had negatively affected crop yields. Farmers have resorted to mixed cropping, planting of early maturing crop varieties, adjusting planting dates, irrigation farming, and soil-water conservation practices as their effective adaptation strategies. However, the study recommends that to sustain crop production over the long run in the municipality, better irrigation facilities be provided to Wenchi municipality and weather forecasts for the upcoming cropping season should be provided to farmers so that they can make informed adaptation decisions. In addition, adequate financial resources and extension services should be provided to farmers to assist them in purchasing agricultural machinery, agrochemicals, and other agricultural inputs to sustain and boost crop production in the municipality.</p> Jacob Kwakye Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/600 EFFECTS OF POSTHARVEST CHEMICAL PRESERVATIVES ON SHELF LIFE AND VARIOUS PHYSIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Srijana) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/599 <p><em>The present laboratory experiment was conducted at CRD design to study about the effects different chemical preservatives on various physiochemical attributes of tomato cv. srijana at ambient condition (27.7 <sup>0</sup> C, 83.33%). The effects of preservatives were studied on Shelf Life, Disease Infestation Days, Total Soluble Solid (TSS), Titratable Acidity (TA), pH and Weight Loss Percentage (WLP) at 2 days interval during storage period. The 7 treatments used were CaCl2 2%, CaCl2 4%, GA3 1%, GA3 3%, Sodium Benzoate 1000ppm, Sodium Benzoate 2000ppm and a control in distill water each having 3 replications. Each replication was dipped in chemical preservatives for 20 minute and kept in polythene bag. Among the treatments, fruits treated with GA3 3% recorded longest shelf life (31.33 days) followed by GA3 1% (27 days) and CaCl2 4% (22 days) over control (15.667 days). Disease infestation days recorded highest for GA3 3% (32.33days) followed by GA3 1% (28.33 days) and CaCl2 4% (23 days) over control (16.667 days). Physiological weight loss percentage at the day of data record was minimum for GA3 3% treated fruits and maximum for control. Similarly, TA, TSS and pH of treated fruits shows significant results over control.</em></p> Bronika Thapa, Mahesh K.C, Yubaraj Sharma, Purnima BC, Shirish Ghimire Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/599 CITRUS GREENING: A MAJOR THREAT TO CITRUS GROWERS IN NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/598 <p>Citrus is the high value horticultural crop belonging to family Rutaceae contributing 27.27% of the total fruit area in Nepal. In recent years, citrus decline is the multi faceted issue for most of the citrus growers with abated production and productivity. Among the various causes of citrus decline, citrus greening is considered as the most devastating, rapidly expanding and highly incurable disease which wreaked havoc to the citrus industry across the whole globe. Citrus psylla is the major insect vector to spread this malady worldwide. There are still lacking the proper strategies to cope with the impact of citrus greening. However, integrated pest management strategies could be adopted in Nepal like use of tolerant rootstocks, proper quarantine system, guava intercropping, nutrient management, use of yellow sticky traps and vector control methods to reduce the greening infestation in citrus trees. This study aims to review all the relevant information regarding citrus greening, its causes, symptoms, diagnosis and management practices which plays the crucial for the citrus growers.</p> Srijana Pandey Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/598 Characterization and selection of thin-shelled walnut (Juglans regia L.) genotypes of Mustang, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-013 <p>Walnut (<em>Juglans regia</em> L.) of seedling origin creates large variability within this crop. A research study was carried out at Directorate of Agricultural Research, Lumle, Kaski and Marpha, Mustang to characterize and deciphers the variability of thin-shelled walnut for further selection, conservation and variety registration. Walnut orchard of Mustang district was surveyed in March, 2018 and 50 walnut trees were labeled according to its flowering and flushing time. 36 accessions of thin-shelled walnut were characterized on 17 different parameters regarding growth habit, bearing habit, fruit and kernel characteristics. Around 88.89% trees exhibited terminal fruiting habit and remaining showed lateral fruiting habit. Three type of tree shape was noticed as spreading round, semi-erect and erect. Huge variation in nut shape was observed having 50% trees were with circular nuts. Four types of shell strength was recorded; 11.11% accessions having papery shell, 27.78% having weak shell, 47.22% having intermediate shell and 13.88 having strong shell strength. Average nut yield of trees ranged from 15-75 kg with an average of 26.67 kg. Nut weighted from 5.96-18.99 g with an average of 11.14 g. Kernel weight ranged from 2.8-8.92 g. More than 50% shelling was recorded in 13 accessions. The kernel quality of 14 accessions (out of 36) showed 5 rank (Excellent quality); and remaining 22 accessions showed 4 rank (Good quality). Based on this characterization, 13 accessions were selected and recommended for further multiplication and variety registration.</p> Asmita Khanal, Sandip Timilsina, Tul Bahadur Poon, Balkrishna Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-013 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Artificial propagation of Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Asia: A review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-014 <p><em>Clarias batrachus</em> (Linnaeus, 1758) is a popular food fish of Indian sub-continent due to its high nutritional value. Earlier many workers have carried out studies on feeding and breeding biology of this fish species but convulsive information on the same is not available. So, a survey of published literatures on the induced breeding of <em>C. batrachus</em> has been carried out to consolidate the available information. Environmental factors play an important role in regulating reproduction in fishes. Pituitary gland extract, HCG and synthetic hormones <em>viz.,</em> ovaprim and ova tide are successfully being tested for the induced breeding of fishes by various researchers under different climatic conditions, with varying degree of success. Chasm of information has been pointed out for further study mainly on age group wise variation in food preference and correlation of breeding periodicity with hydrological parameters and photoperiod.</p> Abu Bakker Siddique Khan, Mousumi Akhter, Sunanda Rani Modak Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-014 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 RICE EAR HEAD BUG (Leptocorisa acuta Thumb.) MANAGEMENT: USING CHEMICAL INSECTICIDE IN BANIYANI, JHAPA, NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/595 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A field experiment was conducted at the Rice Super zone, Baniyani Jhapa, Nepal for the evaluation of different commercial insecticides against rice ear head bug (<em>Leptocorisa acuta</em> <em>Thumb.</em>) during spring season from January 2022 to June 2022. The variety Chaite-2 was used for the study and experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design(RCBD) with three replications and 7 treatments viz. imidacloprid 17.8 SL@ 25g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup>, thiamethoxam 25% WG@ 25g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> , lambda cyhalothrin 5%EC@ 250g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup>, buprofezin15% + acephate 35% WP@ 750g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup>,profenophos40%+ cypermethrin 4% EC@ 660g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup>, chloropyriphos50% + cypermethrin 5% EC@ 425g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> including untreated control. Lambda cyhalothrin 5%EC was found to be superior over rest of the treatments after first spray by recording lowest ear head bug population (11.2±1.97) and it was at par with imidacloprid 17.8% SL (13.7±1.01). Similarly, after second spray significantly lowest bug population was found in lambda cyhalothrin 5%EC (6.3±0.44) which was statistically similar with imidacloprid 17.8% SL (6.3±1.59). Lambdacyhalothrin 5%EC (2.9±0.58) recorded minimum grain fleck percentage followed by buprofezin15% + acephate 35% WP (4.4±0.56). Moreover, the grain yield was highest in lambdacyhalothrin 5%EC (5.23±0.08 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) treated plots followed by thiamethoxam 25% WG (5.17±0.23 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) treated plots.</p> Sabina Dhimal Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/595 Blast disease a major threat to food security: A review of pathogen and strategies to control https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/593 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Rice (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Oryza Sativa</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">) is an important staple food that is responsible to feed more than 50% of the world’s population. Its major disease is Rice blast which is the most destructive disease worldwide. The objective of this review is to know about the rice blast pathogen, its disease cycle, symptoms, epidemiology, and management strategies. Rice blast affects yield loss up to 80% under favorable conditions and it is caused by the fungi of group Ascomycota, </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Magnaporthe oryzae </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">(Anamorphic- </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Pyricularia oryzae). </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Rice blasts affect the aboveground tissue of the plant at any growth stage, from seedling to the heading stage, causing total crop failure. Pathogens produce lesions on different plant parts affecting the leaf, collar, neck, panicle, and even the glumes whose severity highly depends on varietal resistance and environmental condition. The low night temperature (15-20 °C), high relative humidity (93-99%), and cloudy weather favor conidia germination, sporulation, and infection. Considering the impact of this disease on rice production, different control strategies have been used cultural, botanical, nutrient management, biotechnological, and chemical methods.</span></p> Shraddha Timsina Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/593 Use of poultry manure in organic farming system: A review of potential human and environmental health risks that must be mitigated https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/592 <p>Poultry manure has great potential to reduce overdependence on inorganic fertilizers for crop production among resource-constrained farming communities. However, its use on a large scale could possess short- and long-term risks. These risks fall into three main categories, namely human and other livestock, crop health, and environmental.</p> <p>This review research presented the potential value of chicken manure in soil health and food security stability. The research also presented the critical risks likely to hinder the large-scale use of poultry manure. Finally, this research has intensively presented scientifically-proven strategies that could be adapted and adopted to help mitigate the current risks. Active government involvement through formulating and enacting appropriate policies and laws provides the first step in risk mitigation. Other practices, such as manure treatment and the adoption of better agronomic practices, are essential and have proved to be critical for the safe use of poultry manure.</p> <p>Poultry manure has excellent potential to reduce overdependence on inorganic fertilizers. To do this effectively, appropriate policies and laws should be enacted to encourage the use of safe products in the poultry sector, proper manure collection, and treatment and use. Farmers should choose and apply manure within the best agronomic principles.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/592 EFFECT OF GROWING MEDIA ON DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF TOMATO (lycopersicum esculentum ) SEEDLINGS. https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/591 <p>The research was conducted in the Baglung district of Nepal from June to July 2020 in a polytunnel to evaluate the effect of growing media on different varieties of tomato (<em>lycopersicum esculentum</em>) seedlings<strong>. </strong>The experiment was carried out in a Two Factorial Completely Randomized Design (Factorial CRD) where one factor was a variety and the other was a growing media with twelve treatments and three replications. The growing media used were cocopeat, vermicompost, and soil mixed with soil in a ratio of 1:1 whereas, the tomato varieties used were Nova Dana, Srijana, Samjhana, and Win Sari. Tomato seedlings on the 16<sup>th</sup>, 21<sup>st</sup>, and 26<sup>th</sup> days after sowing were used for observation. The result showed a significant effect of treatments on germination percentage, plant diameter, plant height, root length, number of leaves, and root-to-shoot length ratio. The experiment showed that the germination percentage was significantly higher in the combination of cocopeat and Nova (97.22%) whereas, the lowest germination percentage (23.61%) was observed in both combinations of soil and Samjhana, and soil and Srijana. Similarly, higher plant height, root length, no. of leaves, and root-to-shoot length ratio were observed in the combination of cocopeat and Nova. The lowest plant height, root length, and no. of leaves were observed in the combination of soil and Samjhana. Hence, the combination of cocopeat and Nova &nbsp;as found as optimum growing media and variety to produce tomato seedlings.</p> Able Shrestha, Sujan Paudel, Koshraj Upadhyay Upadhyay Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/591 A review on blast of rice: disease cycle of a pathogen, symptoms, epidemiology, and management strategies. https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/590 <p>Rice <em>(Oryza Sativa</em>) is an important staple food that feeds more than 50% of the world’s population and has been contributing 23% of the food calories to the world. Production of rice has been harshly affected by various biotic and abiotic factors. Among them, the Rice blast is the most disastrous leading to potential yield loss ranging up to 80% under favorable conditions. Rice blast caused by fungi of group ascomycota, <em>Magnaporthe oryzae</em> (Anamorphic- <em>Pyricularia</em> <em>oryzae</em>), affect the plant of all growth stages, seedling to heading stage. Symptom of the blast is seen on different part of the rice plant, i.e leaf, collar, neck, panicle, and even in the glumes. The losses from the disease annually were estimated to feed over 60 million individuals. The low night temperature (15-20 °C), high relative humidity (93-99%), and cloudy weather favor conidia germination, sporulation, and infection. Hence, this article portrays wholesome tactics and management measures including cultural, botanical, nutrient management, biotechnological, and chemical methods which have been a boon to managing the blast diseases along with their impact. The best control strategies along with the pathogen its biology, disease cycle, epidemiology, and symptoms of the disease have been accessed and compiled in this paper.</p> Shraddha Timsina Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/590 Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield, and soil nutrient status in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Arka Anamika) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-08 <p>Okra (<em>Abelmoschus esculentus</em> cv. Arka Anamika) is one of the most widely grown vegetable crops in the tropics during the spring, summer, and Kharif seasons. One of the major constraints of low productivity of okra and soil deterioration is due to the inappropriate and sole use of synthetic fertilizer. So, to address the yield gap, an experiment was conducted in Gokuleshwor, Baitadi Nepal from 23<sup>rd</sup> March to 15<sup>th</sup> July 2021 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management (INM) on growth, and yield and soil nutrient status in okra". The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 8 treatments and 3 replication T<sub>8</sub> gave maximum plant height (37.21 cm), stem diameter (4.04 cm), numbers of leaves (14.33), and a number of pods (8.07) and minimum plant height (23.18 cm) and a number of leaves (9.00) were observed in T<sub>3 </sub>whereas minimum steam diameter (2.87cm) a and number of pods (2.87) were observed in T<sub>6. </sub>It was observed that treatment T<sub>8</sub> produced a maximum yield (2.10 kg) and treatment T<sub>3</sub> produces the minimum yield (1.24 kg). Highest post-harvest available nitrogen (0.1167%), phosphorus (85.20 kg/ha), potassium (229.61 kg/ha), organic matter (2.31%) and pH (6.25) was found in treatment T<sub>8</sub>. This study suggests integrating vermicompost and synthetic fertilizer as a potential source for better growth, and high yield of okra thus more experiments on dosage optimization and SSNM should be focused onwards for long term sustainability.</p> Saraddha Khasu Magar, Bimala Poudel, Roshni Dhungana, Sara Rawal, Sandesh Thapa, Khuma Kumari Bhusal, Santoshi Malla Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-08 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Different Rates of Farmyard Manure application on productivity of Irish Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) at Southern Oromia, Ethiopia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/587 <p><em>The field experiments were conducted during the two successive winter seasons to study the response of potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) by the application of organic FYM rates on growth, yield and yield components and to identify their economically appropriate rates that maximize yield of Irish potato. The experiment was arranged in four level of farmyard manure (0, 3, 6 and 10 tons ha<sup>-1</sup>) in one way Anova with blocking of RCBD with 3 replications. The result of the experiment indicated that main effect of FYM significantly (P&lt;0.05) influenced most growth and yield and yield related parameters except, on days to emergency, flowering and unmarketable yield. Application of farmyard manure improved the productivity of potato plants and it was increased with increasing of the rate of farmyard manure levels up to 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> in both seasons. The highest plant height (65.43 cm) was obtained at 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> FYM, while the lowest plant height (37.00 cm) was recorded at control treatment. </em><em>The maximum stem number per plant (8.5) was recorded at 10 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>FYM, while the minimum (3) was recorded at control treatment. And also </em><em>the highest (265.7 kt ha<sup>-1</sup>) marketable tuber yield was observed with 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> of FYM levels and the lowest (143.9 kt ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded with the zero treatment. </em><em>The maximum (308.7 kt ha<sup>-1</sup>) fresh total tuber yield was recorded with 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> FYM rates and the least (206.1 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) total tuber yield was recorded at rate of zero application.</em> <em>Therefore treatments with farmyard manure gave the highest yield with high significant difference in comparison to the rest treatments. Considering the whole our economic analysis result proved that the maximum net benefit of 350962 Birr ha<sup>-1</sup> with an acceptable MRR of 4088.95 % was obtained from treatment that received 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> of FYM fertilizer rates and could be recommended for production of potato in the study area.</em></p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/587 Reactions of anthocyanin rich in maize genotypes to low temperature treatments according to photosynthesis, gas exchange properties, and bio-active compounds https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-012 <p>Low temperatures during the early growing stages limit the productivity of maize considerably. Investigating responses of different coloured corns (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) to chilling may reveal alternative genotypes which can be preferred under early sowing conditions of water-shortage farming areas. The aim of this study is determining whether the color factor affects the tolerance to chilling in maize and which properties are effective on the low temperature tolerance. We exposed corns with different colours (white, yellow, red, purple) to different temperatures [8°C, 12°C, 16°C, 25°C (control)] and analysed the effects of temperature on morphological, physiological, bio-active properties and stress indicators. Using 14-day old seedlings, we noted that purple corn had the highest seedling length, seedling weight, chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll B and total phenolic content in the 8°C and followed by white (photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll A and carotenoids), yellow (transpiration rate, sub stomatal CO<sub>2</sub>, and total antioxidant activity) and red corns (water use efficiency, total anthocyanin content and proline). On the other hand, white corn maintained its superiority in other treatments, receiving the highest values in 9 of 17 characteristics at 12°C, in 8 of 17 at 16°C and in 10 of 17 in the control. Performance of purple corn in the 8°C was the most remarkable one in all genotypes and treatments. Based on our results, it has been concluded that white and purple corns are more chilling tolerant genotypes and may be alternative for early sowing conditions in drought farming areas.</p> Elif ÖZDEMİR, Bayram SADE, Rahime CENGİZ Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-012 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of various botanical pesticides against leaf eating caterpillar (Artona chorista Jordan) on large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) field of Sankhuwasabha District, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-07 <p>Four treatments (Dadaguard Plus (0.05%), mugwort (Titepati) Oil (0.05%), azadiractin (Neem) Oil (0.25%), and tobacco extract (1%) of different botanicals and an absolute control) were evaluated in a field experiment against a lepidopteran pest, the leaf eating caterpillar infesting large cardamom, in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with an area of 4.2× 3.88 m<sup>2 </sup>in each experimental unit having 5 treatments with 4 replications at Khandbari, Sankhuwasabha, Nepal. Leaf-eating caterpillars cause a white papery thin epidermis-like structure at the primary stage and defoliation of the plant, leaving the midrib of the leaves, symptoms at the severe stage. Treatment-wise application of botanicals was done by using a high-volume knapsack sprayer, and the number of larvae per plant was counted at different time intervals, viz., 3, 5, and 7 days after spraying (DAS), to access the effectiveness of the treatments. The botanical pesticides caused significant differences in their effects against the leaf-eating caterpillar. Among the different botanicals, Dadaguard Plus (0.05 %) was found highly effective in managing the leaf-eating caterpillar in large cardamom, followed by neem oil (0.25%), tobacco extract (1%), titepati oil (0.05%), and untreated control, respectively. Dadaguard could be considered an effective botanical in the successful management of the pest leaf eating caterpillar due to its efficacy. </p> Sujata Kattel, Anuja Subedi, Lakshya Bahadur Chaudhary, Surya Bahadur Thapa, Shambhu Katel, Sabina Dhimal, Honey Raj Mandal Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-07 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under Different Mulching Conditions and Zinc Levels at Rolpa, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/582 <p>Mulching activities have a positive impact on microclimates and crop productivity. Use of the right mulching techniques is a crucial first step in replacing the issues with irrigation and weed infestation in potato production. To assess the performance of potatoes at two doses of zinc under different mulching conditions, a field experiment was laid out in a two-factorial RCBD comprising eight treatments with three replications using the Rolpa-Local variety in Liwang, Nepal. Silver on black plastic-T1, black plastic-T2, plant residue-T3 and control-T4 were used with two levels of zinc (0 and 4kg/ha). Both plastic mulches were found to have a significant influence on germination rate, plant height, tuber number, tuber weight, and yield per plant. The highest germination percentage was observed in black plastic mulch (94.67%). However, all other observations for growth and yield parameters were found to be significantly superior in the silver on black plastic mulch condition, with plant height (87.28cm), leaf count (145.70), number of tubers per plant (22.16), and a total yield of 21.83 t/ha. Similarly, all the yield attributing characters were found to be significantly different among zinc levels, with the highest total yield of 17.70t/ha at 4kg/ha of zinc. Silver on black plastic mulch and 4kg/ha of zinc level resulted in the highest B:C ratios of 3.18 and 2.23 respectively. The results showed that using silver on black plastic mulch with a zinc level of 4 kg/ha improved both vegetative growth and potato yield, with favorable B:C ratios resulting in higher profitability.</p> Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/582 Constraints determination and financial analysis of mandarin production in Darchula district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/581 <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="color: black;">The study was conducted in Darchula district under the whole command area of PMAMP, citrus zone to find the major mandarin production constraints and to evaluate financial feasibility among mandarin farmers. Survey was done during the months of March to May in five major citrus producer local bodies. From the sampling frame of 120 farmers, appropriate sample size of 95 was found by using Raosoft-software at 95% confidence interval and proportionate stratified sampling was done for each locality. Mandarin farming is a very feasible enterprise with a BC ratio and payback period of 2.2 and 6.7 years respectively. Average mandarin productivity of Darchula district is found to be 4.78 quintal per ropani, which is not significantly different from the national average. Mahakali municipality is a major contributor with highest production and productivity. Constraints faced by mandarin producers were categorized into main three types namely, input constraints, production constraints and marketing as well as post- harvest constraints. Lack of high yielding sampling followed by lack of subsidy is found major technical and socioeconomic constraints respectively. Poor irrigation facility, high physical damage of fruits and lack of suitable price of mandarin is found as major production constraint, post-harvest constraint and marketing constraint respectively. Major insect pests in mandarin production are red ants, bugs and fruit flies. Major diseases are citrus greening, fruit drop, gummosis and shooty mould. Thus, from the findings of this study, related agencies are needed to supply input subsidies as well as training among poor farmers to increase productivity of mandarin throughout the district.</span></p> Yagyaraj Joshi, Madhav Prasad Neupane, Krishna Raj Pandey, Sushil Khatri Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/581 Graded level of nitrogen and mulching effect on growth and yield parameters of tomato in Arghakhanchi, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-011 <p>A field experiment was carried out to find out the effect of different levels of nitrogen and mulching on growth and yield parameters of tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em> Mill.) var. VL443 at commercial tomato farm in Sandhikharkha, Arghakhanchi from February – June 2022. The eight treatments were laid out in two factorial RCBD with three replications. The treatment combinations were T1 (Non-mulching with 0 kgha<sup>-1</sup>), T2 (Non-mulching with 50 kgha<sup>-1</sup>), T3 (Non- mulching with 100 kgha<sup>-1</sup>), T4 (Non-mulching with 150 kgha<sup>-1</sup>), T5 (Mulching with 0 kgha<sup>-1</sup>), T6 (Mulching with 50 kgha<sup>-1</sup>), T7 (Mulching with 100 kgha<sup>-1</sup>), and T8 (Mulching with 150 kgha<sup>-1</sup>). Growth parameters, yield, and yield attributing traits were recorded. The result indicated that the 150 kgha<sup>-1</sup> dose of N application contributes to the higher plant height (178.13 cm), the number of leaves (47.83), fruit length (72.50 mm), fruit diameter (58.83 mm), Individual fruit weight (71.67 g) and yield (2.51 kg/ plant). Similarly, plastic mulch contributes significantly higher plant height (173.6 cm), the number of leaves (47.30), fruit length (68.84 mm), fruit diameter (54.20 mm), Individual fruit weight (72.52 g) and yield (2.53 kg/ plant) as compared to non-mulched condition. Furthermore, fruit yield per hectare in mulching with 150 kg<sup>-1</sup> plot was significantly higher in comparison to non-mulching with 0 kgha<sup>-1 </sup>plot<strong>.</strong> So, the application of 150 kgha<sup>-1 </sup>nitrogen along with plastic mulching is recommended to increase the yield of tomatoes under the plastic tunnels in Arghakhanchi.</p> Aakriti Kafle, Sushil Khatri, Bibek Budhathoki, Bipana K.C., Tej Narayan Bhusal Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-011 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Poverty and livelihood analysis of Former Enclave (Chitmahal) people in a selected area of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-06 <p>With the aim of creating development programs for the residents of the former enclave (<em>Chitmahal</em>), a survey of their poverty and livelihoods is essential. In this study, socioeconomic factors, poverty levels, changes in livelihood assets, and respondent satisfaction levels with social institutions in the study area were all assessed. A total of 100 respondents were randomly selected from Debiganj Upazila in the Panchagarh district of Bangladesh. A survey approach was employed to obtain the data. Respondents were able to respond quickly to questions and indicate their level of agreement with five points using a five-point Likert scale. The data were analyzed using the Direct Caloric Intake (DCI) approach and DFID's Sustainable Livelihoods Framework. The main finding of the study was that the average age of the head of family was within the working age range. The average size of a household was medium. The head of family has only completed nearly five years of school. Three-fifths of those surveyed had high household incomes. The majority of households had poverty. After becoming a citizen of Bangladesh, the five asset classes- human assets, social assets, natural assets, physical assets and financial assets were positively changed. Satisfaction with social institutions has been moderate. In order to reduce poverty and improve the standard of living of households in the research area, social institutions need to be more efficient.</p> Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Zannatul Naime, Ashley Comma Roy, Md. Ibrahim Kholilullah Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-06 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Growth performance and survival of oyster, Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778) and green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) cultivated in Bangladesh Coast https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-010 <p>Oyster and mussel farming along the coasts and the desire to increase fishing revenue have created a boom in these types of farms. An experiment on culture of edible oyster (<em>Saccostrea cucullata</em>) and green mussel (<em>Perna viridis</em>) was performed at Gangamoti estuary in Kuakata, Bay of Bengal coast of Bangladesh from December 2021 to March 2022 to find out the appropriate culture method of the oyster, <em>S. cucullata</em> and green mussel, <em>P. viridis</em>. Initially, the average shell heights of <em>S. cucullata</em> and <em>P. viridis</em> were 8.8±1.62 and 6.9±1.89 cm, respectively; where average weights were153.4±13.23 and 84.78±11.78 g, respectively. After the culture period, oysters shell height and weight grew up to 9.1±1.98 cm and 163.2±12.54 g, respectively in rectangular basket and 8.9±1.45 cm and 157.2±11.31 g, respectively in velon screen bag. In case of oysters, the rectangular basket and velon screen bag displayed the minor progress in specific growth rate, 0.09±0.01 and 0.07±0.03, respectively. But green mussels did not show any growth rate. Oysters cultured in rectangular basket showed total mortality at day-90 and velon screen bag at day-75. Green mussels showed 100% mortality within 21 days of culture. Our experiment was the first attempt to culture these two mollusks in the Kuakata coast of Bangladesh. However, further intensive researches would be required to evaluate the culture feasibility of these two mollusks’ species in the Kuakata coast of Bangladesh.</p> <p> </p> Abu Bakker Siddique Khan, Md. Amirul Islam, Md. Rahamat Ullah, Mousumi Akhter, Aovijite Bosu, Md. Monjurul Hasan, Khandaker Rashidul Hasan, Yahia Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-010 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of soil fertility status in Rupani Rural Municipality, Saptari, Nepal. https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/574 <p>As soil fertility is one of the most important factors for soil productivity, soil fertility management is important for sustainable soil management. So, this study was carried out to determine the soil fertility status of the Rupani Rural Municipality, Saptari, Nepal. Altogether 60 samples were collected randomly from the depth of (0-30) cm. The exact location of the samples was recorded using a handheld GPS device. All the collected samples were analyzed at a Regional soil testing laboratory, Saptari to find out their pH, Soil texture, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, and Organic matter status. Moreover, fertility status maps were made by using Arc GIS 10.8 software. Primarily, the study area consists of 51.66% clay and 18.33% sandy loam soil. The soil pH was strongly acidic to slightly alkaline with pH values ranging from 4.5-8.0. Soil organic matter (0.42-3.21) %, nitrogen (0.02-0.16) %, phosphorus (40.1-282.35) kg/ha, and potassium (64.8-729.6) kg/ha are available in the soil with the status of low to high in the study area. To improve the potentiality of crops and maintain the nutrient status of soil use of site-specific fertilizer, reduction in the use of chemical fertilizer, and different sustainable soil management practices were adopted.</p> Honey Raj Mandal Honey Raj Mandal, Sunny Kumar Shah, Biplov Oli, Krishna Raj Pant, Shambhu Katel, Baibhav Sharma, Sujata Kattel, Sumit Sah, Sumit Sah, Bishnu Yadav Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/574 EFFECT OF MYCORRHIZA ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF MANDARIN (Citrus reticulata Blanco) SEEDLINGS IN NURSERY OF GORKHA DISTRICT https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/573 <p><strong>Citrus is among the top fruits which is cultivated around the world and among citrus Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) comes at first which belongs to family Rutaceae. A field experiment </strong><strong>was conducted in Gorkha, Nepal from April 2021 to July 2022 with the objective of studying the effect of different doses of mycorrhiza in the vegetative growth of mandarin seedlings. The experiment was set up in a randomly complete block design (RCBD) with five treatments along with four replications. The treatments were named T1: Control, T2: 3g/seedling, T3: 6g/seedling, T4: 9g/seedling and T5: 11g/seedling, respectively. Eighteen months old seedlings of local Mandarin were uprooted and transplanted in finely pulverized and prepared seedbed and mycorrhiza was added subsequently according to treatment. Data collection was done for plant height, number of leaves and stem diameter. Analysis of data was done through Microsoft- Excel, R- Studio and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results of the study showed that plants treated with 9g of mycorrhiza produced highest number of leaves, longer stem length, larger stem diameter as compared to plants treated with other doses. Control treatment (0g) produces the least number of plant leaves, height, and stem diameter. Based on the findings it can be concluded that Mycorrhizal dose 9g/seedling can be the best for vegetative growth of Mandarin seedlings.&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Arjun Dahal Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/573 IN VITRO EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT CHEMICAL FUNGICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/572 <p>An in-vitro experiment was conducted for the evaluation of different chemical fungicides against <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> by using poisoned food technique at Plant Pathology Division of Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) situated at Khumaltar, Lalitpur. The pathogen was isolated from infected broad leaf mustard. The experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications per treatment. Seven fungicides namely, Saaf (carbendazim 12% + mancozeb 63%), Bavistin (carbendazim 50%), Vacomil Plus (metalaxyl 15% + copper oxychloride 35%), Nativo (tebuconazole 50% + trifloxystrobin 25%), Sectin (fenamidone 10% + mancozeb 50%), Kingstival (dimethomorph 50%) and Topcare (azoxystrobin 50%) were taken for the evaluation. Two levels of concentrations (100 ppm and 200 ppm) were used for each fungicide and concentration was calculated based on active ingredients (a.i.) of the pesticides. At higher concentration i.e. 200 ppm, Bavistin, Nativo and Saaf showed complete inhibition of the mycelial growth whereas at lower concentration i.e. 100 ppm, Bavistin was only completely effective. Sectin and Topcare were also highly effective in inhibiting the growth of <em>R. solani</em>. The efficacy of Kingstival and Vacomil Plus were much lesser than others. The active ingredients carbendazim and tebuconazole showed the highest degree of mycelial growth inhibitions compared to others. The fungicides that are found effective for inhibition of mycelial growth of <em>R. solani</em> in this study should be further tested in the field conditions in order to verify their efficacy as well as to determine their optimum doses of application.</p> govinda07; Demij Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/572 Nursing and management of early produced larvae of Thai pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) using greenhouse concept https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-05 <p>This experiment was conducted for the development of nursing techniques of early produced larvae of Thai pangus (<em>Pangasianodon hypophthalmus</em>) using Greenhouse concept for a period of 40 days from 10<sup>th</sup> February to 20<sup>th</sup> March 2020. The experiment was designed into two treatments (i) Greenhouse pond (GP) and (ii) Control or open ponds (CP) having three replicates each. Greenhouse concept was used for increasing the temperature during the winter month for proper growth and survival of the spawn. For this purpose, three ponds were covered with transparent polyethylene sheet fastened into bamboo frame and three ponds with no such covering. All the nursery ponds were stocked at a density of 20 g hatchling/decimal with 3 days old <em>P. hypophthalmus</em>. After 40 days of nursing period, the highest mean final length, weight gain and survival rate of fry were found to be 9.75 cm, 12.44g and 73.19% in greenhouse pond where in Control ponds it was 6.39 cm, 7.22g and 58.08%, respectively. A significantly higher (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>) mean gross production of 6.07 kg/ decimal was found in greenhouse pond where in Control ponds it was 2.80 kg/ decimal in 40 days of nursing period. Water quality parameters were found to be better with good primary production in the green house ponds due to retaining day light temperature by polyethylene sheet. Results from the present experiment indicated that greenhouse technique can be suitable for the nursing and management of early produced larvae of Thai pangas with proper growth and good survival rate.</p> David Rintu Das, Mahmudul Hasan Mithun Mithun, Md. Moniruzzaman, Maliha Khanum, Yahia Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-05 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the characterization and heavy metals remediation potential of biosurfactant produced by Aeromonas hydrophila S62A https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-04 <p>The evaluation of the heavy metals remediation potential and characterization of biosurfactant produced by <em>Aeromonas hydrophilia</em> strain S62A isolated from water and sediment samples of Imo River, Nigeria was studied. In this study, 12 bacterial isolates were isolated from contaminated water and sediment samples using spread plate technique and primarily screened for biosurfactant production using emulsification index, oil displacement and surface tension tests. Secondary biosurfactant production was carried out in a modified mineral salt medium under optimized conditions for 5 days and the produced biosurfactant was characterized and evaluated for its heavy metals removal efficiencies using standard analytical procedures. The result showed that the bacterial strain identified as <em>Aeromonas hydrophilia</em> S62A out of the 12 isolate strains had the highest and lowest values of 66.66 %, 23.76 cm and 90 mN/m for emulsification index, oil displacement and surface tension tests, respectively. The purified biosurfactant was found to be glycophospholipid as confirmed by the gas chromatographic (GC) and Fourier Transformed Infra-Red Spectroscopic (FTIR) profiles with 5 mg/mL critical micelles concentration (CMC). Statistically, significant differences (<em>P &lt; 0.05</em>) were detected among the means of all surfactant CMC treatment in comparison to their untreated controls with 2 × CMC lead having the highest (98.92 %) and control (water) having the lowest (2.09 %) heavy metals removal efficiencies. Therefore, the present study has produced glycophospholipid biosurfactant with unique structural and chemical features and composition and could be exploited in environmental remediation of heavy metals contaminated ecosystems.</p> Bright Obidinma Uba, Francisca Nneka Anidu Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-02-04 Sun, 25 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing socio-economic patterns and trends of livelihoods of fisher’s community of the Old Brahmaputra River: A case study in Jamalpur, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-021 <p>The current study was assessed the socio-economic patterns and trends of livelihoods of the Old Brahmaputra River fisher's community in the Jamalpur district from July 2021 to June 2022. The livelihood status was analyzed regarding age distribution, family size and composition, religion, marital status, education levels, living standards, diseases, healthcare, electricity, sanitation, drinking water facilities, fishing, and employment status. Most fishermen (45.76%) were 35-50 years old, with 91.53% were Muslim. The average family size for a fisher was medium, with 5-7 members. 33.9% were illiterate, 37.29% could only sign, 20.34% finished primary school, and 8.47% completed SSC. Most fishermen had tin roofs 59.32%, straw roofs 22.03%, semi-paka houses 11.87%, and paka houses 6.78%. Approximately 45.76% of fishers relied on village doctors, 33.9% on the Upazila Health Complex, 8.47% on Kobiraj, and 11.87% on MBBS doctors. Approximately 93.22% of fishermen's homes were equipped with electricity. Fishing was the main activity for more than 57.63% of the fishers. Fishermen have suggested specific management strategies to halt the trend of decreasing fish catches and increasing fish production. These include restricting the use of harmful gear, prohibiting the catching of juvenile fish, creating fish sanctuaries, and releasing fish fry.</p> Md. Fakhrul Islam, Muhammad Forhad Ali, Mohammad Shadiqur Rahman, Syed Ariful Haque, Runa Akther Juthi Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-021 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of black gram varieties to mungbean yellow mosaic disease at different sowing dates under spring and summer condition in western terai of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-020 <p>A field experiment was conducted at Grain Legumes Research Program (GLRP), Khajura, Banke, Nepal during spring and summer season 2019 to elucidate the effect of date of sowing and blackgram varieties on mungbean yellow mosaic disease severity and yield. The experiment was conducted in 2 factorial randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Factor A comprised date of sowing (S1= 5<sup>th</sup> April 2019, S2= 20<sup>th </sup>April 2019, S3= 5<sup>th</sup> May 2019, S4= 20<sup>th</sup> May 2019, S5= 25<sup>th</sup> July 2019, S6= 10<sup>th</sup> August 2019, S7= 25<sup>th</sup> August 2019 and S8= 10<sup>th</sup> September 2019) and factor B (Variety): V1= Khajura Mas 1 and V2= Rampur Mas. Disease severity was scored in 1-6 scale. Results revealed that mean values for days to disease appearance, disease score and grain yield in spring season sowing was 26 days, 3.72 and 635 kg/ha, whereas for summer season sowing was 14 days, 5.04 and 185 kg/ha.&nbsp; Among the date of sowing, April 5<sup>th</sup> sown crop recorded minimum mean disease score (3.1) with highest yield (719 kg/ha). Whereas, September 10<sup>th</sup> sown crop recorded maximum mean disease score (5.1) with lowest yield (174 kg/ha). Black gram varieties showed significant response to mean disease score and yield at early sowing condition but when the sowing date was delayed, there was no significant response of varieties to mean disease score and yield. The contribution of regression (R<sup>2 </sup>=0.791) and (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.655) for spring season and summer season indicate that 79% and 65% of the blackgram yield would be affected by disease for the respective season. Therefore, it is better to sow blackgram in early season to escape mungbean yellow mosaic disease and minimize yield loss.</p> Laxman Aryal, Padam Prasad Poudel, Basistha Acharya, Jiban Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-020 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of adoption and preferences for Aman rice mutant variety Binadhan-7 cultivation in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-018 <p>This study was conducted in fourteen agricultural regions of Bangladesh namely-Mymensingh, Jashore, Cumilla, Bogura, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Dinajpur, Rangpur, Dhaka, Khulna, Chattagram, Rangamati, Barishal and Faridpur. The specific objectives of the present study were: i) to examine the determinants to adoption of rice mutant variety Binadhan-7; and ii) to identify the major preferences and constraints of rice mutant variety Binadhan-7 cultivation; A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used to collect the data. Marginal coefficients indicate that if male farmers increased by 100%, the probability of adopting Binadhan-7 variety would increase at 38 times more likely to adopt the variety. If the farm size of Binadhan-7 increased by 100%, the probability of adopting the variety would be increased by 0.07%. A farmer who has access to agricultural extension service is about 39 times more likely to adopt the variety. Again, if the yield increased by 100%, adopting the varieties would increase by 0.08%. The marginal coefficients of duration and soil fertility are negatively significant, indicating that if these two variables increased by 100%, the probability of adopting the varieties would decrease by 0.18% and 28%, respectively. Among the preferences, the highest preference was 88.93% for short duration followed by poverty reduction (88.57%), and lastly high yielding (81.43%). Among the constraints, the highest constraint was 80.71% for high labour price followed by lack of godown (69.64%), marketing problem (67.50%), destroy by bird (66.79%) and lack of quality seed (48.93%).</p> M.H. Rahman, R. Sultana, M.M.A. Sarkar, S. Islam, S. Sivasankar Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-018 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of municipal solid waste compost and NPK fertilizer on growth, yield and protein content of rice (cv. BRRI dhan49) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-016 <p>An experiment was conducted to study the effect of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) on growth, yield and protein content as well as to know the effect of combined application of MSWC and NPK fertilizers in rice (cv. BRRI dhan49). There were six treatments including- T<sub>0</sub> = Control (No fertilizer or no MSWC); T<sub>1</sub>= 100% Recommended Doses of Fertilizers (RDF) NPK; T<sub>2</sub> = (MSWC @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>+ 75% RDF); T<sub>3</sub>= (MSWC @ 7. 5t ha<sup>-1</sup>+ 50% RDF); T<sub>4</sub>= (MSWC @ 10 t ha-1 + 25% RDF); T<sub>5 </sub>= (MSWC @ 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Our results showed that the integrated application of MSWC and different RDF% had a significant impact on various plant growth and yield parameters including plant height, panicle length, number of effective tillers per hill, number of filled grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight (g), and grain and straw yield of rice. In case of T<sub>2</sub> treatment, highest grain yield (5.70 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (7.71 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and protein <br>content (5.875%) were obtained. Thus, the result indicated that combined application of MSWC with NPK performed better than the single application of either MSWC or NPK fertilizer.</p> Tania Sultana, M. Mazibur Rahman, Mohammad Anamul Hoque, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Prosenjit Sarker, Israt Jahan Harine Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-016 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation coefficient and path analysis of yield and yield attributing characters of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes under reproductive drought stress in the Terai region of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-013 <p>An experimental trial of nine rice genotypes was conducted in the Agronomy field of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS) Paklihawa Campus under a randomized block design layout with three replications from July to November of 2022. The aim was to study genetic variability and analyze the character association of yield and yield-attributing components in rice genotypes and their direct and indirect effect on grain yield under reproductive drought stress conditions. Observations on days to flowering (50%), plant height, panicle length, panicle weight, number of grains/panicles, effective panicle/m², grain yield, and 1000 kernel weight were recorded. Grain yield showed a highly positive significant correlation with effective panicle/m² (0.713**), followed by plant height (0.347) and panicle length (0.289). The path coefficient analysis of different traits revealed the highest positive direct effect of the effective panicle per m² (0.748963), followed by panicle length (0.24145) and plant height (0.227505). The highest negative direct effect was shown by the number of grains per panicle (-0.31218). The experimental results revealed that the selection of trait-effective panicle per square meter would be most beneficial for the improvement of yield in rice genotypes facilitating selection and plant breeding programs.</p> Preeti Kayastha, Himani Chand, Barsha K. C., Biddhya Pandey, Bimal Roka Magar, Janak Bhandari, Pawan Lamichhane, Prakash Baduwal, Mukti Ram Poudel Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-013 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Performance and supply chain analysis of Binalebu-1 in some selected areas of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-06 <p>The study was conducted to find out the performance and supply chain of Binalebu-1 in four major Binalebu-1growing areas of Bangladesh, namely Cumilla, Mymensingh, Rangpur and Dhaka districts. Simple random sampling technique was followed for this study. The average cost of lemon production was estimated at Tk. 206127 per hectare of which about 68% was variable cost and 32% was fixed cost. Human labour cost was the lion share (32%) of total cost and it followed by irrigation cost (6.63%), Insecticide (2.64%) sapling (2.60%), and in the study areas. The average yield of Binalebu-1 was recorded 28.32 t/ha in all study areas while it was highest in 3<sup>rd</sup> year (30.24 t/ha) followed by 2<sup>nd</sup> year (28.17 t/ha) and 1<sup>st</sup> year (26.58 t/ha). The average gross return, gross margin and net return of lemon were found to be Tk 744517.62/ha, Tk 454521.67/ha, and Tk 538390.75/ha, respectively. Average BCR was found to be 2.71 on the basis of total cost. Supply chain was classified into four types: Channel 1: Accounts for 40 % which was ranked as I; Channel II: Accounts for 20 % which was Ranked as II; Channel III: Accounts for 18 % which was Ranked as III, Channel IV: Accounts for 12 % which was ranked as IV; Channel V: Accounts for 10 % which was Ranked as V. It was revealed that the value addition of the Faria, Bepari, Paiker, Arathdar, Retailer were Tk.135, Tk.95, Tk.55, Tk.39 and, Tk155 per quintal, respectively.</p> Razia Sultana, Md. Habibur Rahman, Md. Mohsin Ali Sarkar, Syful Islam, Md. Rafiqul Islam Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-06 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DIGITAL AGRICULTURE; ROADWAY TO AGRITECH IN NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/561 <p>While every other sector; from normal food delivery system to share market, from hospitality sector to hospital services, from buying to selling, is being digitalized, agriculture might be the only sector lagging far behind. This might be the reason why we are not able to uplift the livelihood of farmers when it is reported that agriculture can reduce poverty by four times. Many agencies have also claimed that with most of the countries progressing towards urbanization, arable lands which have been supporting the food production has lessened. Many nations are struggling to support the increased demand for food. In such a scenario, the day is no far when people will pledge enmity for food. Therefore, it is utmost important that we make the most out of the limited land and other resources. The time has come where we should shift our conventional way of farming towards smart way with smart technology. Incorporating digital technology in a farming system ultimately becomes digital agriculture. Digital agriculture does not always refer to use of robotics or drones for farming. It starts with simple yet quite smart technology like calculation and implementation of proper dose of fertilizer application in the field by analyzing the situation of microclimate in soil. It might be as simple as scheduling the irrigation plan according to the level of moisture and water holding capacity of soil. Furthermore, it might also be utilizing meteorological data to predict diseases prior to their emergence and protecting the crops beforehand.</p> Ruchita Bhattarai, Amrit Majhi, Astha Pokharel, Bidya Ojha, Udit Prakash Sigdel Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/561 Evaluation of insecticidal efficacy against maize leaf aphid [Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch)] under inner terai condition of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-019 <p>Field experiments were carried out at the National Maize Research Program in Rampur, Chitwan, with the objective of comparing the effectiveness of insecticides in the field for controlling maize leaf aphid (<em>Rhopalosiphum maidis</em> Fitch) during the winter season of 2019 and 2020. The design of the experiment was randomized complete block with four replications. The plot size was 6 rows of 5 m long with the spacing of 60cm × 25cm. Maize hybrid Rampur Hybrid-14 (RML-86/RML-96) was used as experimental variety. The efficacies of five insecticides viz., thiomethoxam 25% w/w 0.2g/L (T1), acetamiprid 20%WP 2g/L (T2), flonicamid 50% WG 0.5g/L (T3), neemix 3ml/L(T4), imidacloprid 0.5ml/L(T5) and untreated control (T6) were used as experimental treatments. The recommended dose of fertilizer was 180: 60: 40 N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>: K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ ha with farm yard manure 10 t/ha and seed rate was 20kg/ha. Data on aphid incidence, severity, yield and yield components were recorded. All the tested insecticides significantly (P≤0.05) reduced the plant infestation caused by maize aphid, and thereafter increased the grain yield of maize compared to control. However, newer insecticide flonicamid 50% WG 0.5g/L was found as the most effective insecticide with lower aphid colony per plant (2.85), aphid score (2.63), aphid infested plant (7.33%) and higher crop yield (7904.79kg/ha). The application of insecticides prior to their severe infestations is necessary for the efficient control of the maize leaf aphid. The research findings will assist maize farmers in choosing and applying the best insecticide to ensure efficient management of maize leaf aphid with high yield.</p> Saraswati Neupane, Subash Subedi Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-019 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of herbal plant extracts on Inducing Rooting of Stem Cuttings https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/559 <p>In the present study, an experiment was conducted where the influence of Aloe vera Gel for Inducing Rooting of Stem Cuttings. A pot experiment was performed at Sindh agriculture university tando jam, sindh, Pakistan, during the period from March 2022 to June 2022 to quantify the influence of Aloe vera gel on, root induction of cuttings of Rose (Rosa indica). Completely randomized design was used to arrange the experiment with four treatments (T1-cutting end dipped in Aloe Vera gel for five minutes, T2-cutting end dipped in Coconut Water for four minutes, T3- cutting end dipped in Honey for five minutes, &nbsp;T4 &nbsp; (control) without applying Aloe Vera gel or growth regulator to cutting) to determine the effect of Aloe vera gel on root induction of cuttings of Rose (Rosa indica) to determine the effect of Aloe vera gel on root induction of cuttings of Rose (Rosa indica). in the experiment where 8-10 inches long cuttings 5 cuttings of rose for each treatments was collected, and dipped in treatments T1-cutting end dipped in Aloe Vera gel for five minutes, T2-cutting end dipped in Coconut Water for four minutes, T3- cutting end dipped in Honey for five minutes, T4 (control) without applying Aloe Vera gel or growth regulator to cutting, were established. General media of canal slit+ FYM+ Clay Soil (1:1:1) was used as a rooting medium. All pots were kept in a shaded house to provide a cool and shaded environment. The results indicated &nbsp;high effect of the herbal plant extracts for Inducing Rooting of Stem cuttings such as rooting percentage, total number of roots per cutting, total number of bud formation per cutting, and root length.The Highest rooting percentage about (96%), greatest number of Roots per cutting (9),total number of buds formation per cutting ( 5 ), and &nbsp;The highest length of root about (6.54 cm ) observed from T1, Alternatively, the lowest rooting percentage about (52% ) lowest number of roots per cutting (5) the lowest length of root about (4.34 cm), result was observed from the (T4) Control, these treatments were followed by rooting percentage about (90%), total number of roots per cutting (8), total number of buds formation per cutting (4) and the length of root about (5.52 cm) T3, rooting percentage about (80%), total number of roots per cutting (6), total number of buds formation per cuttings (4) length of root about (5.22 cm ) T2.&nbsp;</p> maqsood Ali wagan Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/559 Screening microsatellite markers for establishing parental polymorphism in Indian rice (Oryza sativa L.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-017 <p>The experiment was conducted to investigate the parental diversity along the rice genome and to understand and screen out the SSR markers-indicated polymorphism between two indica rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.) cultivars. Namely K343, the most well-liked rice variety in the hill zone of the Jammu Region, and RML22, a rice line created at IRRI, Philippines. The study is to select polymorphic markers (Simple Sequence Repeat- SSR) associated with hill ecologies rice cultivars and additional research projects like gene pyramiding and background selection to recover the recurrent parent genome (RPG) in blast gene introgression in elite lines. 450 SSR markers, evenly distributed throughout the rice genome, were used to assess the parental polymorphism between these genotypes. Of these two cultivars, 51 markers (11.33%) showed polymorphism with bands in different spectrums throughout the genome. The study has been used to Marker Assisted Backcross (MAB) breeding to integrate rice blast resistance genes in the parental genotype. The pool of polymorphic markers has the potential to use in similar studies and work, with a high probability of polymorphism for the cultivars of hill ecologies, and thus increase the chance of selection of probability in marker selection.</p> Sharmishta Hangloo, Gazi Muhammad Abdullah Mahdi, Romesh Kumar Salgotra, Manmohan Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-017 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Adoption of improved wheat varieties at Kanchanpur, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-015 <p>Usage of improved varieties raises the crop yield. To assess the adoption status of improved wheat varieties in the Kanchanpur district, this study investigated the varietal coverage of wheat along with factors affecting the adoption of improved varieties. A pre-tested interview schedule was administered to interview 90 randomly selected wheat-producing households in Bhimdutta, Bedkot and Dodhara Chandni (Mahakali) municipality. A binary logistic regression was used for triangulating the effect of different variables on the adoption of improved wheat varieties. Besides, descriptive statistics and indexing were also applied. The findings revealed that 80.97% of the area was under improved varieties, two-thirds of which were released varieties. In addition, of the released varieties, Vijay had the highest area coverage (27.97%), followed by Aditya (19.47%), Gautam (18.76%), NL971 (16.42%), BL4341 (13.65%) and others (3.73%), respectively. Further, the adoption of improved wheat varieties was found to be significantly driven by input subsidy (5% level) and access to extension services (10% level). Nevertheless, the adoption was impeded by problems namely; timely unavailability of improved variety seeds followed by lack of knowledge about improved varieties, unavailability of improved variety seeds in local markets, high cost of seeds and poor quality of seeds respectively, as identified and ranked by indexing. In light of these findings, input subsidies to the smallholding farmers, regular advisory and extension services along with participatory training programs relevant to the adoption of improved practices and timely availability of improved seeds are suggested to increase the adoption of improved wheat varieties among the farmers.</p> Ashmita Bhatta, Akash Gupta, Pankaj Prashad Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-015 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of biochar and plastic mulch on growth, yield, and yield attributing characteristics of spring maize (Zea mays L.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-014 <p>Spring maize is an important crop to meet the growing demand for maize. Moisture stress is an important yield limiting factor during the dry spring period. Biochar and plastic mulch help in soil moisture conservation and might contribute to the growth and yield of maize. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of biochar application and plastic mulch on growth, yield, and yield attributing characteristics of spring maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) in a sandy loam soil at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal in 2018. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design (SPD) with three replications. The Main plots were allocated to the mulching (mulching, and no mulching) while the Subplot was to the biochar rates of 0 t/ha, 5 t/ha, 15 t/ha, and 25 t/ha. There were twenty-four plots of each plot size 4.8 × 1.5 m<sup>2</sup>. The grounded biochar passed through a 1 mm sieve and was applied in the well-prepared plots two weeks before seed sowing. The maize seeds were sown at 60 cm row to row and 25 cm plant to plant distance. There were no significant effects due to both factors on maize seed emergence, plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area index, root length, dry matter content, stover yield, and yield attributes. But the yield was significantly influenced by their interactions. Significantly highest grain yield (2.58 t/ha) was obtained from 25 t/ha with plastic mulch followed by plastic mulch with 15 t/ha biochar (2.06 t/ha) and the least was recorded from control plots (1.19 t/ha). From the result, it can be concluded that the application of a higher biochar rate of 25 t/ha with plastic mulch contributes to a higher yield of spring maize.</p> S. Bishwakarma, S. S. Karkee, B. R. Khanal Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-014 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF WINTER WATERBIRDS IN NATIONAL CHAMBAL SANCTUARY, MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/553 <p>The National Chambal Sanctuary has been established as a prominent site for wintering waterbirds. To determine the diversity and abundance of winter waterbirds in the sanctuary three boat-based surveys were conducted during 2008 to 2010. A total of 87 species of waterbirds belonging to 18 families were documented. Of these 45 species were winter migrants and 42 species were resident. Species diversity and richness was observed to be high in habitat with luxuriant growth of emergent aquatic vegetation and low human disturbance. Suggestions for management and research are made to ensure the effective conservation of waterbirds and their habitats in the sanctuary.</p> Dr. Hari Singh Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/553 A Review on Assessment of Production and Marketing of Potato in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/552 <p>Potato, a high-value commercial crop and staple food of hill and mountain regions of Nepal have maximum potential to supply and meet the food and nutritional demand of Nepalese people. Nepal has a favorable agro-climatic condition for the production of potatoes in all three regimes of Nepal. Primarily, secondary data were collected and assembled from peer-reviewed journal articles, annual reports, and websites for the study purpose. The study was done to analyze the production trend, export-import scenario, and marketing channel along with it most predominant problems hindering the productivity of potatoes in Nepal. Findings show the increasing trend of potato productivity, in Nepal increasing from 5.7 Mt/ha in 1968 to 17.15 Mt/ha in 2021. In addition, to this Prime Minister Agriculture Modernization Project along with National Potato Research Program is playing a pivotal role in increasing the production and productivity of potatoes. Findings also revealed a lack of quality seed, disease/pest prevalence, and prevalence of middle man in the marketing channels, lack of access to market information systems, and shortage of labor as the most predominant problems reported in potato production and marketing. Thus, to enhance the productivity and productivity of potato commodities, it seems pivotal to solve the major problem reported in potato production along with marketing channels with proper mechanization, marketing information, price intervention, and establishing processing industries.</p> Binod Joshi Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/552 Impact of changing environmental scenario on biodiversity of mangrove forest of Sundarbans Delta Region, India https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-012 <p>Sundarbans is the world’s largest contiguous mangrove forest and is a designated world <br />heritage site, shared by India and Bangladesh, it is home to several species including tigers. The habitat supports approximately 4.37 million people. Mangrove ecosystem is a unique, fragile, highly productive ecosystem in the sea-land interphase, is the conglomerations of plants, animals and microorganisms acclimatized in the fluctuating environment of tropical intertidal zone. This ecosystem is a highly valued ecosystem in terms of economy, environment and ecology. This mangrove ecosystem of Indian subcontinent is well known not only for the aerial extent, but also for the species diversity. The biodiversity of Sundarbans includes numerous species of phytoplankton, zooplankton, microorganisms, benthic invertebrates, molluscs, amphibians and mammals. As per the research conducted it is believed that the Sundarbans have soaked in 4.15 crore tonnes of carbon dioxide. But the scenario has been changed during past few decades. Due to climate change the Sundarbans faces several challenges. Recorded data shows that a huge number of flora and fauna were compelled to be eliminated due to the consequences of climate change during the last century. Climate change components that affect mangroves and its inhabitants include changes in sea-level, high-water events, storminess, precipitation, temperature, atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentration and ocean circulation patterns. The study was conducted to identify the threats on the diversity and its effect on the socio-economic condition of the local community. With risk of the Sundarbans submerging, there is an urgent need for global reduction of emissions and replacement of fossil fuels with renewable energy.</p> Nelofar Tanveer, Meena Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-012 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Review on Effects of Heat Stress on Rice https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/548 <p>Rice is a global food crop and an economically important crop. Heat stress, the ultimate cause of climate change, leads to various physiological stress on rice. &nbsp;Heat stress significantly reduced yield by affecting the germination, tillering stage, and flowering stages. Moreover, a reduction is more serious at the flowering stage causing minimal effects in other stages. This review summarized how heat effects affect rice at different stages. If special measures to reduce heat stress are not taken, there will be a serious threat to global food security in the coming days. So, heat stress should be managed by using various genetic approaches developing thermo resistance rice varieties, and adjusting rice planting.</p> Biddhya Pandey Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/548 The Profitability Analysis of Maize Production in Jhapa district,Nepal. https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/546 <p>Nepal is a predominantly an agricultural country and maize is an important staple crop in Nepal from socio-economic as well as nutritional perspectives.. However, its economic analysis with respect to cost of production and profitability is less explored in Nepalese context. A survey research was carried out in 2021 in Jhapa district to find out Production Cost, Total Returns and Profitability of maize production. Kankai Municipality and Jhapa Rural municipality were purposively selected for study as these areas were identified as major maize growing area. A total of 120 samples were selected using simple random sampling method from 1208 total household registered in Maize zone. Sixty samples were selected from Kankai Municipality and Jhapa Rural Municipality each. Primary data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire, focal group discussion and key informant interview whereas secondary data were obtained through a review of relevant literature. From the study the total cost of production was found to be NRs 114445per ha. Average Gross Margin was found to be NRs 55495 per ha. Similarly BC ratio was found 1.55 which shows maize production is financially viable. Productivity of study area was found 6.32 Mt/ha which is higher than that of national average. Among various problems of maize production, lack of timely unavailability of inputs prevailed mostly which was followed by disease and pest problems. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should extend its technical support and role of agricultural co-operatives should be strengthened.</p> Babi Koirala Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/546 A SHORT REVIEW ON GENE EDITING TOOL IN PLANT SCIENCE: CRISPR-CAS9 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/545 <p>Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR), a potent gene-editing tool, was found in 2012. CRISPR is a genetic engineering technique that enables genome editing in living creatures and is based on the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 antiviral defense mechanism. It is simpler, less expensive, and more accurate than previous gene editing techniques. It also has a wide range of valuable uses, including improving crops and treating genetic diseases. This paper summarized the role of CRISPR-CAS9 tool in modern agricultural science.</p> Prodipto Bishnu Angon Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/545 Socioeconomic, livelihood and cultural profile of the Meghna River Hilsa Fishing Community in Chandpur, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-011 <p>The goal of the study was to build a comprehensive portrait of the socioeconomic, livelihood, and cultural profile of the Meghna River fishing community in Chandpur, Bangladesh. Shatnol Malopara, an ecologically and economically suitable fishing community under the Matlab Uttor Upazila of Chandpur district, was selected for the in-depth investigation, where 410 fishermen relied solely on fishing for their livelihood. This community is made up of 185 households, supporting close to 1000 people. They are all Hindus, and fishing was their ancestral profession. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The research revealed that the majority (35%) of fishermen were in the 18-30 age range. The community preferred nuclear families (98%), and the average family size was 5-8 individuals, which is predominant at 80%. About 60% of households lived in tiny tin shades and 40% in medium tin shades, while 60% did not have their own land. They (80%) rely on solar energy for illumination and for health facilities 50% of fisher households depend on the local pharmacy to take medication. Almost 100% of the residents in this community used potable drinking water, and 50% of fishers have ring slab latrines while the other 50% have pits. According to the survey, 60% of fishermen were very poor, 20% were poor, and 20% were moderately poor. Based on the survey, the majority (70%) of the fishermen earned between the ranges of 3000-5000 BDT (Bangladesh Taka) per month. During the ban period, the majority of fishers (50%) took out loans from various sources. Non-governmental organizations that operate microcredit businesses provided 70% of the loans to fishermen. According to the survey, 32% of fishermen had a boat and gear, while 68% worked as labor or engaged in catch-sharing with Mohajons' boats and gear. A range of crafts (Dingi nouka, Kosa nouka with mechanization) and fishing gear (Kona jal, Gulti jal, Dhon jal, Chap jal, Bada jal, Current jal, Chewa jal, etc.) was observed to be used in the study area. They have a plethora of traditional ecological knowledge as a result of their fishing ancestors. The study revealed that hilsa fishermen had a variety of issues. Extortion by local extortionists was the principal concern; other issues included inadequate credit and alternative income sources during the ban period. To assist the <br />community in raising its standard of living, government agencies, nonprofits, and other relevant groups of organizations should adopt a number of steps. It is imperative to prioritize alternative income-generating options in this context.</p> A.B.M. Arman Hossain, Gazi Muhammad Abdullah Mahdi, Abul Kalam Azad, S. M. Humayun Kabir, Md. Mehedi Hasan Pramanik, Md. Rahamat Ullah, Md. Monjurul Hasan, Md. Akram Ullah Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-011 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Gibberellic acid (GA3) on shelf life and physiochemical properties of mango (Mangifera indica L. var Bombay green) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-010 <p>The present study investigated the effect of GA3 on the physicochemical properties and shelf life of mango (<em>Mangifera indica</em> L. var. Bombay green) from 31st May 2022 to 8th June 2022 at the Central Laboratory of GPCAR collage Gothgaun, Morang, Nepal. The study's goal was to find the right gibberellic acid concentration to use in mangoes that were collected at a mature stage to delay fruit ripening, preserve quality, and lengthen shelf life. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments and four replications. Mature freshly harvested mango fruits of uniform size were dipped into an aqueous solution of gibberellic acid at 0 ppm (T1), 100 ppm (T2), 200 ppm (T3), 300 ppm (T4) and 400 ppm (T5) for 10 minutes. Data on physicochemical parameters (mango pulp pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, physiological weight loss, and shelf life) were statistically analyzed through biochemical analyses. Further, fruits treated with 400 ppm of GA3; resulted in the lowest physiological loss in weight (22.08%), the minimum pulp pH (5.02), and the minimum titratable acidity (0.14%) on the 8th day after storage. The highest total soluble solid (19.85°B) was recorded with GA3 @400ppm, while the lowest soluble solids (16.90°B) were recorded with control ppm on the 8th day after storage. Fruits treated with GA3 at 400 ppm had the longest shelf life (7.17 days), while fruits treated with GA at 300 ppm had the shortest shelf life (7.19 days). Therefore, the best results were obtained when gibberellic acid was applied at 400 ppm, which extended the shelf life and physiochemical traits of mango fruits.</p> Sujata Yadav, Shubh Pravat Yadav, Nirmal Adhikari, Rupa Kumari Sah, Simran Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-010 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Retracted: Livelihood assets and food consumption level of slum dwellers in some selected areas of Dhaka city of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-09 <p>This article has been retracted due to publication ethics issue.</p> Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Afrin Jannat Dina, Mashrufah Khatun, Sourav Das Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-09 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of bio agents and fungicides against Colletotrichum blight of large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) under field condition in Sankhuwasabha District, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-08 <p>The field experiment was carried out in five years old Golsai variety of large cardamom (<em>Amomum subulatum </em>Roxb.) at Khandbari-4, Pangma of Sankhuwasabha district between February and April 2022 to evaluate the efficacy of bioagents and fungicides against Colletotrichum blight of large cardamom (<em>A. subulatum</em>). Two bioagents, three fungicides, and control/water were taken as treatments, and the experiment was established in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with an area of 4×3 sqm in each experimental unit having 6 treatments with 4 replications. Treatment wise application of bioagents and fungicides was given by using a high-volume knapsack sprayer with the required concentration. Subsequent sprays were given at seven-day intervals. The result of the study showed that among the tested fungicides, TOPCARE (Azoxystrobin 50% WDG) and bioagent <em>Trichoderma viride </em>significantly reduced blight under field conditions. So, spraying of the fungicide TOPCARE (Azoxystrobin 50% WDG) and bioagent <em>T. viride</em> will be best for controlling Colletotrichum blight on large cardamom in the Sankhuwasabha district.</p> Anuja Subedi, Sujata Kattel, Lakshya Bahadur Chaudhary, Surya Bahadur Thapa Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-08 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Weight-length, length-length relationships and form factor of three flatfish species from the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-07 <p>Biometrics such as weight-length relationships (WLRs), length-length relationships (LLRs), as well as form factor (a<sub>3.0</sub>) were investigated for three flatfish species, <em>Cynoglossus lingua</em>, <em>Cynoglossus arel</em>, and <em>Brachirus pan</em> which were captured using seines and gill nets between September 2021 and March 2022 from the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. The lengths were measured to adjacent 0.1 cm accuracy with a digital caliper and weights to the accuracy of 0.01 g with a digital balance for each individual. The WLRs were accurately adjusted for all species (r<sup>2</sup> &gt; 0.9500). <em>Brachirus pan</em> had the lowest b value of 2.9543, whereas <em>C. arel</em> had the highest b value of 3.2924 amongst the three species. For the investigated species of fish, LLRs were also highly significant (r<sup>2</sup> &gt; 0.9600, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.01). The estimated form factor values were 0.0023 for <em>B. pan</em>, 0.0026 for <em>C. arel</em>, 0.0027 for <em>C. lingua</em>. New maximum total lengths for <em>C. arel</em> and <em>B. pan</em> have also been recorded. Since there are no weight-length relationships (WLRs), length-length relationships (LLRs), as well as form factor (a<sub>3.0</sub>) data for these species in Bangladesh; the information supplied here expands the depth of knowledge for these species.</p> Md. Rahamat Ullah, Md. Mahamudul Hasan Mredul, Mohammad Ashraful Alam, Md. Arifur Rahman, Md. Ariful Alam Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-07 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular genotyping of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) accessions using microsatellites https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-01 <p>The experiment was conducted to ascertain the level of genetic diversity in sweet potato accessions using microsatellites. Thirty sweet potato accessions obtained from the International Potato Center (CIP), Kumasi, Ghana, Mozambique, and local germplasm of the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria, as well as sweet potato vines from local farmers' fields in Jos, Plateau State, and Bauchi State, Nigeria, were analyzed for genetic diversity using five microsatellite markers. The results showed that the polymorphic SSR loci revealed diverse relationship among the sweet potato cultivars, which was grouped into four major clusters by unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA) method. Cluster analysis showed a Jaccard co-efficient ranging from 0.0 to 3.0 indicating high genetic diversity. The primers detected a total of 18 alleles and the number of alleles per locus was 4 for IBR-19, IBR-286, IBR-297 and 3 for IBR-16 and IBR-242 with an average of 3.67 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of the markers varied from 0.35 to 0.72 with an average of 0.497. Marker IBR-19 revealed the highest PIC of 0.72, while marker IBR-297 had the lowest PIC of 0.35. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.32 to 0.89 with a mean of 0.675 across the five SSR loci. The results from the Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) which was used to quantify the diversity level and genetic relationship among the thirty sweet potato accessions indicated that a high diversity was mostly distributed within the populations for sweet potato accessions (75.12%) and (15.67%) among the populations.</p> E. R. Keyagha, J. I. Ulasi, O. A. Umeh, S. Shuaibu Kahya Copyright (c) 2023 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/08-01-01 Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Quality assessment and shelf-life of processed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish sticks: Laboratory based study https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-05 <p>Customers prefer tilapia (<em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>), one of the most popular freshwater fish species farmed in Bangladesh, because of its flavor and affordable market pricing. This study aimed to develop value-added tilapia fish sticks and evaluate the quality changes, shelf life, and storage stability of the developed tilapia fish sticks in order to investigate the possibilities of better utilizing low-value tilapia fish and to satisfy consumers' growing demand for quality ready-to-eat food products. For this regard, storage characteristics in room (28ºC) and refrigerator (5ºC) temperatures were assessed in terms of microbiological, chemical, proximate, and sensory attributes. The moisture, lipid, protein, and ash contents of the fish sticks were observed to be 56.23±0.62, 7.62±0.27, 26.01±0.39, and 2.93±0.23%, respectively, at fresh condition. As storage time increased, it was discovered that ash content at room temperature increased while moisture, lipid, and protein levels steadily declined. On the other hand, it was discovered that at refrigeration temperatures, ash and fat content increased while moisture and protein content decreased. Compared to fish sticks held at ambient temperature, changes in the proximate composition of fish sticks stored in a refrigerator were found to be more stable. TVB-N was initially measured as 12.38±0.45 mg/100 g. After 24 hours of room storage, the TVB-N value exceeded the acceptable level; however, after 72 hours of refrigeration, it did not exceed the acceptable limit and was deemed fit for consumption. TPC was observed in fresh fish sticks as 3.74±0.31 Log CFU/g. In 48 hours at room temperature, the bacterial load of tilapia fish sticks increased sharply (p&lt;0.05) during the course of the storage period and went above the microbiological threshold for fishery products (7 Log CFU/g of flesh). The bacterial growth trend was slower and, after 72 hours, was within the permitted limit at refrigerated storage temperature. All fresh products had the highest initial sensory ratings. At ambient temperature, all of the products sensory qualities significantly declined with time (p&lt;0.05), however at refrigeration temperature, the product was determined to be more stable. The overall acceptability score assessed for appearance, flavor, taste, and texture was within acceptable limits for up to 24 hours at room temperature, but not for 72 hours at refrigeration temperature. According to the study's findings, tilapia fish sticks have a very limited shelf life at room temperature (28°C), only lasting around 24 hours, whereas they can last up to 72 hours at 5°C in the refrigerator.</p> Md. Aktaruzzaman, Umme Hani, Md. Abu Sayeed, Md. Atick Chowdhury, Md. Ashraf Hussain, Kazi Towsif Ahmed, Md. Mehedy Hasan Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-05 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and production performance of Mud Eel, Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton, 1822) using different types of feed in the Northern region of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-04 <p>The experiment was conducted to assess the growth and production performance of freshwater Mud Eel (<em>Monopterus cuchia</em>) using different types of feed in nine earthen ponds in Bogura and Naogaon district of Bangladesh over a period of 180 days from 01 July, 2020 to 31 December, 2021. Three different treatments having three replicates each [T<sub>1 </sub>{Live fish spawn (60%), Vermi compost (40%)}, T<sub>2 </sub>{Live fish spawn (40%), Fish paste (60%)} and T<sub>3 </sub>{Vermi compost (40%), fish paste (40%), Rice bran (10%) and Wheat flour (10%)}] were used where significantly higher (<em>P&lt; 0.05</em>) gross production and low FCR were recorded in T<sub>1</sub> treatment. Juvenile cuchia were stocked @ 400 nos/dec in each treatment having mean initial body weight of 25 g and mean initial body length of 20 cm where highest weight gain of 130.09±1.79 g was found in T<sub>1</sub> (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>), followed by the T<sub>2</sub> (112.89±1.51 g) and T<sub>3</sub> (95.02±0.16 g). Survival rate (82.11±2.21%) and specific growth rate (1.01± 0.02 % day<sup>-1</sup>) were also found to be highest in T<sub>1</sub> compared to the T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>. Feed were applied twice a day up to satiation level using feeding tray to check feeding performance of fish. Water quality parameters like temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and alkalinity were in the optimum range for fish culture. Results from the present study clearly indicate that live fish spawn and vermi compost is suitable for the grow-out culture of <em>M. cuchia</em> in earthen ponds for its better growth, survival rate and production.</p> David Rintu Das, Shishir Kumar Dey, Mahmudul Hasan Mithun, Md. Moniruzzaman, Md. Khalilur Rahman, Yahia Mahmud Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-04 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 COLLECTION AND TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM SOLID WASTE DUMPS: A STUDY OF KIDWAINAGAR MUZAFFARNAGAR LEACHATE LANDFILL SITE https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/531 <p>Due to high urbanization and population growth, the municipal solid waste generation is also increasing with an alarming rate. In India, Uttar Pradesh is the largest populated state in which Muzaffarnagar is also a rapidly urbanizing and populated city. The annual population rate of Muzaffarnagar is almost double the national average. Muzaffarnagar is an agricultural and commercial hub as it is the Asia’s largest supply market of jiggery and sugar. There are many sugar and paper mills and other industries producing large amount of solid waste. The increase on population producing about 2500 tones/ day of MSW out of which only 60-65% are collected by municipal authorities and rest of the municipal solid waste remains untreated and dumped at the empty spaces to form a pile of waste in open landfill Areas. Due to percolation of rain water and squeezing of waste, the leachate generated which causes the surrounding surface water, soil structure gets polluted. In this case study we have discussed about the characteristics of solid waste and leachate generation of Kidwai Nagar Muzaffarnagar landfill leachate site in different meteorological conditions so that the future planning and the proper management of surrounding water bodies and soil structure can be carried out.</p> DHAWAL JAIN, Dr. S.K. SINGH Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/531 Job satisfaction of local extension agents for fisheries: Insights from farm level survey in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-03 <p>The present study was conducted to assess job satisfaction of local extension agents for <br />fisheries (from here and later in LEAFs) in Melandaha and Islampur sub-districts under Jamalpur district of Bangladesh. Data were collected by the researchers from LEAFs during September to November 2021 through face-to-face interviews by using a structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics, rank order, and coefficient of correlation were used to analyze the data. Almost all of LEAFs (97.8 percent) had low to medium job satisfaction in extension service delivery. Among fifteen job satisfaction indicators, ‘supervisor’s guidance’ was identified as the most important one. The least ranked indicator was ‘job security’. Correlation analysis showed that age, level of education, job experience, training exposure, and organizational participation of LEAFs are significantly associated with their job satisfaction. All of the LEAFs (100 percent) faced medium to high problems in the research area. The most severe of the fourteen problems was ‘farmers’ reluctance to accept new technologies,’ followed by ‘shortage of manpower’. The least important problem of LEAFs was ‘farmers are non–cooperative’. Therefore, it is highly recommended that if an advance training program for LEAFs could be organized to solve their problems, it would be great to get quality extension services and build a well-organized fisheries sector in Bangladesh which will finally help to enhance nutritional security and poverty reduction in the country.</p> Most. Shamsia Kowsari, Fatema Zannat Lizu Moni, Mohammad Hammadur Rahman, Md. Nur Alom Sarkar Mithun Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-03 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Rapeseed Growers’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) and Participate for Improved Pollination Service Employing Honeybees: A case from Haripurwa, Sarlahi, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/529 <p><em>Management of honeybee to increase rapeseed productivity come with the burden of a new enterprise to farmers. A mutualistic practice of rapeseed growers exploiting community bee-keepers for improved pollination service is non-existent and neglected at the policy level in Nepal. So, there is a need to explore such an unexploited interaction between the two as rapeseed is recognized as a pollinator deficit crop in Nepalese context. A deal has to be broken between rapeseed growers and bee-keepers. This study aims both to elicit rapeseed growers' willingness to pay (WTP) for improved pollination service and to identify various factors that affect the WTP amount. It also aims to estimate rapeseed growers’ willingness to participate in such an interactive program and identify various factors affecting it, separately. Double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation model (DBDC-CVM) and logit model were applied. Findings show that rapeseed growers are willing to pay Nrs. 4976/ha to bee-keepers in exchange for improved pollination service. The WTP was positively and significantly influenced by land holding, pollination awareness, and economic status while the experience of farming and age had a negative significant influence. Similarly, participation decision was positively and significantly influenced by age, landholding, primary occupation, economic status, and membership in farmers' groups or co-operatives. The findings show new opportunities for bee-keepers and rapeseed growers towards mutual benefits and sustainability. </em></p> Pralhad Bajgain Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/529 Floristic divergence of weeds in rice fields under subtropical condition https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-020 <p>Weed infestation pattern changes over time for continuous adaptation of similar weed control methods. So, a survey was conducted at Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University from July 2019 to June 2020 to identify the most dominant and abundant weed species as well as to indicate the probable problematic weed in <em>boro </em>and <em>T. aman </em>rice. Seven fields were randomly selected for each of the <em>boro</em> and <em>T. aman </em>rice. The surveys were performed according to quantitative survey technique by using 0.25m<sup>2</sup> quadrate with 16 samples from each of the field following the zig-zag method. Sampling was done twice, while the rice plants were at the vegetative stage and at reproductive stage. Fifty one weed species under 23 families were recorded at experimental area of which 42 species (under 18 families) and 38 species (under 20 families) were observed in <em>boro </em>and <em>T. aman</em>, respectively. Poaceae topped the list with 10 species, while Cyperaceae ranked second with six species. The highest number of weed species (no. 42) was observed in <em>boro </em>rice compared to <em>T. aman</em> rice (no. 38). Besides, divergence in the weed composition was also high between both rice fields. Among the 11 abundant weed species, <em>Eleocharis atropurpurea</em>,<em> Echinochloa crusgalli </em>and <em>Monochoria vaginalis</em> were the most frequent and abundant weed species found in both <em>boro</em> rice and <em>T. aman</em> rice. Broadleaves had higher abundance value (246.26% in <em>boro</em> and 332.39% in <em>T. aman</em>) than grasses (188.76% in <em>boro</em> and 146.68% in <em>T. aman</em>) and sedges (164.98% in<em> boro </em>and 120.93% in <em>T. aman</em>). Moreover, the annuals were dominant over the perennials. Therefore, the present results having diversified weed species with different ranks and orders indicated that the weed management strategies should be taken regarding the infestation of dominant weed species of the respective crop.</p> Sirajam Monira, Md. Imran Ali, Uttam Kumer Sarker, Mahfuza Begum, Md. Romij Uddin Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-020 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes for spot blotch (Bipolaris sorokiniana Sacc) resistance in terai condition of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-019 <p>Spot blotch caused by&nbsp;<em>Bipolaris sorokiniana</em>&nbsp;is a major disease of wheat in warm and humid regions of Nepal. The fungus has a worldwide distribution but as a pathogen, it is the most aggressive under the conditions of high relative humidity and temperature associated with the low fertility of soils in Nepal. The yield loss due to the disease is very significant in Nepal. This experiment was conducted to identify the genotypes having a good level of resistance against spot blotch. The experiment set was received from CIMMYT comprises 52 genotypes and arranged in alpha lattice design with two replications in 2017/18 at National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa, Nepal, and Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal. Each plot size was 8 rows of 2 meters long. Three times disease scoring was done in the double-digit method and calculated the Area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). Other data were analyzed by using R software (4.2.2). Heading days, days to maturity, plant height, number of grains per spike (NGPS), number of tillers per meter square (NTPM), mean AUDPC, thousand-grain weight (TGW), and grain yield were found highly significant. The genotype 8HLBSN47 was found the highest yielder (4996kg/ha) with a 304 mean AUDPC value. Seventeen genotypes (15.3%) found the lowest mean AUDPC, Penultimate leaf AUDPC, Flag leaf AUDPC, and the highest number of tillers per square meter, number of grains per spike, thousand-grain weight, and grain yield.</p> Roshan Basnet, Sundar Man Shrestha, Deepak Bandari, Hira Kaji Manandhar, Dhruba Bahadur Thapa Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-019 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the influence of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of Black gram (Vigna mungo L.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-015 <p>The present study was undertaken to observe the effect of combined application of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and yield contributing characters of black gram. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The experiment comprises eight treatments viz. Control (no application of manures and fertilizer), Recommended doses of fertilizer (RDF), Cowdung @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + 50% of RDF, Poultry manure @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + 50% of RDF, Vermicompost @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + 50% of RDF, Cowdung @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + Poultry manure @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + 50% of RDF, Cowdung @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + Vermicompost @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + 50% of RDF and Poultry manure @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + Vermicompost @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + 50% of RDF. Combined application of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers exerted significance influence on growth, yield and yield contributing characters of black gram. At growth, the tallest plant (38.74 cm), the highest number of leaves plant<sup>-1 </sup>(15.55), leaf dry weight plant<sup>-1</sup> (6.99 g) and stem dry weight plant<sup>-1</sup> (3.01 g) of black gram at 50 days after sowing (DAS) were obtained from poultry manure @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and vermicompost @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> along with 50% of RDF. While, at 50 DAS, the highest number of nodules plant<sup>-1</sup> (55.22) was recorded from cowdung @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> along with 50% of RDF and the highest number of SPAD value plant<sup>-1 </sup>(42.03) was found in poultry manure @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> along with 50% of RDF. Again, at maturity, the highest number of seeds pod<sup>-1</sup> (5.86), yield plant<sup>-1</sup> (7.77 g), grain yield m<sup>-2</sup> (130.70 g) and total dry weight plant<sup>-1</sup> (17.21 g) were obtained from poultry manure @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and vermicompost @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> along with 50% of RDF. Therefore, it can be concluded that poultry manure @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and vermicompost @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> along with 50% of RDF combination might be a promising practice for black gram cultivation.</p> Md. Asif Mahamud, Most. Mamnuna Rahman, Md. Abu Hassan, Md. Maniruzzaman Bahadur, Annika Sal Sabil, Shahin Imran, Newton Chandra Paul Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-015 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of chemical fungicides against the fusarium rhizome rot of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-014 <p>The present investigation was conducted to analyze efficacy of different commercially available fungicides against the Fusarium spp. causing rhizome rot of ginger adopting poison food technique. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 8 treatment and 3 replications. The fungicides SAAF (Carbendazim 12% WP + Mancozeb WP 63%), Nativo (Tebuconazole 50% WP + Trifloxystrobin 25% WP), Caviet (Tebuconazole 25% WP), Kingsin M (Thiophanate –methyl 70%WP), Moximate (Cymoxil 8% WP + Mancozeb 64% WP), Custodia (Azoxystrobin 11% SC + Tebuconazole 18.3% SC), Melody duo (Iprovalicarp 5.5% WP + Probineb 61.5% WP) were used as a treatment for poison food technique. The results of this study indicated that there was a highly significant difference (p≤0.001) among the treatments in mycelial growth of the pathogen and inhibition of pathogen by different fungicides. The maximum mycelial growth of pathogen was observed on control plate (79.67mm) which was followed by melody duo and Moximate with the radial mycelial growth of 57.33mm and 55.83mm, respectively. Whereas the least mycelial growth of pathogen was recorded in SAAF (0.00mm) which was followed by Nativo, Custodia, Caviet and Kingsin M with the radial mycelial growth of 10.33mm, 14.83mm, 15.50, 21.83mm, respectively. Therefore, SAAF fully inhibited the growth of pathogen and found most effective which was followed by Nativo, Custodia, and Caviet with 87.04%, 81.40%, 80.55%, respectively.</p> Madan Ghimire, Nirmal Adhikari, Suraj Puri, Smriti Baral, Bibhusha Basnet Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-014 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Economics of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production and marketing in Darchula district of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-013 <p>The potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em>) is a popular root vegetable that is grown all over the world. Potato production is popular in Nepal because of its greater adaptability, high yield potential, and high demand, contributing 6.57 percent to AGDP and 2.17 percent to GDP. In Nepal, it is grown on 197,037 hectares (ha) with a yield of 13.13 metric tons per hectare and a total production of 2,586,287 metric tons. The major objective of our research was to analyze the economics and marketing state of potatoes in Api-Himal rural municipality Darchula, Nepal where a survey on potato production and marketing was conducted. A total of 60 households were randomly sampled and interviewed as the primary source of information for the research. For the residents of Api-Himal RM, there are few options for sustenance and revenue generation. The area is ideal for potato farming, and potato trading has a direct impact on rural communities' livelihoods. The B/C ratio was found to be 1.62 in the research area. The average cost of potato production was Rs. 2,67,319 while the average return was Rs. 4,32,804. The research focuses on the marketing and production of potatoes from the growers to the final customers. Low yield, insect and disease infestation, and a lack of government support are among the issues. To promote the production and marketing of potatoes, availability of improved technology, an extension of technical knowledge, efficient management of marketing channels and substantial financial support by the government as well as local bodies are recommended.</p> Bijay Chauhan, Dipesh Joshi, Dinanath Banjade, Bishnu Datt Bhatta, Prateek Awasthi, Mukesh Paneru, Madan Shrestha, Prakash Bahadur Chand Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-013 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Integrated nutrient management practices affect the growth performance of aromatic fine rice varieties in Boro season https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-09 <p>The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University during November 2016 to April 2017 to investigate the effect of nutrient management on the growth performance of some aromatic rice varieties in <em>Boro</em> season. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications considering two factors <em>viz</em>. varieties and nutrient management. This experiment consisted of three varieties <em>viz</em>., BRRI dhan50, Basmati and BRRI dhan63, and seven nutrient managements <em>viz.,</em> poultry manure 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (i.e. 250, 126, 120, 100 and 10 kg N-P-K-S-Zn, respectively ha<sup>-1</sup>), 25% less than recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + poultry manure @ 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, 50% less than recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + poultry manure @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, vermicompost @ 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, 25% less than recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + vermicompost @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and 50% less than recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + vermicompost @ 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. The results revealed that variety, nutrient management and their interaction exerted significant influence on growth characters of aromatic fine rice in <em>Boro</em> season. The highest plant height (55.14 cm, 66.14 cm) at 70 and 85 DAT, dry matter hill<sup>-1</sup> (15.39 g) at 85 DAT and chlorophyll content (39.29) at 55 DAT was recorded from BRRI dhan63. While, Basmati produced the highest leaf area index (0.60) at 60 DAT and the highest number of total tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (11.52, 10.81, 9.619) was obtained from BRRI dhan50 at 55, 70, 85 DAT. In case of nutrient management practices, 25% less than recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + vermicompost 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> produced the highest plant height (45.22cm, 55.22cm, 65.67 cm) at 55, 70, 85 DAT, leaf area index (0.70) at 60 DAT and chlorophyll content (41.56) at 55 DAT, respectively. Again, from the interaction, it was observed that all the growth parameters were significantly influenced and increased with suitable variety along with proper nutrient management. Therefore, from this study, it can be decided that BRRI dhan63 fertilized along with 25% less than recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + vermicompost 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> might be the best possible combination for proper growth of plant.</p> Antora Adhikari, Kallyan Kanty Saha, Newton Chandra Paul, Md Abdur Rahman Sarkar, Shubroto Kumar Sarkar, Swapan Kumar Paul Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-09 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of Purple rice cultivar under different hill density https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-08 <p>Purple rice has become a fascinating source of nutritional value among healthy cereal grains. A field experiment was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural University during the <em>Rabi </em>season (February to May) of 2021 to evaluate the effect of number of seedlings/hill on growth, yield attributes and yield of Purple rice. Three seedling densities, <em>viz</em>. 1, 2 and 3 seedlings/hill, and three rice cultivars, <em>viz</em>. Purple rice, Pahari rice and a check BRRI dhan67 were experimental treatments and the experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Results revealed that seedling number/hill had significant effects on the growth, yield and yield attributes of rice cultivars. The tallest plant (136.31 cm) was observed from the transplanting of 1 seedling/hill followed by 2 seedlings/hill (133.35 cm) in Pahari rice. The maximum values of the number of effective tillers (13.47; Purple rice), flag leaf length and width (41.36 and 1.24 cm; Pahari rice) were recorded from the treatment 2 seedlings/hill. The longest panicle (26.58 cm; Pahari rice) was observed in 1 seedling/hill, statistically, a similar value was found with 2 seedlings/hill (24.44 cm). Among rice cultivars, BRRI dhan67 produced the heaviest grains (1000-seed weight 23.96 g) with 2 seedlings/hill and maximum grain yield (6.35 t/ha) with 1 seedling/hill. Single seedling/hill was found to be the best management practice to get a higher yield per unit area for Purple rice and other rice cultivars also.</p> Most. Morsada Khatun, M. Ashrafuzzaman, A.K.M. Golam Sarwar Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-08 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of citric acid (CA) priming and exogenous application on germination and early seedling growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) plants under salinity stress condition https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-03 <p>Salinity is a significant barrier to the healthy germination of seeds, the development of seedlings and ultimately the yield of crops. Salinity tolerance can be effectively induced through seed priming and exogenous application of various treatment agents. The vegetable crop okra is a healthy and well-liked one worldwide. Literature shows that salt stress negatively disturbs the growth of okra plants. In the present research, we investigated the effects of citric acid (CA) as priming and exogenous agents to alleviate the salinity-inhibited germination and early growth of okra plants. The seeds were pretreated with CA (1 mM and 2 mM) and soaked in distilled water (control) for 60 min. Germinated seeds were grown in hydroponic solution and subjected to salt stress (50 mM and 100 mM NaCl) with three independent replications and same concentrations of CA (1 mM and 2 mM) were exogenously sprayed. Our results showed that, seed priming with 1 mM CA significantly produced the highest percentage of germination (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), seed vigor index (SVI), radicle length and weight, hypocotyl length and weight, and number of lateral roots while decreased mean germination time of okra seeds while compared to the control treatment. Additionally, the findings demonstrated that salt stress dramatically reduced root and shoot length, plant height, root and shoot fresh weight and dry weight, and relative water content (RWC). Under salt stress, the addition of 1 mM and 2 mM CA significantly increased the RWC, root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, and plant height. These results provide information that CA priming improves germination parameters and exogenous treatments can improve the salt tolerance, and seedling characteristics of okra. Therefore, our results suggest that 1 mM CA can be utilized as a seed priming and exogenous application agent reducing the impacts of salt stress and promoting early seedling development of okra.</p> Jotirmoy Chakrobortty, Shahin Imran, Md. Asif Mahamud, Prosenjit Sarker, Newton Chandra Paul Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-03 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and yield of short duration Aman rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars as influenced by age of seedlings https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-01 <p>An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh during the period from July to December 2019 to study the effect of cultivar and seedling age on the performance of short duration transplant <em>Aman</em> rice. The experiment comprised four <em>Aman</em> rice cultivars, viz., BRRI dhan49, BRRI dhan56, BRRI dhan66 and BRRI dhan71, and four seedling ages viz. 20, 25, 30 and 35-day old seedlings. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results of the study showed that growth, yield and yield contributing characters were significantly influenced by cultivars, seedlings age and their interactions. At growth stage, BRRI dhan49 with 20-day old seedlings produced the tallest plant (57.67 cm and 67.33 cm, respectively), the highest number of total tillers hill<sup>-1 </sup>(15.00 and 13.67, respectively) and total dry matter (8.03 g m<sup>-2 </sup>and 11.50 g m<sup>-2</sup>, respectively) at 30 and 50 DAT. At harvest, the highest number of total and effective tillers hill<sup>-1 </sup>(12.82 and 12.00), longest panicle (24.50 cm), highest number of grains panicle<sup>-1 </sup>(128.80), heaviest 1000-grain weight (23.17 g), highest grain yield (5.35 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and highest harvest index (51.69 %) were obtained from the cultivar BRRI dhan66. While, thirty-day old seedlings produced the highest number of total and effective tillers hill<sup>-1 </sup>(13.46 and 12.70), longest panicle (24.67 cm), highest number of grains panicle<sup>-1 </sup>(136.90), highest grain (5.62 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw yields (5.81 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and harvest index (51.67 %). In case of interactions, BRRI dhan66 with 30-day old seedlings produced the highest number of total and effective tillers hill<sup>-1 </sup>(14.67 and 13.97), longest panicle (26.00 cm), highest number of grains panicle<sup>-1 </sup>(146.7), highest grain yield (6.31 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and highest harvest index (52.72 %). So, result of the present study reveals that BRRI dhan66 with 30-days old seedlings was found to be the best for obtaining maximum grain yield.</p> Nayema Aktar, Rakibul Hasan Md. Rabbi, Newton Chandra Paul, Shahin Imran, Md Asif Mahamud, Ahmed Khairul Hasan, Md. Abdus Salam Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-01 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Farmers’ knowledge and adoption of improved mandarin orchard management practices in Syangja district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-02 <p>Mandarin is one of the major fruit crops in the mid-hills of Nepal. Since improved farming practices appear to offer a significant chance to boost production and revenue, a study was conducted in Syangja, Nepal with the objective to assess farmers’ knowledge and adoption of improved mandarin orchard management practices and identify factors affecting their adoption. Primary data were collected by the use of pretested semi-structured questionnaire from randomly selected 97 respondents within the study area. Data were entered and analyzed using MS Excel, SPSS, and STATA, and the inferences were retrieved using the binary logistic regression model. Findings revealed that the respondents were familiar with most of the improved orchard management practices, however, there was variation in the scale of adoption of these practices. The majority (&gt;90%) were found to practice pruning, FYM application, and weed control; however, there were relatively fewer adopters when it came to the use of Bordeaux paste (75.25%), chemical fertilizers (17.52%), mulching (57.74%), irrigation (44.33%), and soil testing and amendment (39.18%). The study showed that the adoption of Bordeaux paste and soil amendment differ significantly by gender (p=0.069 and p=0.041, respectively). Training has a positive impact on the use of Bordeaux paste (p=0.026), chemical fertilizers (p=0.075), and soil amendment practices (p=0.003). The usage of chemical fertilizers is more prevalent among people with formal education (p=0.075). Knowledge level also positively influences the adoption of mulching (p=0.014) and soil amendment practices (p=0.000). The number of trees is positively and significantly associated (p=0.008) with irrigation practice. It is recommended that expanding access to irrigation facilities and encouraging the use of the recommended amount of fertilizers, mulch, and Bordeaux paste must be prioritized in the study area.</p> Aashish Bhandari, Hom Nath Giri, Santosh Subedi Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-02 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF FOLIAR SPRAYING WITH MICRONUTRIENTS ON FLOWERING AND FRUIT SET OF MANDARIN (Citrus reticulata Blanco) IN GORKHA, NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/515 <p>The research was carried out in Citrus Zone, Gorkha during the spring season of 2022 to find out the effect of foliar application of micronutrients in the flowering and fruit setting of mandarin (<em>Citrus reticulata</em> Blanco). The experiment was laid out in one factor randomized complete block design (RCBD) with six treatments and four replications. The treatments consist of foliar application of different combination of Zinc, Boron and Iron namely: 0.1% Zn + 0.03% B, 0.1% Zn + 0.02% Fe, 0.03% B + 0.02% Fe, 0.1% Zn + 0.03% B + 0.02% Fe, 0.15% Zn + 0.05% B + 0.04% Fe and Control (water spray). Twenty-four trees of the same age and height were chosen from the East-facing slope. The soil of the research orchard was loamy. The spray solution was made using standard procedures. Foliar application of the micronutrients was done twice, the first application was done before 25 days of the flowering, and a second application was done after 2 days of full bloom. The data was first entered in MS excel and R-Stat was used for further analysis of the parameters. The application of 0.15% Zn + 0.05% B + 0.04% Fe was most effective for enhancing flowering and fruit set as well as reducing the fruit drop in mandarin than other treatments. The results revealed that the different combinations of micronutrients significantly influenced flowering, fruit setting percentage, and fruit drop percentage.</p> Sudip Tiwari, Binaya Baral, Sandeep Gouli, Sandesh Adhikari, Shiva Chandra Dhakal Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/515 Isolation, screening and molecular identification of antagonistic bacteria against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in mango https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-018 <p>The study was conducted at the Postharvest and plant Biotechnology laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali, Bangladesh during the period from January to July 2017 to isolate, screening and molecular identification of antagonistic bacteria against anthracnose of mango. All treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with replications and repeated twice. Epiphytic bacteria, isolated from leaf and fruit surfaces of mango, were tested as biocontrol agent against anthracnose disease caused by <em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</em> wherein 20 strains were confirmed as antagonistic. Molecular characterization of the three potential strains of bacteria were done by the amplification of 16S rDNA gene following the extraction of genomic DNA, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, gel electrophoresis and gel documentation. The PCR amplified products and the genomic DNA samples were sent to the Macrogen Company through Sunchon National University, Seoul, South Korea for molecular identification by sequence analysis. Among the 20 antagonistic bacteria screened <em>in vitro </em>by dual and concomitant tests, two isolates, namely GB6 (PSTU-Hort-8), and GB19 (PSTU-Hort-14) were recognized as antagonistics to the test fungus. Using the molecular identification systems, isolated bacterial strains PSTU-Hort-8 was identified as <em>B. subtilis</em> with National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) accession numbers MW659188; on the other hand, strain PSTU-Hort-14 was identified as <em>Stenotrophomonas rhizophila </em>with NCBI accession number MW659190.</p> Md. Nazmul Hasan Mehedi, Mahbub Robbani, Md. Fakhrul Hasan, Habibur Rahman, Md. Nazmul Hasan Mehedi, Shah Md. Asraful Islam Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-018 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of different doses of NPK on growth and yield of rice bean (Vigna umbellata) in Khadbari, Sankhuwasabha, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-01 <p>An essential cultural technique for ensuring correct development and maximizing output is administering fertilizer sources for the crops. The experiment was carried out from February 2022 to May 2022 at Khadbari-3, Maruwa, Sankhuwasabha, to determine the efficacy of various dosages of NPK on the growth performance of the rice bean variety (Sunehri). The trial used a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with seven treatments replicated three times. The treatments were listed and named as T1 (0:0:0 kg NPK/ha); T2 (20:30:10 kg NPK/ha) (Recommended dose); T3 (10:20:15 kg NPK/ha); T4 (40:80:40 kg NPK/ha); T5 (20:20:20 kg NPK/ha); T6 (80:100:60 kg NPK/ha); and T7 (20:0:30 kg NPK/ha), respectively. The experimental results revealed that the highest yield/plant (39g) was obtained from the plot treated with T4 (40:80:40 kg NPK/ha), followed by 24.93 g and 24.13 g from the plot receiving T2 (20:30:10 kg NPK/ha) and T6 (80:100:60 kg NPK/ha), respectively. The lowest yield of 14.07 g was obtained from the control plot, followed by 15.27 g and 21.20 g from the plot receiving T7 (20:0:30 kg NPK/ha) and T3 (10:20:15 kg NPK/ha), respectively. Vegetative parameters such as plant height, branch numbers, and leaves numbers were recorded as a maximum of 19.72 cm, 6.88, and 18.97 in plots treated with T5 (20:20:20 kg NPK/ha), T7 (20:0:30 kg NPK/ha), and T1 (0:0:0 kg NPK/ha), consecutively, and corresponding minimum values were found 18.12 cm, 5.36 and 15.63 in T3 (10:20:15 kg NPK/ha), T1 (0:0:0 kg NPK/ha), and T7 (20:0:30 kg NPK/ha), respectively. Conclusively, the study's findings suggest that the rice bean crop responds to fertilizers and applying T4 (40:80:40 kg NPK/ha) enhances crop production considerably.</p> Gaurab Yadav, Saroj Rai, Nirmal Adhikari, Shubh Pravat Singh Yadav, Susmita Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-04-01 Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF APPLE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN MUSTANG DISTRICT OF NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/512 <p>A survey on economic analysis of apple production and marketing was carried out in the Mustang district of Nepal in 2021. Simple random sampling was used to select 100 households, and snowball sampling was used to select 10 traders for the market study. Respondents were interviewed using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire in order to collect data. Analysis of the data was done using SPSS and Excel. On an average, surveyed households had 10.86 ropani (0.55 hectares) of land under apple production, with an average of 152.96 fruit-bearing and 59.06 non-bearing trees. Economic analysis for a period of 20 years revealed that the benefit cost ratio, net present value, internal rate of return and payback period were 1.98, NRs. 2,774,237, 22.59% and 9 years, 10 months and 10 days respectively. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the business could withstand a 10% cost increase and a one-year production delay. The majority of the farmers (94%) reported selling their produce to contractors through hedging practice where the marketing margin and producer share were Rs. 100 and 44.44%, respectively. The primary problems for apple production were discovered to be the prevalence of insect pests and disease. Similarly, a significant issue with marketing was price variance. According to the study's findings, apple production in Mustang is financially feasible but requires further research into alternative pest and disease management techniques as well as involvement in the creation of marketing systems to reduce price variation.</p> Biraj Sharma Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/512 Farming in the mountains of Nepal: crops, soil fertility, livelihoods and farm-forest linkages https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-021 <p>In national plans, policies, and earlier development programs, livelihoods of mountain people in the Nepal Himalayas were overlooked, rendering them more susceptible to climatic risk and disaster. The management of marginal mountain agricultural land is crucial for food security, improved living conditions, and environmental protection. For enhancing livelihoods and ecological benefits, mountain agriculture is vital, however, a consolidated review on mountain farming is limited in Nepal. We used "mountain" AND "Nepal" AND "farming" OR "agriculture" in the literature's title published between 1978 and 2021 on Google Scholar and did an in-depth review of papers on the four thematic areas: mountain crops, soil fertility, livelihoods, and farm-forestry linkages. We observed a variety of nutrient-rich mountain crops with a market potential as niche products, low and deteriorating soil fertility of agricultural lands, a weakening of the farm-forest links, and an increase in the diversity of mountain livelihood choices. Small landholdings, labor outmigration mainly men, feminization of mountain farming, and food insecurity are the greatest challenges to the growth of agriculture in mountainous regions. There are, however, ample opportunities to make mountain regions green through agroforestry and community forests, to improve livelihoods by introducing niche value chains for products, to explore payment for ecosystem services through downstream-upstream linkages, and to recognize their traditional knowledge and practices through citizen science research and development.</p> Prakriti Gauli, Suraj Bhatta, Satish Kumar Singh, Kshitiz Shrestha, Bimala Nidal, Kishor Atreya Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-021 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Storage Structures and Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Post-harvest Quality of Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Dhankuta, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/508 <p>An experiment was conducted during January 2021 to March 2021 at horticulture lab of National Citrus Research Program, Paripatle, Dhankuta, Nepal to evaluate the effect of storage structures and modified atmosphere packaging on maintaining the shelf life and quality of mandarin orange. Laboratory experiment was conducted under two factor RCBD with 15 treatments replicated thrice namely room storage, cellar storage and CoolBot storage as first factor and packaging materials- control, 2 holes plastic packaging, 4 holes plastic packaging, 6 holes plastic packaging and 8 holes plastic packaging as second factor. Mandarin at room storage was kept at temperature 15.98± 0.89 <sup>0 </sup>C and RH of 71.15± 5.80%, the temperature and RH of cellar storage &amp; CoolBot storage was 14.72 ± 1.20&nbsp; <sup>0 </sup>C ,94.28 ± 5.71 % &amp; 8.12 ± 0.44 <sup>0 </sup>C and 79.43 ± 4.54% respectively. At 49<sup>th</sup> day lowest physiological loss in weight was observed in case of 8 holes plastic packaging in CoolBot (9.00 %) compared to control in room storage (23.66 %). Greater TSS was observed in case of room storage and also in control. TA of the fruit was observed lowest in case of room storage. Highest TSS/TA at 45 DOS was observed in case of control under room storage. Results for vitamin-c and shelf life was found superior in case of CoolBot storage with 8 holes plastic packaging. In a nutshell, CoolBot storage with 8 holes plastic packaging showed superior result for most of the parameters, prolonging the shelf life of mandarin orange.</p> Sagar Bhusal, Susmita Adhikari, Bibek Acharya, Dr. Homnath Giri, Prof. Dr. Arjun Kumar Shrestha, Dr. Umesh Kumar Acharya Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/508 Participatory on-farm evaluation and demonstration of improved potato varieties (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Bonke and Derashe Special districts of SNNPR, Ethiopia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/507 <p>Potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum </em>L<em>.)</em> is the most important food security crop in Ethiopia and it is regularly consumed by millions of people. Despite its sundry importance, potato production and productivity are affected by a couple of biotic and abiotic factors, particularly in the study areas. Thus, participatory on-farm evaluation and demonstration of improved potato varieties were conducted in Derashe Special and Bonke districts in Southern Ethiopia. A single plot design (side-to-side comparison) was adopted and each variety (Horo and Gudane) was planted on the 10m*20m land area. A capacity-building training was delivered to selected farmers, extension agents, and other subject matter specialists (SMSs) on potato agronomic practices. A matrix ranking approach was adopted during technology evaluation and varietal preferences by farmers. At plant physiological maturity, a field day was organized and technology was promoted by using different media outlets. The yield performance result revealed that the Horo variety could significantly (p&lt;0.05) perform over the Gudane variety (49.9±6.8 t ha-1 and 33.5±15.2 t ha-1, respectively); that is a 49.23% higher yield advantage over Gudane. The Horo variety had a higher net return (242,026 ETB) than Gudane (107,619 ETB) variety. Moreover, the farmer's evaluation and preference result showed that improved potato variety (Horo) was ranked as the first choice over Gudane. Therefore, based on the present findings, the Horo variety was recommended for further scaling out and production in the study areas and other similar agroecology.</p> Solomon Yokamo, Melese Ejamo, Anteneh Bulke, Kanko Chuntale Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/507 Analysis of profitability and effect of factors of production in paddy cultivation in Morang, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-017 <p>Paddy is one of the principal food crops in Nepal. Most of the Nepalese farmers are currently utilizing inputs in an unscientific manner due to lack of information about the most efficient use of resources, resulting in low yield and efficiency. This study was conducted for the analysis of profitability and effect of factors of production in paddy cultivation in Morang district of Nepal. A sample of 120 paddy growers were selected from 4350 paddy farmers registered in PMAMP, Rice zone, Morang using Simple Random Sampling Technique. Primary and secondary data were collected using face-to-face interview schedule and reviewing different articles and journals. Data collected were entered, tabulated and analyzed using MS-Excel and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency, and percentage were used to study farmer's socio-economic characteristics while inferential statistics was used in analysing the influence of production factors using Cobb-Douglas production function. The total cost of paddy production, gross income, and net income per hectare was found to be Rs.70,082.65, Rs.1,11,171.23 and Rs.41,088.57 respectively whereas productivity of paddy was found to be 4.32 MT/ha. The BC ratio 1.66 indicates that it is a profitable enterprise. The labor cost contributed most to the variable cost with 45.48%. Moreover, independent variables such as seed, labor and mechanical power contributed significantly to the yield. Therefore, paddy farming should be encouraged among farmers by increasing the availability and affordability of inputs while also improving food security.</p> Bibhusha Basnet, Gaurab Luitel, Ashok Sah, Smriti Baral, Madan Ghimire Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-017 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Shifting from paddy production for aquaculture: An economic study in a selected area of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-016 <p>Shifting rice cultivation to aquaculture is a burning issue of agricultural land use policy in Bangladesh. The study was conducted to identify the reasons for change the paddy farming to fish culture and relative profitability of both enterprises randomly selected 50 sample farmers from Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. Primary data were collected through field survey. Mostly tabular analysis was done to achieve the objectives. To determine the net return of fish and rice production, profitability analysis was applied. The findings revealed that 70% of the respondents belonged to the age group of 30-64 years and average annual income and expenditure were Tk. 2333234 (US$ 24874.56) and Tk. 2025860 (US$ 21597.65), respectively. About 96 % of the respondents said that the profit motive was one of the main reasons to shift rice farming to aquaculture. Per hectare per/season gross margin and net return were Tk. 545994 (US$ 5820.83) and Tk. 487494 (US$ 5197.16), respectively for fish culture and Tk. 16404.00 (US$ 174.88) and Tk. 7064.00 (US$ 75.31), respectively, for rice cultivation. The BCR of fish culture and rice cultivation was 1.86 and 1.07, respectively (Full cost basis). Lower profit and scarcity of labour in harvesting period were the main problems faced by the rice farmers. Diseases and high feed cost were the main problems faced by the fish farmers. The fair price of paddy and the supply of paddy harvesting machineries need to be ensured by the government and other agencies to make profitable agribusiness by the rice farmers.</p> Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Muksadol Monim, Mezamun-Ara Mukta, Mashrufah Khatun, Ashley Comma Roy Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-016 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Shifting from paddy production for aquaculture: An economic study in a selected area of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/503 <p>Shifting rice cultivation to aquaculture is a burning issue of agricultural land use policy in Bangladesh. The study was conducted to identify the reasons for transforming from paddy farming to fish culture and relative profitability of fish and rice cultivation randomly selected 50 sample farmers from Bhaluka upazila of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. Primary data were collected through field survey. To determine the net return of fish and rice production, profitability analysis was applied. The findings revealed that 70% of the respondents belonged to the age group of 30-64 years, 46% of the respondents’ primary occupation was fish farming and 24% respondents’ primary occupation was agriculture. Average annual income and expenditure were Tk. 2333234 (US$ 24874.56) and Tk. 2025860 (US$ 21597.65), respectively. Average fish plot size and rice plot size were 280 decimals and 68.84 decimal respectively. About 90% of the respondents said that the main reason for shifting rice cultivation to fish culture was more profit in fish culture than rice cultivation. Per hectare per/six months gross margin and net return were Tk. 545994 (US$ 5820.83) and Tk. 487494 (US$ 5197.16), respectively for fish culture and per hectare per/season (six months) gross margin and net return were Tk. 16404.00 (US$ 174.88) and&nbsp; Tk. 7064.00 (US$ 75.31), respectively, for rice cultivation. The BCR of fish culture and rice cultivation was 1.86 and 1.07, respectively (Full cost basis). Lower profit and scarcity of labour in harvesting period were the main problems faced by the rice farmers. Diseases and high feed cost were the main problems faced by the fish farmers. The fair price of paddy and the supply of paddy harvesting machineries need to be ensured by the government and other agencies to make profitable agribusiness by the rice farmers.</p> Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Muksadol Monim, Mezamun-Ara Mukta, Mashrufah Khatun, Ashley Comma Roy Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/503 A review on soilless cultivation: The hope of urban agriculture https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-022 <p>The cultivation of plants without using soil as a rooting medium is known as soilless farming. Depending on the requirement and type of crop, there are several soilless systems, including hydroponic, aeroponic, vertical farming, and others. The rate at which megacities are growing is worrying. As a result, urban agriculture needs to undergo a revolution in order to address the problem of food scarcity and hunger. These significant quantitative and qualitative food concerns can be solved by soilless farming in urban environments. In greenhouses and tunnels, about 3.5% of the world's crops are produced utilizing soilless, hydroponic farming methods. People who reside in deserts, the arctic, and other difficult-to-farm places can build up hydroponic farms. Since there is no soil, there are fewer insects and weeds. Vegetables, fruits, flowers, and medicinal plants are among the crops grown in soilless or hydroponic systems. Growth media is used in soilless culture methods in place of soil. As growth media, inorganic or organic substrates (barks, coconut coir, coconut soil, fleece, marc, peat) are used. Aquaponics in Nepal has a promising future because it is still in its early phases and is expected to thrive and expand well. As a result, a variety of crops are produced year, increasing income. Soilless cultures are thought of as a recently found approach to agricultural development, yet they are extremely difficult to put into practice.</p> Dipesh Joshi, Anjal Nainabasti, Rita Bhandari, Prakash Awasthi, Dinanath Banjade, Santoshi Malla, Bishesh Subedi Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-022 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-economic analysis of coffee growers in Gulmi district of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-012 <p>Coffee is a major plantation cash crop of hills of Nepal. Gulmi is one of the popular districts for coffee production and export in Nepal. This research is an attempt to assess the production potentiality and profitability of coffee in Gulmi district. This study was carried out in four rural municipalities of Gulmi district namely Ruru rural municipality, Dhurkot rural municipality, Satyawoti rural municipality and Musikot municipality. A total of 100 samples (25 from each rural municipality) were selected using simple random sampling technique. Face to face (FtF) interview method was used to collect primary data using pretested semi-structured questionnaire. The economic indicators of coffee production like gross revenue, gross margin, benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and profitability index (PI) were calculated. BCR and PI were found to be 2.84± 0.59 and 2.50± 1.25, respectively. Gross margin per ropani was calculated to be NRs. 15675.29 ± 7189.72. The contribution of coffee in total household income was 12% in Gulmi showing it to be one of the major influencing commodities. The major production problem was found to be insect attack in the district while the major marketing problem was the low market price. The insights of this research were that coffee has the potentiality to uplift the rural income of Gulmi but at the same time there were poor extension services for coffee growers such that farmers had shown dissatisfaction towards coffee enterprise. Therefore, effective package of production and value chain monitoring should be introduced by the Nepal government in order to address the production and marketing constraints of coffee producers.</p> Sagar Bhandari, Tara Regmi, Sudhan Gautam, Om Prakash Gurung, Prapti Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-012 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of soil quality at selected sites around Karwi town, Chitrakoot (Uttar Pradesh), India https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-011 <p>Every living organism on this planet prioritises food. Sustainable crop production is the need of the present hour to fulfil the basic needs of the large population of the country. The production of any crop, along with many other factors, largely depends on the soil quality of the area. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to ascertain the quality of the soil in the study area. To fulfil the aim of the present study, four sites {Karwi Mafi (SS-1), Karwi (SS-2), Amanpur (SS-3), and Narainpur (SS-4)} were selected around Karwi town, Chitrakoot (Uttar Pradesh), India. The soil samples were collected from the selected sites following the Grab sampling method for 12 months (January 2021 to December 2021). A total of 80 soil samples were collected and analysed for various physical parameters, primary and secondary nutrients, micronutrients, and heavy metals. The results obtained showed that soil moisture ranged from 44.56% to 48.12%. Among all the four sites, the soil quality of SS-03 (pH=6.79±0.03) was observed to be slightly acidic in nature. Phosphorous ranged from 48.10 to 56.53 mg/kg. Similarly, all other studied primary and secondary nutrients were observed in sufficient quantity at all the study sites. The concentration of all the studied micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe) ranged from 0.95-1.31 mg/kg, 4.39-5.23 mg/kg, 2.47-3.62 mg/kg, 14.29-21.42 mg/kg, and 4.83-6.01 mg/kg, respectively. Chromium ranged from 0.96 to 1.58 mg/kg. On the basis of the present study, it can be concluded that the quality of soil in the study area is in good condition. The findings of the present study are important as they reveal the soil quality of pure residential and agricultural areas without any anthropogenic or natural dumping of solid or liquid waste.</p> Mukesh Ruhela, Sweta Bhardwaj, Vasudha Garg, Faheem Ahamad Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-011 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Importance, Biology, Epidemiology, and Management of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) of Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] in Ethiopia: A Review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/498 <p><em>Enset [</em>Ensete ventricosum <em>(Welw) Cheesman]</em><em> is an economically, nutritionally, and industrially important root crop in Ethiopia. Ethiopia is believed to be the center of origin and diversity of the cultivated enset crop. The crop has been cultivated in the country since time immemorial. The midlands and highlands of Ethiopia are suitable for enset cultivation, particularly southern and southwestern Ethiopia. However, many biotic and abiotic factors are negatively affecting and reducing the production and productivity of the crop in Ethiopia and elsewhere. Of the various bacterial plant diseases limiting enset productivity, bacterial wilt caused by </em>Xanthomonas campestris <em>pv. </em>musacearum <em>(</em>Xcm<em>) </em><em>is one of the major cosmopolitan and destructive pathogens in all enset- and banana-growing areas. Characteristics or distinguishing symptoms of the disease are yellowing and chlorosis of leaves, wilting, and yellowish secretion of bacterial ooze or exudate from the plant tissue, and dried and dead leftovers of enset plants. This piece of work was undertaken to: 1) review the economic importance and ecological requirements of enset and the extent of total yield loss due to </em>Xcm<em>; 2) review the biology and ecological requirements of the pathogen leading to epidemics; and 3) compile the management options for sustainable enset production and productivity. This review highlights various studies on the importance of the disease and the efforts employed so far in the management of this highly destructive disease to enset production. To achieve these objectives, data and information were gleaned from scientific journal publications, PhD dissertations, Master’s thesis, research reports, books and book chapters, proceedings and symposium papers, relevant compendia, internet resources, personal communications, and similar other resources. From the review insight, it is confirmed that there is no single best enset wilt management option available that farmers rely on and there is a lack of resistant varieties and absence of any work on crop gene improvement so far<strong>. </strong>Cultural and sanitary measures are the only methods most frequently used across the enset-growing areas and are found to be fruitful in community mobilization to create awareness among the farming community to manage the vascular disease by already known and cheap sanitary measures. Management methods, such as host resistance, botanicals, biological control, and biotechnology approaches also show promising management options against the disease. In conclusion, management of the disease relies on the integration of sanitary and cultural practices along with resistance for sustainable reduction of enset damage due to the disease on farmers’ fields and increased production and productivity of the crop in Ethiopia and elsewhere. In the future, the government has to consider the development of sustainable management strategies as a policy, and awareness creation through mass media and development agents are vital, while regular field monitoring and development of resistant/tolerant varieties are mandatory. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong>: Bacterial vascular wilt, Corm, Incidence, Prevalence, Pseudostem, Severity, Sucker, Variety, Yield loss<em>.</em></p> Malkamu Fufa Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/498 A comparative study of the effect of peeling and drying on phytochemical and proximate composition of ginger varieties in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-010 <p>The handling and processing of ginger are done by farmers in Nepal by following primitive practices that result in poor and unhygienically processed ginger of low quality. Due to little information on the quality and compositional aspects of ginger and its value-added product (essential oil), there is a need to improve traditional methods of processing and drying for a better quality of ginger and its product. This study aimed to assess the effects of peeling and drying conditions on two local ginger varieties in Nepal. A three-factor Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment was laid out at Ginger Research Program, Kapurkot, Salyan, Nepal. Three treatment factors were variety (Bose ginger and Nase ginger varieties), peeling (peeled and unpeeled ginger), and drying methods (direct sun drying and oven drying). After drying ginger rhizomes, the dry recovery percentage was calculated and the dried ginger <br />rhizomes were ground to powder and subjected to laboratory analysis, where essential oil content and proximate composition of ginger powder were evaluated. Then, the extracted essential oil was subjected to GC-MS (Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry) analysis to know the chemical composition of essential oil. The result obtained showed that unpeeled oven-dried gingers retained higher essential oil content (2 %). The moisture content of oven-dried peeled ginger was reduced to 10.49 % which is within the standard of 7-12 % acceptable to the international market unlike that of direct-sun drying which could only attain about 17% moisture content in the study area. Likewise higher dry recovery percentage (22.25%) was observed in unpeeled sun-dried gingers. Ether extract (5.05 %) and crude fiber (5.05 %) were higher in the Nase variety whereas nitrogen-free extract (75.51 %) was more efficient in Bose variety. From the GC-MS analysis of ginger oil, α-Zingiberene (16.61-21 %) was found to be a major chemical constituent of ginger essential oil followed by (E, E)-α-farnesene (8.68-10.99 %) and β-Sesquiphellandrene (8.26-10.23 %). The use of an oven to dry unpeeled ginger will improve the retention of essential oil; However, peeling of ginger showed reduced fiber content in the ginger.</p> Mamata K.C., Anuj Lamichhane, Saroj Sapkota Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-010 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of groundwater quality in a part of Tons river basin with the help of factor analysis https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/495 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>In this study, Factor analysis technique was applied on physico-chemical parameters of groundwater of shallow aquifer, collected from sixteen sampling sites for the year 2012and 2019. The factor analysis techniques are applied to ground water quality data sets obtained from the part of Tons river basin. The data obtained were standardized and subjected to factor extraction in simplifying its interpretation and to define the parameters responsible for the main variability in water quality. The objective is to evaluate the mutual correlations among the various water quality parameters to reveal the primary factors that affect reservoir water quality and the differences among the various water quality parameters. The factor analysis resulted in four &nbsp;and three factors explaining more than 86% and 80% of the total variation in ground water quality data set for 2012 and 2019 respectively. Multivariate statistical techniques are potential tools and provide greater precision for identifying contaminant parameters linkages with groundwater chemistry in the area.</p> Shikha Pant Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/495 Effect of foliar spray of ethephon doses and pruning intensities on growth, sex expression, and yield of cucumber (var- Bhaktapur local) in Kaski, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-07 <p>A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of foliar spray of ethephon doses and pruning intensities on the performance of Bhaktapur local cultivar of cucumber in Kaski, Nepal from Feb- May 2021. The study was laid out in Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD) with 2G and 3G cutting, and four different doses of ethephon (@125ppm, @250ppm, @375ppm @500ppm) as six treatments against control and were replicated four times with 28 plots each of 20.8 m<sup>2</sup> size having 4 rows with 4 plants per row. The data regarding plant height, leaf number, largest leaf area, days to 1<sup>st</sup> male and female flowering and fruit harvest, the total number of male and female flowers per plant, M: F flower ratio, fruit length, circumference, weight/fruit, fruit number per plant, fruit set % and yield were recorded and analyzed using MS-Excel and R-studio. The result revealed that growth and yield were significantly influenced by the levels of ethephon and pruning. Highest yield was recorded with ethephon @125ppm (83.54 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) which is as par with 3G (72.57 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) which was accompanied by a significantly higher number of fruits per plant {(125ppm=18.33), (3G=15.67)}, average fruit weight {(3G=674gm)}, (125ppm=608gm)}, and fruit set % {(3G=30.66 %)}, (125ppm=24.93 %)}. Significantly higher plant height (149.78 cm), and the highest number of leaves per plant (40) were recorded in control and Ethephon @125ppm at 50 DAT, respectively. The largest leaf area (626.84 cm<sup>2</sup>) was recorded in 2G which is at par with 3G (613.31 cm<sup>2</sup>) at 50 DAT. Higher dose of ethephon @500ppm (47.87 days) and 375 ppm (47.17 days) delayed days to 1<sup>st</sup> male flowering while all ethephon doses (T4=31.83 days, T5=32.5 days, T6=34.81 days, and T7=34.83 days) hastened female flowering than control and pruning. A significantly higher number of male flowers were obtained in the control (89.75), while the number of female flowers and M: F flower ratio increased with increasing ethephon level than in pruning (2G and 3G) and control. Hence, appropriate ethephon (125ppm) dose and pruning (3G) were highly conducive for better growth, sex expression, and yield of cucumber using Bhaktapur Local variety of cucumber in the hilly region of Nepal has a climatic condition similar to Kaski.</p> Binaya Baral, Manisha Shrestha, Sushil Subedi, Puspa Raj Dulal, Narayan Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-07 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of unseasonal rainfall on rice production in Nepal during the year 2021: A case study https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-020 <p>Our study explicit the information regarding the status losses and the compensation amount We browsed the website of Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD) and visited Agriculture Knowledge Centre to obtain the information. Rice is a major cereal crop, contributing around 25% of GDP and majority of working population are engaged in rice production for at least half year. Increasing population and pernicious natural hazards had <br>declined the rice production leading to increment in import of rice from neighboring countries. Nepal received 15% more rain than average monsoon in year 2021.&nbsp; Flooding in various areas of Nepal occurred, causing huge loss of rice production along with destruction of lives and property indirectly leading to food insecurity. The onset of heavy unseasonal monsoon, occurred at the period when rice crops were ready to harvest or ready to thresh, undermined the labor, time and money invested by the farmers. The total rice production has been reduced to 5.13 million tons in 2021 from 5.55 million tons in 2020 at the rate of 8.74%. Lumbini Province faced the highest loss, followed by Sudarpaschim Province of Nepal. Climate change was the major factor responsible for this, hampering the agricultural productivity. Government of Nepal had decided to provide compensation to them based on three categories: small farmers having holdings of up to 10 katthas received compensation of 65% of their cost of production ,&nbsp; medium farmers having land holdings from 11 to 40 katthas received 30% of their cost of production ,the large farmers having land holdings more than 40 katthas received compensation 20% of their cost of production. Also, the partially affected farmers received compensation 20% of their cost of production.</p> Santoshi Malla, Lal Bista, Uttam Rosyara, Birat Sapkota Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-020 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Precision nitrogen management on crop production: A review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-016 <p>Nitrogen (N) is the most essential nutrient for plants because of its value as a growth and yield determinant nutrient. Significant, and rapid increase in N application rates have occurred, but often at the expense of poor usage performance. The study enlights the causes of nitrogen loss in the environment, the need for its management and ways for precision management. Researches reveal only 50% of the applied fertilizer is uptake by the plants and the remaining is lost in the form of different pathways like denitrification, leaching, and volatilization that is very harmful for the biodiversity. Nitrogen management necessitates extra caution in its application in order to avoid major losses and optimize performance. Precision nitrogen management has been found especially useful to achieve the goals of improved productivity and higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Leaf color charts, sensor based green seeker and chlorophyll meter like decisions tools in precision nitrogen management help in assisting the prediction of the need for N in the crops leading to higher nitrogen use efficiency without any reduction of yield. On the other hand, the use of urea briquettes deep placement supplements the nitrogen management techniques for higher NUE and crop productivity as well as sustain agriculture by avoiding the leakage of nitrogen to the environment thereby reducing the pollution. Hence, the synchronization between crop demand and nitrogen supply using the tools helps to minimize nitrogen losses, maximize nitrogen use efficiency and increase productivity.</p> Dipika Bhusal, Dhirendra Pratap Thakur Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-016 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Weed suppressive ability of BRRI released popular monsoon rice varieties https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-015 <p>Develoment of weed competitive crop cultivars is an attractive low-cost strategy of integrated weed management program that can reduce the heavy dependence of crop cultivation to chemical herbicides. Hence, to evaluate the weed competitiveness Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) released selected monsoon rice varieties, a field experiment was conducted during July to December 2018 at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University. Thirty-three rice varieties were grown under season long weedy and weed-free conditions. Plots without rice plants were also maintained to investigate the natural growth of weed in absence of rice. The experiment was conducted following randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results showed that rice varieties varied widely in yielding ability and weed competitiveness. Among rice varieties, BRRI dhan31 allowed the minimum weed growth (32.5 g m<sup>-2</sup>) while BRRI dhan51 allowed the maximum weed growth (155.3 g m<sup>-2</sup>). Grain yield ranged between 3.6 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (BRRI dhan49) and 7.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (BR10) under weed-free condition and between 2.2 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (BRRI dhan70) and 3.9 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (BRRI dhan34) under weedy condition. Weed imposed relative yield loss ranged from 10.2 to 66.9% among the rice varieties. BRRI dhan34 allowed the least yield penalty (10.2%) while BRRI dhan70 had the maximum yield penalty (66.9%) due to competition with weeds. Although BR10 appear as the most productive variety (7.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) its weed imposed relative yield loss was higher (51.3%) than many other varieties with low yield potential. On the other hand, BRRI dhan34 appeared as the most weed competitive variety (only 10.2% relative yield loss) with productivity of 3.9 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. Considering the yield, BR10 was the best but for weed suppressive ability BRRI dhan34 performed well.</p> Mahmuda Akter Mou, Sabina Yeasmin, Md. Anwarul Abedin, Md. Parvez Anwar, A.K.M. Mominul Islam Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-015 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of fertilizers and mulching on growth and yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-09 <p>An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of fertilizers and mulching on growth and yield of sweet pepper at the Horticulture Farm, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from October, 2018 to March, 2019. Two factors experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications. The experiment consisted four (4) levels of organic and inorganic fertilizers viz., F<sub>1</sub> (Vermicompost), F<sub>2 </sub>(Recommended dose of NPKS), F<sub>3</sub> (50% Vermicompost + 50% Recommended dose of NPKS) and F<sub>4</sub> (75% Vermicompost + 25% Recommended dose of NPKS); and three mulch materials viz., M<sub>0 </sub>(Control), M<sub>1</sub> (White polythene) and M<sub>2</sub> (Black polythene). Plot size was 1 m x 1 m. The growth and physio-morphological characters, yield attributes and yield were significantly influenced by different types of fertilizers application and mulching practices. F<sub>4</sub> treatment (75% Vermicompost + 25% Recommended dose of NPKS) produced maximum yield per hectare (40 t/ha) and F<sub>1 </sub>(vermicompost) treatment produced minimum yield per hectare (23.07 t/ha). Fruit yield increased 12.49%, 20.01% and 28.44% higher using F<sub>4</sub>, F<sub>3</sub> and F<sub>2</sub>, respectively compared to control treatment<sub>.</sub> Mulching material influenced fruit yield where the maximum yield per hectare (40 t/ha) were observed from the M<sub>2 </sub>(Black polythene). Fruit yield (t/ha) recorded 27.06% and 27.50% higher in M<sub>2 </sub>and M<sub>1</sub>, respectively compared to control. In case of combined treatment, the fresh weight of fruit and dry matter were found higher in M<sub>2</sub>F<sub>4</sub> and the lowest in M<sub>0</sub>F<sub>1</sub>. The maximum yield per hectare (53.31 t/ha) was found in M<sub>2</sub>F<sub>4</sub> and M<sub>2</sub>F<sub>4</sub> treatment produce 201.75% higher yield (t/ha) compared to control treatment combination M<sub>0</sub>F<sub>1 </sub>(17.67 t/ha). The second and third highest was found from M<sub>2</sub>F<sub>3</sub> and M<sub>1</sub>F<sub>4</sub>. The highest benefit cost ratio (BCR) was found in M<sub>2</sub> F<sub>4 </sub>and it was 7.49. Black plastic mulch with combined fertilizer (vermicompost and chemical fertilizer) gives higher plant height, yield, dry matter and other yield contributing parameters. Control treatment (no mulch) with only vermicompost gives lowest result in all cases.</p> Nusrat Jahan, Tatia Biswas, M.A. Rahim, M. Ashraful Islam Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-09 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Stock assessment and virtual population analysis of River shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-08 <p>Historically, the river shad, <em>Tenualosa ilisha</em> fishery is the most significant marine fishery from the economic-socio point of view in Basrah province for a long time, but its contribution declined from 90.2% of total landings in 1965-1973 to 5.8% in 2020. The stock and virtual population analysis of the species in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq was assessed using FiSAT II software. Samples were collected from two sites in the river from November 2015 to October 2016. A total of 462 individuals of <em>T. ilisha</em> ranging from 7.0 to 42.5 cm were collected. The length-weight relationship was derived, indicating a positive allometric growth for the species. L∞, K, and Ø were 59.1 cm, 0.27, and 2.975, respectively. Total (Z), natural (M) and fishing (F) mortalities were 1.94, 0.59, and 1.35, respectively. The exploitation rate (E) was 0.70. Length at first capture (L<sub>c50</sub>) was found to be 24.4 cm. The recruitment pattern of <em>T. ilisha</em> was continuous throughout the year with two unequal prominent peaks. The relative yield per recruit analysis revealed that the current exploitation rate (E) of <em>T. ilisha</em> was higher than both E<sub>0.1</sub> and E<sub>max</sub>. Also, the 40 cm length group was more vulnerable to fishing according to VPA analysis, followed by the 34 cm and 26 cm length groups. For management purposes, it must be introduced an extensive <em>T. ilisha</em> management action plan by protecting brood species during the breeding season by imposing a ban on fishing in the Shatt Al-Arab River during the main spawning migration and conserving the small <em>T. ilisha</em> (Milat &lt;23.0 cm) from catching.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Abdul-Razak M. Mohamed Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-08 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the influence of integrated nutrient management on growth performance of aromatic fine rice https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-05 <p>An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during July 2017 to December 2017 to study the combined effect of vermicompost with inorganic fertilizers on the growth attributes of aromatic fine rice varieties. The experiment comprised three varieties <em>viz.</em> BRRI dhan34, Binadhan-13 and Kalizira, and five nutrient managements <em>viz.</em> Control (no application of manures and fertilizer), Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers ( i.e. 150, 95, 70, 60, 12 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> of Urea, TSP, MOP, Gypsum and Zinc Sulphate, respectively), vermicompost @ 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, 25% less than recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + vermicompost @ 1.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, 50 % less than recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + vermicompost @ 3 t&nbsp;&nbsp; ha<sup>-1</sup>. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Growth characters of aromatic fine rice were significantly influenced by variety, nutrient management and interaction of variety and nutrient management. In case of variety, the highest number of total tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> leaf area index, total dry matter production and chlrophyll content were obtained from Binadhan-13 at all sampling dates. While, Kalizira produced the lowest number of total tillers hill<sup>-1</sup>, total dry matter, leaf area index and chlorophyll content except plant height at all sampling dates. In case of nutrient management, the tallest plant, the highest number of total tillers hill<sup>-1</sup>, total dry matter production, leaf area index and chlrophyll content were obtained from 50 % less than recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + vermicompost @ 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> at all sampling dates. But the shortest plant, the lowest number of total tillers hill<sup>-1</sup>, leaf area index, total dry matter production, crop growth rate and chlorophyll content were found in control (no manures and fertilizers) at all sampling dates. In case of interaction of variety and nutrient management, the highest number of total tillers hill<sup>-1</sup>, leaf area index, total dry matter production and chlorophyll content were found in Binadhan-13 along with 50 % less than recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + vermicompost @ 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> at all sampling dates. So, it can be concluded that Binadhan-13 along with 50% less than the recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + vermicompost @ 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> combination might be a promising practice for aromatic fine rice cultivation.</p> Nowshin Laila, Newton Chandra Paul, Shahin Imran, Md. Abdur Rahman Sarkar, Shubroto Kumar Sarkar, Swapan Kumar Paul Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-05 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Nitrogen management in boro rice using chlorophyll meter (SPAD) under sub-tropical condition https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-04 <p>Nitrogen deficiency in rice has so far received limited attention in Bangladesh. Balanced fertilization is a pre-requisite for better rice production and it is necessary to determine optimum combination of fertilizer dose and varieties. The field experiment was carried out during the period from November 2020 to May 2021 at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh to study the SPAD value and yield performance of <em>boro</em> rice varieties at different nitrogen levels. The experiment comprised of four <em>boro</em> rice varieties viz., BRRI dhan28, BRRI dhan58, BRRI dhan74, BRRI dhan81 and four level of nitrogenous fertilizers viz. 50 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, 100 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, 150 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and 200kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. SPAD value ranged from 34.01 to 42.12 for variety and 37.81 to 42.15 for nitrogen application, while leaf nitrogen ranged from 2.98 to 3.67 % for variety and 2.94 to 3.48%.&nbsp; The yield contributing parameter varied significantly with variety and nitrogen rate. The highest grain yield (6.13 t ha<strong><sup>-1</sup></strong>) was found in BRRI dhan58 and the lowest (3.89 t ha<strong><sup>-1</sup></strong>) was observed in BRRI dhan28. In terms of fertilizer management, the highest grain yield (5.35 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained due to the application of 150 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and the lowest grain yield (4.72 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded from50 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>. The interactive effect of variety and fertilizer application exerted that the yield of BRRI dhan58 with 150 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> was the highest (6.59 tha<sup>-1</sup>) and the lowest performance (3.42 tha<sup>-1</sup>) in grain yield was found in BRRI dhan28 with 50 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>. Thus, the variety BRRI dhan58 with 150 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> was superior for attaining the highest yield.</p> Uttam Kumer Sarker, Md. Romij Uddin, Md. Delwar Hossain, Shahanaz Begum, A.B.M. Raqibul Hasan Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-04 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of calcium nitrate levels and soaking durations in cocopeat on the growth and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) apical rooted cuttings https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-06 <p>This study evaluated the effects of treating cocopeat with calcium nitrate (Ca(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>) at different soaking durations on potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em> L.) Apical Rooted Cuttings (ARCs) growth and yield parameters. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out at the Climate and Water Smart Agriculture Centre of Egerton University, Kenya. An air-dried cocopeat 1.5 kg per treatment, was treated using five soaking durations (12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours) × four levels of Ca(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> (0, 60, 100 and 150 g) soaked in 15 litres of water. Soil and the untreated cocopeat were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The results showed that there was no significant (P&gt;0.05) interaction effect of Ca(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> × soaking duration for the number of branches and normalized difference vegetative index. The main effect of 150 g Ca(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> gave the highest average number of branches (16.13), NDVI (0.89) and plant height (73.51 cm) followed by 100 g of Ca(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>. Soaking duration of 36 hours economically produced the highest growth parameters 12.75 and 61.46 cm an average number of branches and plant height, respectively. Significant (P&lt;0.001) interaction effects were observed for the plant height and all the yield parameters. The interaction of 100 g Ca(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> and soaking for 36 hours gave the highest mini-tuber yield of 464.67 g plant<sup>-1 </sup>and an average number of tubers of 21.67 tubers plant<sup>-1</sup>. Therefore, 100 g Ca(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> and a soaking duration of 36 hours to treat 1.5 kg of air-dried cocopeat is recommended for higher ARCs yield and yield parameters.</p> Sheku N. Gbollie, Samuel M. Mwonga, Anthony M. Kibe, G. Moses Zolue Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-06 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 FLAME PHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF POTASSIUM (K) AND SODIUM (Na) IN AGRICULTURAL WASTES: BEANS PODS, GROUNDNUTS AND MELON SHELLS. https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/484 <p>Agricultural wastes are residues from the growing and first of raw agricultural products such as fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, dairy product and crops. 100 g each of beans shields, groundnuts shields and melons shields were randomly collected from five different locations and labeled A, B, C into polythene bags and taken to the laboratory for analyses. Composite of each five collected samples were formed and analyzed. Moisture content of A: 20.03 ± 0.057 %, B: 10.06 ± 0.111 % and C: 17.16 ± 0.058 %; % ash content of A: 12.03 ± 0.021 %, B: 13.06 ± 0.045 %and C: 20.03 ± 0.057 %; % water soluble ash for A: 25.10 ± 0.100, B: 18.01 ± 0.012 and C: 30.00 ± 0.000 while % alkalinity of A: 34.03 ± 0.021, B: 30.00 ± 0.000 and C: 35.16 ± 0.045. Working standard solutions of potassium, K were prepared and emission intensity in triplicates of each was measured: average emission intensity for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm are 52.86 <strong>± </strong>0.07, 105.76 ± 0.05, 158.73 ± 0.06, 211.56 <strong>± </strong>0.05, 264.46 <strong>± </strong>0.05 respectively and a standard curve for K was plotted. Average emission intensity of K in samples A, B and C solutions were measured as 106.26 ± 0.058, 123.03 ± 0.057 and 134.36 <strong>±</strong> 0.058 respectively. These were read up in the K standard curve and extrapolated to determine concentration (ppm) of K in A, B and C: 19.9, 24.5 and 25.7 respectively. On the other hand, working standard solutions of potassium, Na were prepared and emission intensity in triplicates of each was measured: average emission intensity for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm are 24.06 ± 0.058, 48.16 <strong>±</strong> 0.058, 72.26 <strong>±</strong> 0.058, 96.36 <strong>± </strong>0.058, 120.46 <strong>± </strong>0.058 respectively and a standard curve for Na was plotted. Average emission intensity of Na in samples A, B and C solutions were measured as 38.58 ± 0.052, 30.17 ± 0.051 and 42.36 ± 0.058 respectively. These were read up in the Na standard curve and extrapolated to determine concentration (ppm) of K in A, B and C: 15.4, 13.5 and 20.0 respectively. The results buttresses high emission intensity hence, high concentration (ppm) of K and Na in melon shields followed by groundnut shields and beans shields.</p> Aloysius Pam, Dallatu E. Musa, Okorafor L. Marriette, Okorafor L. Marriette, Akhagbene J. Osilama Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/484 Effect of different sources of organic manures on yield and growth of potato at Khajura, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/482 <p>A field experiment was conducted in Regional station of Nepal Agriculture Research Council at khajura from November 2016 to February 2017 to assess the effect of organic manures on potato cultivation. The field experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design with seven treatments of nutrients replicated three times. Kufri Jyoti variety of potato was used as test crop. The highest pH(6.3) content in soil was found in plot treatment with poultry manures and inorganic fertilizers. Plots treated with FYM (farmyard manures) and inorganic fertilizers produced higher SOM(soil organic matter) content in soil after harvest (2.38%) as compared to control plots (2.09%). The treatments integrated with FYM show less bulk density than the control plot. Organic manures treated plots produce taller plants as compared plots receiving inorganic fertilizers only. 50 % recommended dose of NPK(Nitrogen, phosphorus and Potassium) through inorganic fertilizers and remaining 50% RDN (recommended dose of Nitrogen) through PM (poultry&nbsp; manure) produced higher numbers of tubers per plot (304 tubers per plot) and total tuber yield (22.86 tha<sup>-1</sup>).&nbsp;</p> kishor Kafle Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/482 Screening of some sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) genotypes for yield and damage by Cylas puncticollis under rainfed conditions in Umudike, Southeastern Nigeria https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-05 <p>A field experiment was conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Southeastern Nigeria during the 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons to evaluate diversity among F<sub>1 </sub>population of sweet potato, namely: Sauti × 442162 (6), Ligri × Faara (17), Sauti × Bohye (17), including two checks (Umuspo 3 and TIS 87/0087). This experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates under rainfed condition. Data on fresh storage root yield were recorded at 120 days after planting. Analysis of variance, correlation and principal component analysis were utilized for data analysis. The study revealed that yield of fresh storage root showed significant differences (P&lt; 0.05) among the sweet potato genotypes. Sauti X Bohye produced the highest storage root yield (19.33 t/ha) in 2015 and performed better than the national check TIS 87/0087 that recorded a storage root yield of 10.84 t/ha. The result from the study showed that out of the forty genotypes evaluated, twenty-six (26) genotypes recorded attack of <em>C. puncticollis</em>. The extent of the damge recorded among the genotypes attacked by <em>C. puncticollis</em> ranged from severe damage to little damage among the genotypes that recorded fresh storage root damage. SautiXBohye/11, SautiXBohye/13, SautiXBohye/17 recorded severe damage caused by <em>C. puncticollis</em> while LigriXFaara/15 recorded moderate damaged caused by <em>C. puncticollis</em>. Fifteen (15) genotypes did not record any infestation by <em>Cylas </em>puncticollis. All characters except unmarketable storage root weight at harvest exhibited positive and significant (P&lt; 0.01) correlation with total roots weight (yield). Principal component analysis had three main principal components explaining 84.25% of the total variation with number of marketable roots, weight of marketable roots, storage root yield and <em>Cylas </em>incidence contributing the most to the first PCA. These genotypes could possess resistance genes to <em>Cylas puncticollis </em>and these genotypes could be incorporated in breeding programs for further trail<em>.</em></p> Ulasi I. Joseph, Gamaliel I. Harry, Nwune C. Uchenna Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-05 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative characterization of vegetable oils from bulk suppliers/vendors in Nasarawa town market in Nigeria https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-04 <p>The comparative characterization of vegetable oils from bulk suppliers/vendors was made in Nasarawa town market in Nigeria. For this a total volume of 400 cm<sup>3</sup> vegetable oils were collected (200 cm<sup>3</sup> from the top and 200 cm<sup>3</sup> from the bottom of storage after stirring) separately into labeled plastic bottles from three major suppliers. Composite of each sample were made and physicochemical properties including densities, temperatures, boiling points, viscosities, refractive indexes free fatty acid, iodine values, saponification values and peroxide values were determined using standard procedures. The results showed the density of sample ranging from 0.91 ± 0.007 to 0.92 ± 0.007 gcm<sup>-3</sup>; temperature of sample: 27.3 ± 0.578 to 30.3 ± 1.525 ºC; boiling point of sample 230.7 ± 1.528 ºC to 202 ± 2.000 ºC; viscosity of sample A: 1.03 ± 0.183 to 0.72 ± 0.106 mPa.S; refractive index of sample: 1.47012 ± 0.00002 to 1.45709 ± 0.00005; free fatty acid of sample A: 0.73 ± 0.057 mgKOH/g to 0.6 ± 0.173 mgKOH/g; iodine value of sample: 87.979 ± 5.870 mgKOH/g to 54.144 ± 3.595 mgKOH/g; saponification value of sample: 195.830 ± 0.499 mgKOH/g to 197.846 ± 0.856 mgKOH/g, and peroxide value of sample A: 10.1 ± 0.741 mgKOH/g to 9.9 ± 0.663 mgKOH/g. These parameters were also compared with the standards prescribed by NAFDAC and SON, which suggest that the sampled oil is suitable for consumer use. Thus, processing of vegetable oils from industrial and locally/traditionally extracted vegetable oils and vegetable oils supplied by the three vendors in the Nasarawa town market are hereby recommended as long as the suppliers maintain the standards of production, packaging and handling.</p> Dallatu E. Musa, Okorafor L. Mariette, Wilson Arthur Sotonye, Akhagbeme John Osilama Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-04 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Farmers Farmers’ Perception on Pesticide Handling and Adoption Behaviour of Integrated Pest Management Practice Among Vegetable Growers in Rukum west, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/479 <p>The use of chemical pesticides for the management of noxious pests in Nepalese agriculture is increasing day to day. Unsafe handling causes serious issues to human health and uncontrolled application affects non-targeted insects, soil, and the environment. An immediate change in farmers’ behavior regarding the adoption of pest management practices is difficult but the regular awareness and training about the negative impact and the alternative away will change the farmers’ attitude. The study was designed to know about the pesticide handling and Integrated Pest Management practice adoption behavior by the farmers’ of Rukum West. This study provides core information of farmers’ pesticide handling methods and Integrated Pest Management practice adoption status thus becoming the best tool for solving the minor and neglected issues. Sixty farmers from three wards of two municipalities of Rukum West district were selected randomly for the study. Primary data was collected from a questionnaire survey, Key informant interview, and Focus group discussion and analyzed in MS- Excel and SPSS. Insecticides are the most commonly used type of pesticide. Two-thirds (66.67%) of the respondents only were known about the toxicity label of the pesticide and 41% of the respondents used yellow (Moderately hazardous) label pesticide. 73.33% of the respondents follow the instruction of the pesticide packet but only 12% uses full personal protective equipment. The majority of the respondents were aware of the negative impacts of pesticides on natural enemies and soil. Headache is a major human health problem. The age of the respondents, vegetable farming land, training received, and years of vegetable farming have significantly affected the adoption of IPM technology, whereas the gender and education level of the farmer does not have any significant association with the adoption of Integrated Pest Management practices.</p> Santosh Khadka, Laxman Chand Thakuri Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/479 ECONOMICS OF POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L) PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN DARCHULA DISTRICT OF NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/478 <p>The potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em>) is a popular root vegetable that is grown all over the world. Potato production is popular in Nepal because of its greater adaptability, high yield potential, and high demand, contributing 6.57 percent to AGDP and 2.17 percent to GDP. In Nepal, it is grown on 197,037 hectares (ha) with a yield of 13.13 metric tons per hectare and a total production of 2,586,287 metric tons. The major objective of our research was to analyze the economics and marketing state of potatoes in Api-Himal rural municipality Darchula, Nepal where a survey on potato production and marketing was conducted. A total of 60 households were randomly sampled and interviewed as the primary source of information for the research. For the residents of Api-Himal RM, there are few options for sustenance and revenue generation. The area is ideal for potato farming, and potato trading has a direct impact on rural communities' livelihoods. The B/C ratio was found to be 1.62 in the research area. The average cost of potato production was Rs. 2,67,319 while the average return was Rs. 4,32,804. The research focuses on the marketing and production of potatoes from the growers to the final customers. Low yield, insect and disease infestation, and a lack of government support are among the issues. To promote the production and marketing of potatoes, availability of improved technology, an extension of technical knowledge, efficient management of marketing channels, and substantial financial support by the government as well as local bodies are recommended.</p> Bijay Chauhan, Dipesh Joshi, Dinanath Banjade, Mukesh Paneru, Prateek Awasthi, Bishnu Datt Bhatta, Madan Shrestha, Prakash Bahadur Chand Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/478 Effect of different nitrogen levels on yield and yield attributes of different rice varieties in DDSR condition at Kanchanpur, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-02 <p>An experiment on the effect of different nitrogen levels on yield and yield attributes of different rice varieties was conducted in Kanchanpur, Nepal, from March 2021 to July 2021. The experiment was laid in randomized complete block design with two factors: nitrogen levels and rice varieties, each factor having three levels (Nitrogen: 60kg/ha, 120kg/ha, and 180kg/ha and rice varieties: Hardinath 1, Hardianth 3 and Chaite 5) resulting in nine treatment <br />combinations. Rice seeds were sown directly in experimental plots under the dry condition on March 24, 2021. The plant spacing was 20x20cm^2. Growth parameters, grain yield, and yield attributing traits of rice were recorded. The statistical results revealed significant differences between the treatments regarding agronomical parameters, yield attributing characters, and grain yield. The results indicated that the 180 kg/ha level of N application contributes to the higher plant height (74.502 cm), the number of tillers (1101.667), effective tillers (577.222), filled grain per panicle (116.490), panicle length (25.241 cm), grain yield (4.7 ton/ha) and straw yield (10.564 ton/ha). Among the varieties, Hardinath 3 produced significantly higher plant height (79.68 cm), panicle length (25.68cm), sterility percentage, and 1000 grain weight (24.60g) as compared to Hardinath 1 and Chapter 5, respectively. However, yield and yield attributing characters like grain yield, straw yield, effective tillers, and filled grains per panicle were significantly higher in Chaite 5. Therefore, a nitrogen level of 180 kg/ha and variety Chaite5 may be used for better productivity in Kanchanpur, Nepal.</p> Dipesh Giri, Madhav Dhital, Bishal Chaudhary, Roman Pandey, Bipin Bastakoti, Saksham Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-02 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Adapting agriculture to climate change: A case study of women vegetable producers in rural communities of the Gambia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-023 <p>In Gambia, fruits and vegetable are the principal source of vitamins and minerals plays an important role in food, nutrition and income security of producers. Over the years’ climate change had an adverse effect on production and productivity of vegetables. The aim of the study was to address the problems faced by vegetable producers in relation to change using the climate smart agricultural technologies. The methodology of the study was random sampling administering semi-structure questionnaire, key informant interviews, and focus group discussion among producers. The finding showed that, onion registered 4000kg generating a net income of D196,000.00 followed by sweet pepper with net return of D112,000.00, however cabbage and bitter tomato there was no significant difference. Onion production was found to be the most outstanding commodity grown by women producer based on its comparative advantage. In addition, the second highest income earned was Gengi wollof’s with a net return of D707,616.00 thousand from vegetable production. Based, on the research findings I conclude that, crop diversification and intensification is the most effective and efficient resilient approach to mitigate the effects of climate change while increasing nutrition and income of vegetable producers. Therefore, recommends to government, partners, CSOs, and private sector to strengthening the capacity of women in the process of adapting and mitigating climate change related issues practicing climate smart agriculture.</p> Saikou E. Sanyang, Lamin Saine Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-03-023 Sun, 25 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A review of microplastics pollution and its remediation methods: Current scenario and future aspects https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-019 <p>Global plastic production and its use have been omnipresent since the early 19th century. The disposal of plastics undergoes breakdown due to various physicochemical and biological factors that trigger the formation of microplastics (MPs). Due to their hydrophobic properties, structural stability, and functional groups, it is difficult to degrade in natural habitat. The presence of their large surface area also helps to resist the decay of MPs. This review summarizes the recent trends and development of MPs degradation. The method includes biodegradation, various types of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as photocatalytic oxidation, photo-degradation, and electrochemical oxidation, and also discussed the potential health risk factors of MPs and their degradation products. Most of the methods achieved nearly satisfactory performance that degraded the MPs into CO<sub>2</sub>, H<sub>2</sub>0, and also secondary microplastic particles with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under laboratory conditions, which have been studied by various researchers. It is also evident that the degradation of MPs has many challenges, therefore finding a sustainable approach is an urgent need to deal with the issue of global microplastic pollution. Some suggestions have been highlighted such as toxicity detection of remaining MPs particles after degradation, and analysis of secondary metabolites of microbes secreted during bioremediation that may have a negative impact on the environment. The selective and specific implementation of microbes and photo-catalyst that degrade MPs into useful and nontoxic components.</p> Manish Sutradhar Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-019 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 the EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PACKAGING MATERIALS ON SHELF LIFE AND QUALITY OF BANANA (Musa paradisiaca L.) AT GOKULESHWOR, BAITADI https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/472 <p>The experiment was carried out at the horticulture laboratory, Gokuleshwor, Baitadi from 18<sup>th</sup> Baisakh 2078 to 28<sup>th</sup> Baisakh 2078 to study the effect of packaging materials on the quality and shelf life of bananas (Musa paradisiaca L.) cultivar Malbhog. It was carried out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 different types of packaging materials viz. T1= Control, T2=Banana leaf, T3= Straw, T4=Polythene bag, T5= Cardboard box replicated four times. Among these treatments, T1 (control) showed the highest physiological loss in weight (19.1%), lowest firmness (1.5 kg/cm<sup>2</sup>), and lowest TA (0.512%) at final day storage. Similarly, T<sub>4 </sub>(plastic bag) was found as the most effective in reducing the physiological loss in weight (6.09%), retaining the maximum firmness (3 kg/cm<sup>2</sup>) and highest TA (0.968%). The minimum total soluble solid (17.1<sup>o </sup>Brix) was retained by control. This study reveals that bananas packaged in plastic bags recorded the lowest physiological loss in weight (6.09%) and retain more firmness (1.5 kg/cm<sup>2</sup>) than that of control. Thus, present findings indicate that bananas packaged in plastic increase the shelf life whereas banana leaf is also found to be promising packaging material for retaining the quality of the banana fruits under laboratory conditions.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> saraddha khasu magar Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/472 Improvement of postharvest quality and shelf life of banana cv. Malbhog using different plant extracts and modified atmosphere packages in Chitwan, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-014 <p>Banana has a very short storage life. It is highly perishable, and therefore susceptible to several diseases resulting in extensive postharvest losses. A research entitled “Improvement of Postharvest Quality and Shelf life of Banana cv. Malbhog using different Plant Extracts and Modified Atmosphere Packages in Chitwan, Nepal” was conducted at the Post-Harvest Horticulture laboratory of Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. The main objective of the research is to know the appropriate plant extracts and modified atmosphere package (MAP) for banana ripening and to now the effect of different plant extract on disease incidence and severity of banana. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design which consisted of eight treatments viz. Control, Garlic extracts, Neem extracts, Onion extracts, Sesamum oil, Ginger extract, Unperforated low-density polyethylene (50 µm) containing cotton soaked with KMnO<sub>4 </sub>and perforated low-density polyethylene (50 µm) containing cotton soaked with KMnO<sub>4 </sub> respectively and replicated thrice. Different post-harvest parameters were recorded at three days intervals for 15 days. From the experiment, the lowest firmness (0.467kg/cm<sup>2</sup>) and the highest pulp (4.075) to peel ratio was noted with control. The maximum vitamin C content (6.633 mg/100 g) was recorded with the Neem extract. Regarding the organoleptic test, the index value of overall acceptability (0.87), sweetness (0.80) and flavor (1.0) were depicted highest with control whereas the low-density polyethylene containing cotton dipped in KMnO<sub>4 </sub>resulted in minimum spoilage loss (43.77%). The minimal disease incidence was noticed with the unperforated LDPE containing KMnO<sub>4 </sub>(25%) followed by Neem extracts. From the experiment, it was concluded that the low-density polyethylene-containing cotton dipped in KMnO<sub>4 </sub>and Neem extract performed significantly better in terms of post-harvest parameters and disease incidence. Further studies regarding the use of other plant extracts and modified atmospheric packages were recommended.</p> Umesh Timilsina, Arjun Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-014 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the fishery of Owabi fishing community in Ghana, West Africa, using traditional ecological knowledge https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/470 <p>Assessing the fishery from the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) perspective can enhance the management of fisheries by respective authorities. This study aimed at identifying issues confronting fishermen within the Owabi reservoir, Ghana, West Africa using TEK. Data from twenty (20) fishermen were collected on fishing methods and techniques, fish species, alternative livelihood using open and closed ended questionaries. From the study, fishers indicated nine species are mostly harvested from the dam, with most fish species exhibiting decline in abundance. Fisheries indicated that the fisheries of the Owabi reservoir are mostly affected negatively by climate change and waste disposal which has affected their livelihood. Therefore, to sustain the welfare of dependent households, most of the fisheries are engaged in alternative livelihood. Many fishers reiterated that some fishermen at the Owabi reservoir engage in the use of illegal fishing methods. The materials for undertaking such illegal fishing methods are secretly sourced as they are not sold in the open market. To formulate proper management measures, it is recommended that stock assessment as well as the extent of climate change impact on fish species at the Owabi reservoir be undertaken.</p> Samuel Amponsah, Seyramsarah Blossom Setufe, Samuel Henneh, Christiana Atule, Rhoda Kwakyewaa Antwi Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/470 Assessing the dynamics of exploited population of Schilbe mystus in Stratum VII of Lake Volta, Ghana https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/469 <p>This study focused on assessing the population status of <em>Schilbe mystus</em> from Lake Volta, Ghana, from March 2020 to December 2020. The total length of individual fish samples was measured and analyzed using the TropFish R package. The length of the sample ranged from 6 cm to 23 cm with a mean and modal length of 11.5 cm and 12.4 cm respectively. The study also revealed a mean condition factor of 0.36. The growth pattern estimated for the current study was 2.6 which indicated a negative allometric growth. The estimated growth rate (K) for the study is 0.29 per year. The length at infinity (L<sub>∞</sub>), length at first capture (Lc<sub>50</sub>), and length at first maturity (Lm<sub>50</sub>) from the current study were 31.0 cm, 12.8 cm, and 18.2 cm respectively. The growth performance index of <em>S. mystus</em> from the study was 2.45. The total mortality rate (Z) for the species in the current study was 3.26 per year. Mortality parameters were calculated as natural mortality rate (M) = 0.54 per year and the fishing mortality rate (F) = 2.72 per year. The exploitation rate (E) of <em>S. mystus</em> in Stratum VII (Yeji) was found to be overexploited with an exploitation rate of 0.84. Reduction of fishing efforts and the removal of subsidies are some of the recommended management measures to sustain the stock size of <em>S. mystus</em> fishery in Lake Volta, Ghana.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Samuel Amponsah Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/469 Socio-Economic Status of Women After Establishment of Community Forest: A Case Study of Taarku Community Forest,Lamjung https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/468 <p><em>Community forests undertake the concept of both the utilization of forest resources as well as its conservation and it is why community forests are open to individuals in regular gaps of six months to a year depending on the rules and regulations of a particular community forest. Many women members in a society who used to spend a lot of time in the collection of forest resources, their access will be limited after conversion of the forest to community forest. Because of this, in the spare time they will be involved in doing business works. This research is based on a comparative survey analysis of 120 women (60/60 each) who chose to do some business and those who did not. The research was done in Gahate, Lamjung, Nepal and the method of data collection was open and close-ended questionnaires, key informant reviews, Focused Group discussions, and field observation.&nbsp;Results indicate that women were doing businesses of incense sticks, dairy farming, and a lot more. It was found that the ones doing business were financially independent. Thus, it is recommended that all the women in the area should be involved in doing business works to utilize their spare time properly.</em></p> Ronika Thapa Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/468 Assets possession and food consumption level of haor people in a selected area of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-013 <p>Assets possession and calorie intake level of a household member reflect the livelihood patterns and food security condition of the household. The study was conducted to analyze the socioeconomic characteristics, identify the assets possession, determine the calorie intake level and analyze the perception of the households’ livelihood improvement. An interview schedule was used in field survey for primary data collection. The DFID approaches of livelihood and the consumption data of <em>haor</em> households of seven days were used in the study. The findings revealed that about 24.61% of the respondents were illiterate, 32.31% respondents were can sign only and 30.77% respondents had primary education, average family size was 9.66, about 51% respondents’ annual income was below Tk.60,000 (US$ 690) and, most of the respondent’s (84.62%) occupation was agriculture and fishing. The human, social, natural, physical and financial capital of the <em>haor</em> respondents was in a vulnerable position. The findings also revealed that about 44.61% of the respondents belonged to the ultra-poor whose per day per person calorie intake was 1350.56k.cal. All of the respondents demanded the improved road and communication facilities which are essential for their livelihood and food security improvement. The <em>haor</em> is being tarnished fast due to mishandling and damaging activities. The government should take necessary steps to improve the road and communication facilities in the <em>haor</em> area which will foster the socioeconomic development of <em>haor</em> people in Bangladesh.</p> Samapti Paul Shyama, Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Md. Akhtaruzzaman Khan, Tanjima Akter Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-013 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of biochar and plastic mulch on soil properties in a maize field in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-012 <p>Biochar is a carbon rich product obtained from organic material by a process called pyrolysis. Similarly, plastic mulch protects soil from erosion, conserve water, suppress weed, and makes soil condition favorable for crop growth. The use of biochar and mulch has the potential to boost soil fertility by raising soil pH, increasing water and nutrient holding capacity, improving cation exchange capacity, and increasing microbial population. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of biochar application and plastic mulch on soil properties applied in maize fields with sandy loam soil at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal from 31 March to 6 July 2018. The experiment was carried out in a split-plot design having plastic mulch as a main factor and biochar doses as a sub factor with three replications. The main plot is comprised of plastic mulch and no mulch. Similarly, the subplot consisted of four biochar doses i.e., 0 t/ha, 5 t/ha, 15 t/ha, and 25 t/ha. To know the effect of treatments the soil samples were collected at random points in the middle of each plot (to avoid edge effect) from 30 cm depth with the help of a screw auger. Dried, and grounded soil samples were analyzed in the lab. The results indicated that the Bulk density of soil relatively decreased with the plastic mulch but it was significantly higher in plots with biochar. 0 t/ha biochar showed the highest (1.22 gm/cm<sup>3</sup>) bulk density and the lowest was obtained from 25 t/ha (1.09 gm/cm<sup>3</sup>). However, soil parameters such as soil pH, Cation Exchange Capacity, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, and Organic Carbon were relatively higher under plastic mulch over no mulch. In the same way, the potassium content of the soil was significantly influenced by biochar doses, it was the highest at 25 t/ha (741.47 Kg/ha) and the lowest at 0 t/ha (351.60 Kg/ha). However, soil pH, CEC, N, P, and OC were relatively increased with increasing rates of biochar application. Therefore, application rate of 25 t ha<sup>−1</sup> biochar and use of plastic mulch in soil is considered as suitable because these efficiently increase soil moisture. In addition to that biochar increase Potassium content, decrease bulk density, and also improves Soil pH, Cation Exchange Capacity, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, and Organic Carbon of soil.</p> Subash Bishwakarma, Babu Ram Khanal, Chandeshwar Prasad Shriwastav, Rabindra Prasad Dhakal, Suraj Singh Karkee Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-012 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding farmers’ knowledge, attitudes and practices of pesticide use in Nepal: synthesis of a systematic literature review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-018 <p>Literature suggests a deeper understanding of farmers’ knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of pesticide use in agriculture, especially in developing countries, to identify interventions to reduce pesticide use in agriculture. In this paper, we thus performed a systematic review of literature on KAP of farmers on chemical pesticide use in Nepal through a systematic literature search on Scopus web repository published between 2000 and 2021. We got 114 publications initially, and with a well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, we finally reviewed 29 articles for data extraction. The results indicate (i) an inadequate KAP of farmers on pesticide use. For example, three in four farmers were found to wash their clothes after pesticide spray. One in four farmers wore boots and only one in ten farmers wore glasses during pesticide spray. Approximately 54% of farmers take a shower after pesticide spray and just one in four farmers bury empty pesticide containers in the soil. Prior studies identified that the lack of awareness and training on the handling practices is the major cause of pesticide misuse; and through formal education and introducing integrated pest management strategies for controlling pests could reduce pesticide misuse. Another notable finding is the lack of KAP theoretical understanding in the prior publications. Many studies in Nepal studied much less on ‘attitude” but much higher on “practice” of pesticide usage. We thus propose a new KAP study framework for future research to understand ground-level behavioral change and improve the effectiveness of the KAP-related programs and interventions.</p> Kishor Atreya, Kanchan Kattel, Samikshya Pandit, Prashant Chaudhary, Pragati Sipkhan Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-018 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 SOILLESS FARMING: THE FUTURE OF AGRICULTURE https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/464 <p>Soilless farming is the cultivation of crops without the use of soil as a rooting media. Hydroponic, Aeroponic, Vertical farming, and other soilless techniques exist, depending on the demand and type of crop. Megacities are expanding at an alarming rate. So, a revolution in urban agriculture is required to address the issue of food scarcity and malnutrition. Soilless farming in urban areas can alleviate these major quantitative and qualitative food challenges. About 3.5% of the world's crops are grown under tunnels and greenhouses using soilless agricultural techniques based on the hydroponic solution. Hydroponic farms can be set up by people who live in deserts, the arctic, and other regions where farming is difficult. There are fewer pests and weeds since there is no soil. It's a good fit for biological research and analyzing interactions between many biotic and abiotic elements that influence plant growth.&nbsp; Crops grown on Soil-Less or Hydroponics Culture include vegetables, fruits, flowers, and medicinal crops. In soilless culture systems, growth media takes the place of soil. Organics (barks, coconut coir, coconut soil, fleece, marc, peat) or inorganic substrates are utilized as growth media. Aquaponics has a bright future in Nepal as it is still in its early stages, with good growth and expansion anticipated. As a result, several crops are produced per year, resulting in increased income. Soilless cultures are regarded as a newly discovered strategy for agricultural development however, they are far from easy to implement.</p> Dipesh Joshi, Anjal Nainabasti, Bishesh Subedi Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/464 EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT TRAPS OF METHYL EUGENOL TO MONITOR THE FRUIT FLIES IN HORTICULTURE FARM, KIRTIPUR https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/463 <p>A field experiment was conducted at Warm-Temperate Horticulture Center (WTHC), Kirtipur, Kathmandu from March to July 2021 to know the most effective methyl eugenol (ME) trap to monitor fruit flies and to know the species attracted to the traps. Plastic bottle trap, Pet jar trap, Bucket trap, McPhail trap, and Steiner trap were the five treatments of the experiment. Each treatment is replicated four times in RCBD in Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) orchard. Each treatment consisted of one distinct trap containing Methyl eugenol (ME) and Malathion, hung on a Pear tree 1 m from the ground level. Refilling of ME and malathion was done every 15 days and data were taken every week. Four different species viz. Bactrocera dorsalis, B. zonata, B. correcta and B. tuberculata were observed. B. dorsalis was the most observed species. It was found to be significantly lower in the plastic bottle trap. McPhail trap showed higher significance in capturing B. zonata. The abundance of fruit flies was higher in June and July, during wet monsoon periods.</p> Saurav Ranabhat, Sandesh Thapa, Susmita Sigdel, Sagar Koirala, Nav Raj Bhusal, Hom Nath Giri Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/463 Formulation and evaluation of oro dispersible tablet of Amitritypline Hydrochloride https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/462 <p>Amitriptyline hydrochloride is tetracycline antidepressant drug and is chemically known as 1-paopanamine, 3-(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]-cyclohepten-5-ylidene)-N,N-Dimethyl-hydrochloride which is used for treatment of depression. The present study deals with the formulation and evaluation of Orodispersible tablets of antidepressant Amitriptyline hydrochloride with the aim of developing the dosage form which has better bioavailability, patient compliance and therapeutic achievement. The quantity of API in the formulation is 10 mg and the proposed weight of the tablet is 90 mg. The use of different super disintegrants in varying quantity for the formulation is focused in the study along with MCCP-102, Lactose anhydrous, Talc, Aspartame, Magnesium stearate and pine apple flavor. Use of dry granulation method is primarily applied for tableting using 6 mm punch in the manufacture of tablets. The optimum effective formulation is determined by evaluating different pre compression parameters like angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, carr’s index, hausner’s ratio and moisture content. And post compression parameters like hardness, friability, <em>in vitro</em> dissolution, <em>in vitro</em> disintegration time, weight variation, assay and uniformity of content. The overall objectives of the study were to attempt, to formulate the Orodispersible tablets of Amitriptyline hydrochloride with the best possible available technique. Based on the result obtained after evaluation of all the formulation, the formulation F1 and F3 doesn’t comply with the specification. The remaining formulation F2, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, F10, F11, F12, and F13 complies with the limit.</p> Rohit Suman Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/462 Treatments of common bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with insecticides for managing bean stem maggot [Ophiomyia spp. (Tryon) (Diptera: Agromyzidae)] in SNNPR, Ethiopia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-011 <p>Bean stem maggot (BSM) is one of the main threatening insect pests that cause significant bean plant mortalities and associated grain yield reductions. The field research work was conducted for three successive years (2018 - 2020) in Burji, southern Ethiopia, to decide the effects of insecticide seed treatment in reducing bean plant mortality and severity/damage caused by BSM and enhancing the grain yield of common bean. The research contained seven treatments and was arrayed in a randomized complete block design with three replicas. In 2018, the lowest seedling mortality (SM) (11.78%) and matured plant mortality (MPM) (21.89%) were registered from Diazinone-treated plots. However, it was not statistically varied from Thiram + Carbofuran (13.33% for SM and 22.22% for MPM). Bean seeds treated with Diazinon considerably reduced initial percent severity index (PSI<sub>i</sub>) by 79.79% and final percent severity index (PSI<sub>f</sub>) by 79.98%, followed by Thiram + Carbofuran with PSI<sub>i</sub> by 55.67% and PSI<sub>f</sub> by 76.98% over untreated plots. Lowest total number of larvae (TNL) (15.00 and 22.67) and pupae (TNP) (11.00 and 13.67) were noted from Diazinone and Thiram + Carbofuran, in that order. Comparable fashions for SM, MPM, PSI<sub>i</sub>, PSI<sub>f</sub>, TNL, and TNP were encountered for these insecticides in 2019 and 2020. Grain yields of 2229.37 and 2213.39 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (in 2018) and 2648.29 and 2503.20 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (in 2020) were attained from Diazinone and Thiram + Carbofuran, respectively. Monetary analysis also affirmed that Diazinone ($126,429.52 ha<sup>-1</sup>) and Thiram + Carbofuran ($122,241.67 ha<sup>-1</sup>) led to a higher monitory advantage over untreated control and other insecticides. Therefore, Diazinon and Thiram + Carbofuran, one of them as an alternative option, could be advised as a seed treatment to the growers for efficient control of BSM and optimization of grain yield.</p> Getachew Gudero Mengesha, Keyredin Sultan Salo, Dizgo Chencha Cheleko, Tamirat Samuel Shago, Merihum Gimja Betire, Arato Abera Asnake, Zemenu Fentahun Biress, Biniam Boraysho Borano, Dembele Ersulo Aloto, Ashenafi Dana Anijulo Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-011 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of socio-economic attributes of farmers on the adoption of orchard management practices of mandarin in Myagdi district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-010 <p>Mandarin is one of the major and highly commercialized fruit crops of Nepal. However, its productivity is widely varied throughout the country. The association of socio-economic characteristics of the farmers with the adoption of different orchard management practices and ultimately productivity is less known. Therefore, survey research was conducted in the Myagdi district to study the influence of socio-economic attributes on the adoption of different orchard management practices and their relation to the productivity of mandarin. A total sample size of 94 was selected by simple random sampling technique and interviewed with a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using MS Excel, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and STATA, and the inferences were retrieved using the binary logistic regression model and multiple linear regression model. The study showed that the education level of the farmers has a positive influence on the adoption of mulching (p = 0.04) and pruning (p = 0.07). The secondary income source of the household has a positive impact on the adoption of chemical fertilizers (p = 0.08) and pruning (p = 0.03). Commercial mandarin farming in larger area has a positive influence on the adoption of Bordeaux mixture (p = 0.03) and insect management (p = 0.01). Extension services has great influence on the adoption of chemical fertilizers (p = 0.02), mulching (p = 0.03), Bordeaux mixture (p = 0.00) and insect management (p = 0.1). However, education level (p = 0.05), area under mandarin farm (p = 0.09), and extension services (p = 0.00) discourage the adoption of intercropping in the mandarin orchard. The productivity of mandarin orchards was significantly enhanced by FYM application, chemical fertilizers, irrigation, weeding, and Bordeaux application. This study shows that the farmers with better socio-economic conditions are more likely to adopt improved management practices in mandarin orchard which in turn enhance their productivity.</p> Anit Poudel, Sushmita Sapkota, Ramesh Prasad Bhatt, Santosh Bhandari, Saurav Nepal Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-010 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the Economic and Energy Use Efficiencies of Rice through Omission Plot Technique in Lamjung, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/458 <p>The main objective of this experiment was to evaluate the yields, economics, and energy use efficiencies in rice. The experiment was carried out in RCBD with 3 replications having ten treatments viz. US 312+60:30:20 kg NPKha<sup>-1</sup>(T<sub>1</sub>), US312+0:30:20 kg NPKha<sup>-1</sup>(T<sub>2</sub>), US312+60:0:20 kg NPKha<sup>-1</sup>(T<sub>3</sub>), US312+60:30:0 kg NPKha<sup>-1</sup> (T<sub>4</sub>), US312 + 0: 0 :0 kg NPKha<sup>-1</sup> (T<sub>5</sub>), Sukhadhan-2+60:30:20 kg NPKha<sup>-1</sup>(T<sub>6</sub>), Sukhadhan-2+0: 30:20 kg NPKha<sup>-1</sup>(T<sub>7</sub>), Sukhadhan-2+60: 0:20kg NPKha<sup>1</sup>(T<sub>8</sub>), Sukhadhan-2:60:30:0kg NPKha<sup>-1</sup> (T<sub>9</sub>), Sukhadhan-2+ 0:0:0 kg NPKha<sup>-1</sup>(T<sub>10</sub>). Results revealed that the highest grain yield and yield attributes were obtained from T<sub>1</sub> (4.98 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by T<sub>4</sub> (4.76 t ha<sup>1</sup>), and T<sub>3</sub> (4.54 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). The highest energy use efficiency of 3.95 was observed under T<sub>4</sub> which was supported by the highest output energy obtained from grain and biomass yield (1.53x10<sup>5 </sup>MJ/ha) and highest net energy (1.17x10<sup>5</sup> MJ/ha). The benefit-cost ratio was found the highest in T<sub>1</sub> (1.98). Variety US-312 with 60:30:20kg NPK ha<sup>-1</sup> was found to be better than other combinations in terms of higher grain yield and was economically efficient in the western mid-hills of Nepal.&nbsp;</p> Alina Pokhrel, Sambriddhi Subedi, Bishnu Bilash Adhikari, Abhisek Shrestha Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/458 A REVIEW ON SAVING, INVESTMENT AND GROWTH IN NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/457 <p><em>The relationship between savings, investment, and economic growth in Nepal is examined in this study based on secondary data. This study demonstrates that in economic literature, there is no consensus on the relationship between saving, investment, and economic growth. The question of whether saving and investing are generally beneficial or harmful to economic growth remains unanswered. Most of the studies found that saving and investment have significant positive impact on economic growth in long run. Various studies found that countries with higher savings rates have grown faster than countries with lower savings rates. Capital accumulation provides a country with more chances for production and productivity.</em> <em>Without a doubt, investment contributes to overall growth; but, investment cannot be expanded without an increase in savings. To achieve long-term economic development, a country's aggregate savings must increase, resulting in more investments and higher Gross Domestic Product growth. As a result, in order to achieve economic growth, governments must implement a variety of policies, including encouraging savings, supporting investment, and growing domestic production.</em></p> Samikshya Sedhai, Shiva Chandra Dhakal Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/457 Wastewater treatment using coconut fibre ash as an adsorbent for removal of heavy metals https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-07 <p>The study aimed at evaluating the performance of coconut fibre ash as an alternative low-cost adsorbent to the synthetic adsorbents used in wastewater treatment. This research aims to identify the optimum condition for the adsorption process, considering the effect of particle size, adsorbent dosage, and contact time of adsorbents of coconut fibre ash in removing lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) metal ions from electroplating wastewater. The adsorbents coconut fibre ash was prepared through activation of carbon at 450º C after following proper cleaning and drying process. The experiments were conducted at varying adsorbent dosages (0.2 g, 0.6 g, and 1 g), particle size (50 to 200 microns), and contact times (40 minutes, 80 minutes, and 120 minutes). The result shows that adsorbents show less efficiency in removing Zn metal ions, which is not more than 34% in the case of 1g adsorbent dosage, particle size ranges 100-200 microns, and 120 minute contact time. The maximum removal efficiency of 95.04% and 80% was obtained at the optimum amount (1g) of adsorbent dosage for Pb and Cu respectively. In the case of contact time, it was identified that the optimum condition for maximum removal efficiency is 120 minutes with a 1g adsorbent dosage both for Pb and Cu ions. To ensure maximum removal of metal avoiding any desorption of the metal ion from the adsorbent surface, it was identified that a maximum contact time of 120 minutes should be allowed for adsorption. However, it could be concluded that adsorbents of coconut fibre ash can be used in treating wastewater facilitating good adsorption capacity in removing heavy metals, low cost and availability.</p> Fahmida Akter Jolly, Md. Zainul Abedin, Zahida Muyen Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-07 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Biochemical composition of some catfishes from a coastal river of Bangladesh in relation to a biometric indicator https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-06 <p>The proximate contents (protein, lipid, ash, and moisture) of three catfish species (<em>Pangasius pangasius,</em> <em>Clupisoma garua,</em> and <em>Silonia silondia</em>) were investigated from a coastal river of Bangladesh. The proximate composition was determined using the AOAC (1990) standard procedure. The average length and weight of the fish samples used in the experiment were 21.50 ± 1.61 cm and 65.55 ± 13.12 g; 19.67 ± 0.21 cm and 50.74 ± 3.13 g; 18.2 ± 1.21 cm and 43.40 ± 10.42 g for <em>P. pangasius</em>, <em>C. garua,</em> and <em>S. silondia</em>, respectively. The <em>P. pangasius</em>, <em>C. garua</em>, and <em>S. silondia</em> were rich protein sources, with 20.19%, 18.86%, and 15.24%, respectively. On the other hand, the lipid and ash contents were ranged between 2.11% to 3.07% and 0.52% to 2.28% respectively. The present study disclused water as the most abundant element in fish bodies ranging from 75.05% (<em>P. pangasius</em>) to 79.60% (<em>S. silondia</em>). In log-transformed data, the weight of the fish body had a very significant positive relationship with most of the studied body constituents. In all three fish species, total length in log-transformed data and Fulton's condition factor showed a highly significant positive relationship with most of the studied body constituents. These findings suggest that biological differences like length and weight across species can influence the fishes biochemical composition that should be established.</p> Md. Rahamat Ullah, Nitai Roy, Suprakash Chakma, Md. Arifur Rahman Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-06 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The current scenario and future aspects of cyanotoxins: A review study https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/454 <p>Water bodies that are laden with rich nutrient sources are considered to be a medium for the profuse growth of algae and blooms. They induce the production of harmful metabolites called cyanotoxins that are highly toxic to animals and the human body. Cyanobacteria are light-dependent living organisms that are responsible for producing the highest oxygen in the world. Cyanotoxins are considered to be the natural pollutants produced by some cyanobacterial species that occur worldwide. In terms of their role in the ecosystem, applications, and biosynthesis, proper understanding related to research and development is needed for the fate of humanity. The knowledge of cyanotoxins is very new and awareness has been created since very last few years. This review article provides a basic introduction to cyanobacterial toxins, including a holistic view of public health throws, exposure routes, drinking water issues, and mitigation efforts.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> MANISH SUTRADHAR Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/454 A REVIEW ON EFFECT OF HEAT STRESS AND DROUGHT ON WHEAT AND IT'S TOLERANCE MECHANISM https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/453 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Wheat is a mainstay of Nepalese cuisine, and it is cultivated throughout the nation all through the winter months. The impact of abiotic stress on wheat, such as heat and drought, is discussed in this review article. Biochemical, physiological, and morphological processes are all affected by such stressors.</p> <p>&nbsp;Understanding the physiological and biochemical responses of crops to any unfavorable circumstance is essential for developing mechanisms and techniques for plant tolerance. Drought at CRI reduces yield by 60%, while Heat stress causes about ( 16.6&nbsp; %) yield loss. Drought tolerance is managed by drought escape, drought avoidance and drought traits. Heat stress is also endured by the plant's anti-oxidative defense mechanism and the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs).</p> Santosh Gupta Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/453 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF VERMICOMPOST AND INORGANIC FERTILIZER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF RADISH (Raphanus sativus) VARIETIES IN KASKI, NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/451 <p>The research was conducted at Pokhara-5, Malepatan, Kaski from March to June, 2021 to study about the effect of different doses of vermicompost and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of radish (<em><u>Raphanus</u> <u>sativus</u>)</em> varieties. The research was conducted as 2 two factorial RCBD with 12 treatments; each replicated thrice. First factor was variety with two levels : Tokinashi and Mino early and second factor was fertilizer combination with six levels: control, 75% vermicompost+ 25% inorganic fertilizer, 50% vermicompost+ 50% inorganic fertilizer, 25% vermicompost+ 75% inorganic fertilizer, 100% inorganic fertilizer and 100% vermicompost. Days to 50% germination, growth parameters at 20, 30, 40 and 50 Days after sowing and yield parameters at 55 Days after sowing were recorded. It has been observed that the growth and yield attributing characters of radish were significantly affected by variety and fertilizer levels. Mino early recorded highest result for all growth parameters whereas highest result for yield attributing characters was recorded from Tokinashi. The combination of inorganic fertilizer with vermicompost gave higher result in terms of both growth and yield attributing parameters than 100% inorganic fertilizer alone. Interaction effect of variety and fertilizer levels for all parameters at all dates of observations was found to be non significant. The result showed that highest yield was obtained from Tokinashi (4.55kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and 50% vermicompost + 50% inorganic fertilizer (5.61kg/m<sup>2</sup>). Thus, it is suitable to use Tokinashi variety and fertilizer combination of inorganic fertilizer and vermicompost rather than sole application of both fertilizers.</p> Sunira Marahatta, Binayak Kunwar, Ananta Raj Devkota, Sushmita Sapkota Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/451 Effect of Seeding Density on Growth Attributes of Broccoli var. Centauro Seedling in Nursery https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/450 <p>Quality seedlings play an important role in the crop establishment, and thus the yield in production field. Generally, farmers broadcast seeds on a nursery bed without maintaining the proper spacing that influence seedlings growth and development in nursery. Therefore, the research was carried out in nursery field of Lamjung Campus to see the effect of seeding in growth attributes of seedling during October, 2018. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replications. Four seeding density treatments were managed by maintaining the space for each seed viz. T<sub>1</sub>: 0.5 cm x 1 cm, T<sub>2</sub>: 1.0 cm x 1 .0 cm, T<sub>3</sub>: 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm and T<sub>4</sub>: 2.0 cm x 2.0 cm were allocated. Broccoli variety- <em>Centauro</em> was used for the experiment. Leaf area was measured by using ImageJ software. Similarly, MS-Excel was used for data tabulation and data were analyzed by using GenStat. Germination of seed was 94% in lab and seedling establishment was 67.33% in nursery bed. Different growth parameters like root length, plant height, root fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, dry weight of shoot and % of shoot dry weight were studied by destructive sampling after 23 days of seed sowing. Significant differences were obtained on plant height, root length, leaf area and fresh weight of root. Root length was statistically higher (5.67cm) in 2.0 cm ⅹ 2.0 cm spacing whereas significantly lower root length was found in 0.5 cm ⅹ 1.0 cm which was statistically at par with 1.0 cm ⅹ 1.0 cm. Higher leaf area (18.01cm<sup>2</sup>) was found in 2 cm x 2 cm spacing which was statistically at par with 1.5 cm ⅹ 1.5 cm and 1.0 cm ⅹ 1.0 cm spacing. In general, seeding at 2 cm ⅹ 2 cm spacing performed better in most of the important attributes under this study but there is a scope of wider spacing trails for further recommendation.</p> Bibek Acharya, SUSMITA ADHIKARI Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/450 Effect of different concentration of ethephon on banana (cv. Malbhog) ripening and post- harvest life at laboratory condition https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-04 <p>A research study entitled effect of different concentration of ethephon on banana (cv. Malbhog) ripening and post-harvest life at laboratory condition was conducted to find out the best concentration of ethephon on banana ripening and quality parameters after harvest under ordinary room conditions. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design which comprised of five treatments; control, ethephon @ 250 ppm, Ethephon @ 500 ppm, ethephon @ 750 ppm and ethephon @ 1000 ppm replicated four times. Different post-harvest parameters were recorded on alternate days for 10 days. From the experiment, the use of ethephon @ 1000 ppm and Ethephon @ 750 ppm was found more effective regarding banana ripening and other parameters. On the final day of storage, the highest (2.937) pulp to peel ratio was recovered with ethephon @ 1000 ppm. The maximum TSS/TA ratio (31.51) was recorded in bananas treated with ethephon @ 750 ppm. The highest vitamin C content (6.285 mg/100g) was observed with ethephon@1000 ppm. The respondent gave a higher score for fruits kept as control than ethephon treated banana. Overall acceptability regarding sweetness, flavor was superior in control banana than the ethephon treated banana. The minimum spoilage loss was recorded with ethephon @ 1000 ppm (25.0%) and ethephon @500 ppm (25.0 %). From the experiment the concentration of ethephon 1000 ppm and 750 ppm was found to be effective for banana ripening.</p> Umesh Timilsina, Arjun Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-04 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Existing agroforestry practices and their contribution to the socio-economic condition of the people of west Nawalparasi, Nepal: A case study https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-019 <p>The modern agroforestry systems have the potential to improve livelihood through the <br>production of food, fodder, and firewood as well as mitigation of the impact of climate change. Therefore, it's high time to study local people's perception towards agroforestry adoption and suggest potential agroforestry practices and their benefits for the upliftment of their livelihood. This research was conducted in Susta rural municipality, Pratappur rural municipality, and Bardaghat municipality of Nawalaparasi (West) district to explore the existing agroforestry practices followed by the people, its contribution to the economy of households, to understand the people's perception/attitude towards its adoption and finally to propose the potential agroforestry practices. Primary data were collected using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools and secondary information through journals and reports. The analysis begins with distinguishing agroforestry systems and practices, preference of trees, benefits through these practices, people's perception, and problems regarding these practices. A total of 39 tree species and 30 food crop species were planted by 282 household people surveyed. Mangifera indica (relative prevalence 25.92%) is the most predominant fruit species whereas Dalbergia sissoo (relative prevalence 21.28%) is the most predominant timber species. It was found that the boundary planting pattern of the agroforestry system is most (40%) used by farmers of Parasi. The result demonstrated that agroforestry aids in the improvement of livelihood. Nevertheless, respondents have experienced increment incidences of pests and diseases to the annual crops and trees. Hence, the provision of training to improve the skills and knowledge of households seem to be the major need to flourish the agroforestry practices.</p> Sindhu Pokharel, Sanjeeb Bhattarai, Rabindra Adhikari, Suveksha Jha, Aaradhana Pokhrel, Madhavi Parajuli Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-019 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Growth analysis of short duration transplanted Aus rice (cv. Parija) under three agronomic practices https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-08 <p>An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to investigate the growth of short duration transplanted <em>Aus</em> rice (cv. Parija) under three agronomic practices. The study comprised of two nursery seeding densities <em>viz.</em> 40 and 80 g seeds m<sup>-2</sup>, three ages of seedlings viz. 20, 30 and 40-day old, and three levels of seedlings hill<sup>-1 </sup><em>viz. </em>2, 4 and 6 seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup>. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. For individual treatment effects, the highest plant height, number of tillers hill<sup>-1</sup>, total dry matter, leaf area index and crop growth rate were found when seedlings were raised @ 40g seed m<sup>-2</sup> and 30-day old seedlings were transplanted @4 seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup>. In interaction, the highest number of tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (13.00) and total dry matter (22.93 g) at 45 DAT, and crop growth rate (6.71 g m<sup>-2</sup> day<sup>-1</sup>) at 15-30 DAT were obtained from the interaction among 40 g seed m<sup>-2</sup> × 30-day old seedlings × 4 seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup>. On the other hand, the tallest plant (73.27 cm) at 45 DAT was found from the interaction among 80 g seed m<sup>-2</sup> × 30-day old seedlings × 4 seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup>, while the highest leaf area index (2.87) was recorded from the interaction of 40 g seed m<sup>-2</sup> × 30-day old seedlings × 2 seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup> at 50 DAT. Considering both the significant individual and interaction treatment effects on the growth parameters, the use of 40 g seed m<sup>-2</sup> × 30-day old seedlings × 4 seedlings hill<sup>-1 </sup>could improve the growth performance of short duration transplanted <em>Aus </em>rice (cv. Parija). Therefore, a nursery seeding density of 40 g seed m<sup>-2</sup> and 30-day old seedlings transplanting with 4 seedlings hill<sup>-1</sup> appears as the promising combination in respect of growth performance of short duration transplanted <em>Aus </em>rice (cv. Parija).</p> Mukta Akter, Newton Chandra Paul, Shubroto Kumar Sarkar, Chandan Kumar Mahapatra, Md. Abdur Rahman Sarkar, Swapan Kumar Paul Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-08 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of different growing media on growth and yield of leafy vegetables in nutrient film technique hydroponics system https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-03 <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of growing media on the growth and yield of leafy vegetables in the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) of Hydroponic cultivation. This research was carried out for two months (Nov to Dec 2020) in the research house of Wind Power Nepal Pvt. Ltd, located at an altitude of 1310 meters above sea level. The experimental design used in this study was a factorial randomized block design (RBD) with two factors. The first factor was growing media; namely cocopeat, sponge, and perlite. The second factor was crop types namely lettuce and pakchoi that were harvested in 30 days. The data were subjected to the ANOVA technique in R-studio software version 4.0.0 and Fisher’s protected LSD test was used to separate the means. The highest plant yield (12.55 g) was obtained from plants grown in cocopeat in the NFT hydroponics system. The longest plant shoot height (9.69 cm) was obtained from plants grown in the sponge, while the lowest plant shoot height (8.85 cm) was observed in plants grown in perlite. The broadest plant leaf width (5.54 cm) was observed in plants grown in the cocopeat when compared to the sponge (4.93 cm) and perlite (4.32 cm) growing media. The results of this study showed that growing media cocopeat followed by sponge performed better as compared to perlite. The combination of the two factors showed an insignificant result in growth and yield parameters. For the hydroponics cultivation of lettuce and pakchoi, cocopeat followed by sponges should be used as a growing medium for better growth and yield.</p> Sadhana Chhetri, Sushmita Dulal, Subhawana Subba, Kushal Gurung Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-03 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Allelopathic effects of Juglans regia leaf extract on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rye (Secale cereale) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-02 <p>This investigation was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of <em>Juglans regia</em> (Walnut) leaf extract on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em>) and rye (<em>Secale cereale</em>). For this <em>J.</em> <em>regia </em>leaves extract was selected to analyze its allelopathic effects on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat and rye seeds. Applied seeds was treated with <em>J. regia</em> leaves extract using 2%, 4% and 6% concentrations. Different parameters i.e., seed germination, seedling growth, mortality percentage, fresh and dry weight of plumule and radicle was observed after the experiments. The higher seed germination percentage (50%) was recorded at 2% level, in both the applied seeds, which is followed by 4% in comparison to control. Almost higher concentration showed deleterious effects than the lower doses on germination percentage and seedling growth. The highest mortality percentage (70%) has been recorded at 4% level in wheat and 6% level in both wheat and rye seeds. Therefore, the results indicated that the growing weeds in high quantity between crops can affect the productivity rate of crops due to its allelopathic effects. The allelopathic compounds can be used as natural herbicides and other pesticides; they are less disruptive of the global ecosystem than are synthetic agrochemicals.</p> P.S. Chauhan, G.K. Dhingra, Sameena Kousar Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-02 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Reproductive potential and histological profiling of the wild female anadromous shad (Tenualosa ilisha) in lower Meghna Estuary, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-01 <p>Hilsha shad (<em>Tenualosa ilisha</em>, Hamilton 1822) is the most commercially important and national fish of Bangladesh, belongs to the family of Clupeidae of the Clupeiformes. The study was conducted to identify the seasonal gonadal cycles through histological study and the peak breeding season combining histological and Gonado Somatic Index (GSI). One hundred and twenty fish samples with an average weight of 756.75±6.25 g was collected from the Tentulia river for the study throughout the year. Monthly mean GSI values of females ranged from 6.36±0.69 to 15.02±1.33. The lowest mean GSI value was found in December and the highest GSI value was in October. From the histological observation of the ovary, early perinucleolar stage, late perinucleolar stage, yolk vesicle stage, yolk granule stage, pre-mature and mature stages were identified. The highest percentage (75%) of mature oocytes and peak breeding season were observed in October and the breeding season continues from October to November. These results will be helpful for fishery managers to impose adequate regulations for sustainable fishery management in Bangladesh.</p> Mousumi Akhter, Bimal Chandra Das, Abu Bakker Siddique Khan, Md. Rahamat Ullah, Harunur Rashid Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-01 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Capacity strengthening of fish farmers for improving their livelihood in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-03 <p>This study examines the capacity strengthening status for improving the livelihood of fish farmers of Muktagacha upazila (sub-district) of Bangladesh. A mix method research design was used to collect data from 70 fish farmers of the study area. Nine selected demographic characteristics of the respondents were age, level of education, household size, farm size, fish farming experience, training received on fish farming, access to credit, extension media <br />contact and organizational participation. Findings reveal that half of the respondents (50%) had moderate level of capacity strengthening score while considerable portion of the respondents (36%) had high level of capacity strengthening score. The livelihood status of fish farmers improved to a great extent in five aspects of livelihood (human, social, natural, physical and financial) due to the creation of income generating opportunities after their involvement in fish farming. This study concludes that fish farming has major contributions for the capacity strengthening of fish farmers for improving their livelihood status. </p> Fatema Tuz Zohra, Shahroz Mahean Haque, Shonia Sheheli, Md. Masud Rana Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-03 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Rainfall Trend and its Implications for Sustainable Crop Production: A Case Study of Iwo, Nigeria https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/441 <p>Studies have revealed that rainfall pattern will change in view of climate change scenario being experienced globally. Thus, a 30-year rainfall data analysis was conducted for Iwo in Osun State, southwestern Nigeria to determine the trend pattern of rainfall. Non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistic was used and co-tested with regression analysis. M-K showed no trend in the rainfall while regression showed that five months showed negative trend indicating declining rainfall over the period, seven months revealed a positive trend implying increasing rainfall over the period for those months. However, the general analysis of the 30-year data showed that there was general decline in the rainfall incidence over the period in Iwo. The results of monthly trend indicated that rainfall is no longer dependable for rain-fed agriculture, and so water conservation methodologies need to be adopted in order to sustain crop production. It is recommended that shifting in the planting dates, irrigation, best agronomic practices, among others should be considered by, especially small scale farmers. Stakeholders in water resources management holds the responsibility on averting water scarcity and the challenge of water pollution in view of the erratic rainfall.</p> Timothy O. Ogunbode, Vincent I. Esan, Kayode Samson, J. O. Oyelowo, Janet T. Asifat Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/441 A Shoot-root traits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) affected by electrical conductivity based salinity stress https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/440 <p>Tomato is one of the most important and popular vegetable crop grown mainly dry seasons in Bangladesh. The southern part of the country is suffering from soil salinity problem due tidal flood. The increasing salinity in the cultivatable land causes huge crop failure.&nbsp; A dozen of tomato varieties have been developed but they are not been tested for salinity tolerance. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the tolerance level of tomato varieties against NaCl salinity stress at vegetative stage. The study comprised of four levels of electrical conductivity (EC) based NaCl salinity <em>viz.,</em> EC 2 (control), EC 4, EC 6, and EC 8 mS/cm and eight varieties of tomato. The two-factor pot experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design with four replications. NaCl salinity was imposed to the tomato plants through hydroponic culture system and the effects of salinity to shoot-roots traits were measured.&nbsp; Results showed that morphological traits of tomato plants varied significantly with the salinity levels and variety. It was also noticed that all the vegetative traits reduced as salt concentrations increased in the solution. In combined effects of variety and salinity levels, it was found that BARI Tomato-17 performed superior. It can conclude that BARI Tomato-17 showed comparatively salt tolerant than the other variety.</p> Md. Mokter Hossain, Md. Marju Alma, Md. Golam Rabbani Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/440 PROFITABILITY AND ADOPTION OF MODERN WHEAT VARIETIES IN RAJSHAHI DISTRICT OF BANGLADESH https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/439 <p>The study aims to estimate the area coverage, productivity, profitability and adoption scenarios of wheat cultivation in different locations of Bangladesh. The study also identified factors affecting productivity and constraints of wheat cultivation in Rajshahi district of Bangladesh. A popular wheat-producing district namely, Rajshahi was selected purposively for this study. Data were obtained randomly through a field-level survey of 140 farmers under Charghat and Bagha Upazilas of the Rajshahi district. Cobb-Douglas production function was used for assessing the factors affecting wheat productivity. The results revealed that 100% of the total wheat cultivated areas were occupied by BARI wheat varieties in Rajshahi district. The average level of adoption of BARI Gom 28, BARI Gom 30, BARI Gom 25, BARI Gom 24 (Prodip) and BARI Gom 26 were 34.21%, 18.47%, 15.89%, 13.48%, and 12.63%, respectively at farm level. The cultivation of BARI released wheat varieties were profitable to the farmers as per the hectare net return was Tk 8030. The parametric analysis (Cobb-Douglas) showed that mechanical power cost,&nbsp; seed, &nbsp;sowing time, urea, gypsum and herbicide had positive effects on the yield of wheat production. Inaccessibility of latest wheat varieties’ seed, late sowing, lack of training, attack of diseases (BpLB and Rust) low market price at the time of harvest were the main constraints to wheat cultivation at the farm level in Rashahi dietrict of Bangladesh.</p> Nasrtin Begum Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/439 Yield Stability of Different Rice Genotypes under different agroecological domains of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/436 <p>Rice, being one of the most important cereal crops ranking first in terms of area and production, its yield production depends upon the high yielding genotype with desirable traits and stability around the diverse ecosystem. Different varieties of rice interact with the environment differently which means the reaction of different varieties with the environment differs accordingly. The variation in environment, the interaction between the genotypes, and the management practices govern the final grain yield of rice. Diverse genotypes are necessary to cope the adverse environments. Two genotypes, NR 11375-B-B-21 and NR 11374-B-B-23, are suitable cultivars for both upland and lowland conditions in Nepal's mid-hills. Genotype yield potential is more in lowland conditions. The genotype and environment interaction over different locations and years affect the final grain yield in hybrid varieties. A brief review of yield stability of different rice genotypes under different agroecological domains of Nepal is to increase the production of various varieties of rice under different environments and which genotype is suitable for the particular environment.</p> Neha Sah, Shobha Pokhrel, Dolma Diki Sherpa Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/436 Scope and challenges of mushroom production and their mitigations in Nepal: A review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-017 <p>This review paper aims to discuss and compile information regarding various scopes, challenges, and mitigating measures of mushroom cultivation in Nepal. Overall information on mushroom cultivation comprising its status, scope, and problems is vital for bringing positive change in this sector. Different secondary sources of information were reviewed and analyzed including journals like Elsevier and Springer. In Nepal, the production of mushrooms has increased about 8.23 times over a decade until 2020. Nepal is blessed with a range of ecosystems that really are ideal for mushroom production. Different mushroom species have been commercially cultivated in different parts of Nepal. Mushroom production can be used as an alternative source to overcome food and nutrition security problems and eventually leads to the livelihood improvement of people in developing countries like Nepal. The study revealed that mushrooms can be used to fight several diseases with their nutritional and medicinal properties. The demand for mushrooms is increasing nowadays more than ever. With the implementation of various measures with proper coordination and planning, mushroom cultivation can be proliferated. As a result, the mushroom industry has a lot of potentials to help the country's socioeconomic transition. Nepal can capitalize on this opportunity by enacting appropriate and concrete national mushroom policies and programs.</p> Rojina Sapkota, Dipesh Joshi, Sujan Bogati, Santoshi Malla Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-017 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT ON THE YIELD OF GINGER AS INTERCROPPING WITH DIFFERENT CROPS. https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/433 <p>Ginger (<em>Zingiber officinale</em>) is one of the major high-value cash crops in Nepal. Low yield, conventional farming, and limited access to production resources such as improved cultivars, production technologies, and extension services are the existing problems of Nepali ginger farmers. In this study, we conducted intercropping of ginger with different crops. This research aimed to explore the appropriate ginger farming technology considering yield, income, and environment. The crops selected for intercropping were Maize [<em>Zea mays </em>L.] (Cereal Crop), Chilli [<em>Capsicum annuum </em>L.] (Spices or Cash Crop), Okra [<em>Abelmoschus esculentus </em>L.] (Vegetable Crop) and Pigeon Pea [<em>Cajanus cajan </em>L.] (Leguminous or Pulses) and as cultivated as duration of one season crops (i.e. 9 months). The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications. The difference among the treatments on the yield of ginger was found to be non-significant. However, among all the treatments, yield from ginger and maize combination was highest at 22.7 kg followed by control i.e. ginger as a mono crop. The lowest yield was obtained from ginger with pigeon pea. The number of tillers/ clump and plant height was found to be significant. The highest number of tillers/ clump at 16.0 was in ginger and maize combination and lowest at 10.3 in ginger and pigeon pea combination. The height of the plant was highest at 70.0 cm in ginger and pigeon pea combination. The total return of ginger and companion crop was calculated at a recent market price. The total return was highest in ginger and okra combination at Rs. 3587 followed by ginger and maize combination at Rs. 3291.5. The lowest return was obtained from ginger (control) at Rs. 756.</p> Prabesh Devkota Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/433 EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PESTICIDES AGAINST Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky). https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/432 <p><em>The study on “Effectiveness of some chemical and biological pesticides against S. zeamais” was carried out at National Entomology Research Center, NARC, Khumaltar, and Lalitpur. This study was carried out to find the residual effect of the pesticides on S. zeamais mortality. Each pesticide was applied in 3 concentrations: Emmamectin Benzoate @ 0.3ml/ltr, @0.1ml/ltr and @0.6ml/ltr, Neem @ 5ml/ltr, @2.5ml/ltr and @10ml/ltr, Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) @ 1.5ml/ltr, @0.75ml/ltr and @3ml/ltr; and Malathion @ 2ml/ltr, @1ml/ltr and 4ml/ltr. The residue of pesticide on weevil mortality was seen the highest on Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) till the 87<sup>th</sup> Day and was least on Neem even on the 1<sup>st</sup> day of observation. The mortality % was highest (100%) on Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) and Malathion and was lowest (0%) on Neem. The maximum weight loss was observed on Neem @2.5ml/ltr which was 9.4% whereas, minimum wt. loss was observed on Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) @ 3ml/ltr which was 0.25% of the total grain weight. The maximum percent of damaged grain was observed on Neem which was 100% while the minimum percent of damaged grain was observed on Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) @1.5ml/ltr which was 11.21% of the total grain. No weevil progeny emerged from Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) @1.5ml/ltr treated seeds whereas the maximum number of progeny emerged from Neem @2.5ml/ltr treated seeds which were 149.67. Out of the 4 pesticides tested on the adult of Sitophilus Zeamais, Chloropyrifos (50%) + Cypermethrin (5%) was found to be most effective while Neem was the least effective.</em></p> Aakash Adhikari, Garima Bhandari Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/432 INTEGRATED USE OF IMPROVED FARMYARD MANURE AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND RICE PRODUCTIVITY ON SANDY LOAM SOIL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/431 <p>A field experiment on “Integrated use of improved farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on soil properties and rice productivity on sandy loam soil” was conducted at farmer’s field to assess the combined effect of improved farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on soil properties, straw and grain yield of rice at Rambagh, Chitwan Nepal during June to November 2019. The field experiment was set up in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with seven different nutrient management strategies and four replications. The rice variety used was Ram Dhan. The effect of chemical fertilizers and improved farmyard manure was found significant on yield attributing characters of rice. Significantly higher straw yield ( 4,758.25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and grain yield (3,453.69 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) were recorded in HCF + HMPR followed by straw yield at CF (4389.53kgha<sup>-1</sup>) and HCF + HMNR (4389.00 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and grain yield at HCF+HMNR (3225.78 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and CF (3069.06 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) which were comparable to each other. Similarly, the effect of chemical fertilizers and improved farmyard manure on soil pH, soil organic carbon, and available potassium were significant while nonsignificant on bulk density, soil Nitrogen, and available Phosphorus. Further, a significantly higher soil pH value of 6.58 at a depth of 0-15 cm was recorded in MPR. Similarly significantly higher available soil organic carbon (34.68 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>), higher available soil Nitrogen (1.24 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>), higher available soil Phosphorus (39.57 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) at depth of 0-15 was recorded from treatment MPR and significantly higher available soil Potassium was observed from MPR (216.012 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>) at depth of 0-15 cm. The highest rice and straw yield resulted from the combined application (HCF + HMPR) whereas the sole application of MPR improved soil fertility and chemical properties. Thus, it is suggested to the rice growers that combined application of&nbsp;&nbsp; (HCF + HMPR) ensured for optimum stable productivity of rice.</p> SARITA LAMICHHANE Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/431 the SHELF-LIFE DETERMINATION OF SMOKED FISH USING DIFFERENT PACKAGING MATERIALS https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/430 <p>Twenty frozen fishes of different species which include sardine, mackerel, catfish and panla&nbsp; were purchased from four different markets in Awka, five each.&nbsp; The frozen fishes were taken to fishery department of Anambra State Polytechnic, Mgbakwu for smoking; the fishes were aseptically smoked using traditional kiln and oven drying method.&nbsp; The aseptically smoked fishes were packaged in five different packaging materials produced in the laboratory namely; Polyethylene (PP) it serves as control, PCP, PCDP, PFP and ATCP the samples were packaged in triplicate and stored at room temperature for 30days. Thickness, water and oil absorption rates of the packaging materials were determined using standard methods.&nbsp; The shelf life of the packaged samples were determined in which the microbial load, sensory evaluation and proximate analysis were determined at interval of 0day, 3<sup>rd</sup> day, 7<sup>th</sup> day,21day and 30<sup>th</sup> day of storage period.&nbsp; Sensory evaluation was evaluated&nbsp;&nbsp; by 10 panelists using 9 point hedonic scale. The isolated organisms are <em>Bacillus spp,&nbsp; Enterobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Micrococcus spp. </em>the fungi isolated are <em>Aspergillus fumigate</em>, <em>Aspergillus oryzae</em>, <em>Fusarium</em> spp. <em>Mucor, Rhizopus</em> sp.and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae. </em>At 0day no organism was isolated from fish samples expect in smoked and oven dried panla fish. Their TVC ranges from 0.2x10<sup>2</sup>-0.8x10<sup>2</sup>, on 3<sup>rd</sup> day the TVC ranges from 0.9x10<sup>2</sup>-2.2x10<sup>3</sup>, on 7<sup>th</sup> day it ranges from 0.3x10<sup>2</sup>-5.1x10<sup>2</sup>, at 14day it ranges from 2.5x10<sup>2</sup>-8.5x10<sup>2</sup>, on 21<sup>st</sup> day ranges from 1.2.x10<sup>6</sup>-8.2x10<sup>6</sup> at 30<sup>th</sup> day the TVC/CFU/g ranges from 5.1x10<sup>6</sup>-9. Smoked mackerel and catfish have better taste than oven dried. Oven dried fish have better texture, colour, smell and general acceptability. The thickness, water absorption rate and oil absorption rate of packaging materials&nbsp; ranges from 0.4-3.7, 0.003-0.052 and 0.0001-8.799. PP and ATCP has the best sensory rating. Proper packaging of smoked fish can extend the keeping quality of the product.</p> Chinwendu Njideka Ozoh, Prof. Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/430 A STUDY ON RESEARCH WORKS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS OF POST-GRADUATE PROGRAM AT PATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT, IAAS, RAMPUR, CHITWAN, NEPAL https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/429 <p>The Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS) under Tribhuwan University (TU) has been carrying out various disciplinary and system research works through post-graduate students' research and publishing their findings through the M.Sc.Ag and Ph.D. thesis dissertations. Various thesis written by researchers under IAAS were collected and the appraisal of pathological research works on major cereals, vegetable crops, legume crops, oilseed crops and high-value crops along with ideas on management practices was done with the help of a thorough literature review. Data were gathered from &nbsp;IAAS/TU &nbsp;libraries, &nbsp;Rampur Library, &nbsp;Kritipur library, &nbsp;GAASC &nbsp;library and &nbsp;IAAS journals. A total of 68 types of research were conducted at IAAS. It is revealed that major diseases associated with cereals area brown spot of rice, &nbsp;rice blast, &nbsp;yellow rust of wheat, helminthosporium leaf blight of wheat, spot blotch of wheat and leaf blast of finger millet. Similarly, diseases of vegetables include late blight of potato, a white mold of french beans. The major diseases of legumes are wilt of lentil &amp; chickpea, powdery mildew of pea, anthracnose of soybean and those of oilseeds are mainly leaf blights. Large cardamom, greatly known as high- value crop, is found to be suffered from Chirkey Foorkey and leaf blight diseases. Fungal pathogens cause most of the diseases in almost all crops. The management practices at their best results included the use of biological agents along with commonly available fungicides. The study found out a research gap in agricultural pathology as well. It also luminated the future area of research works that is lacking in current research works.</p> Khuma Kumari Bhusal, Sabina Devkota, Santoshi Malla Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/429 PERSPECTIVE OF OLIVE FARMING AT BAJURA, NEPAL: MAIN OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES. https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/427 <p>Olive crop farming is getting popular in western higher altitude districts of Nepal, economically, and socially as a sustainable source of rural income and employment. Our survey is beneficial in determining the primary constraints and opportunities of Olive (<em><u>Olea europaea</u></em>) in Nepal's Bajura district.75 olive growers are randomly selected through the Raosoft sample calculator and a survey have performed. The design of the survey is a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and 2 focus group discussions through descriptive statistical analysis for problem and prospects ranking is done. Chi-square test, t-test, and a linear regression model are used for quantitative data analysis. Our study shows land holding capacity of more than half of olive growers is less than 5 Ropani, sixty-four percent of farmers are lacking training on organic farming and engaging in olive farming from 5 to 15 years through conventional style, lacks of quality planting materials, olive specific research on pest and diseases, etc. The promoted factor for olive cultivation is comparative advantage, increasing demand, high export potential, subsidies and training programs in the small area, etc. our study help researchers and policymaker to visualize the problem and prospects for making a strong foundation for economic status improvement through commercial olive farming in Bajura, Nepal.</p> Bikas Basnet, KESHAV BHATTARAI, YUBRAJ ARYAL , DEEPAK KHATRI , BIKAS BASNET, PANKAJ PRASHAD JOSHI Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/427 Reduction in use of herbicides by combining aqueous extract of grass pea for weed management and yield of wheat https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-014 <p>Nowadays, the increasing costs in the agricultural sector, increasing public concern about the widespread use of herbicides and the development non-chemical methods of weed control programs are alerting management. In this regard, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of grass pea residues on weed management and crop performance of wheat. The experiment was comprised of three varieties of wheat viz., BARI Gom-30, BARI Gom-31, BARI Gom-32 and six different levels of treatments such as no weeding, recommended dose of herbicide, aqueous extraction of grass pea, 90% recommended dose + aqueous extraction of grass pea,80% recommended dose + aqueous extraction of grass pea, 70% recommended dose +aqueous extraction of grass pea, 60% recommended dose + aqueous extraction of grass pea. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Weed population, weed dry weight and weed control efficacy were significantly influenced by aqueous extract of grass pea crop residues and varieties. The highest numbers of tillers hill<sup>-1</sup>, numbers of grains spike<sup>-1</sup>, 1000 grain weight and grain yield were observed where recommended dose of herbicide was used followed by the application of 90% recommended dose +aqueous extraction of grass pea. BARI Gom-31along with 90% recommended dose +aqueous extraction of grass pea produced the highest grain and straw yield among the treatment combination. Therefore, aqueous extract of grass pea crop residues might be used as an alternative way for weed management in effective and sustainable crop production.</p> Uttam Kumer Sarker, Md. Salahuddin Kaysar, Jasmin Nahar, Md. Romij Uddin Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-014 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 First record of the Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) from Sundarban Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-013 <p>This is the first occurrence report of Great Crested Grebe (<em>Podiceps cristatus)</em> from Sundarban Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India. A Great Crested Grebe was observed at a river in the Sajnekhali Wildlife Sanctuary, while conducting the annual biodiversity survey within the Sundarban Tiger Reserve in November 2020. The species is a winter migrant to mostly man-made reservoirs at the northern districts of the state, and compared to the previous records, this is the southernmost occurrence report from West Bengal. The discovery of <em>Podiceps cristatus</em> at an undisturbed and favorable habitat inside a well-protected mangrove ecosystem within the Sundarban Tiger Reserve may prove significantly informative for the possible range extension and future conservation approaches of the species.</p> Souryadeep Mukherjee Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-013 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of biochar and nitrogen on soil characteristics, growth and yield of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) at Paklihawa, Rupandehi condition of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-02 <p>An experiment on effect of biochar and nitrogen on soil characteristics, growth and yield of radish (<em>Raphanus sativus</em> L.) was conducted at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Paklihawa, Rupandehi, from November 2019 to February 2020. The experiment was laid in Randomized Complete Block Design with two factors: nitrogen and biochar, each factor having four levels (biochar: 0 t/ha, 5 t/ha, 10 t/ha and 15 t/ha and nitrogen: 0 kg/ha, 50 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha, 200 kg/ha), resulting in sixteen treatment combinations. Biochar application was found to be effective in improving soil bulk density, pH, soil organic matter and soil nitrogen and potassium content. Application of nitrogen fertilizer (200 kg/ha) and biochar (15 t/ha) alone, and in combination, showed significantly higher root dry matter (15.83 gm, 16.63 gm and 20.57 gm), biological yield (80 t/ha, 63.75 t/ha, and 95.75) and root yield (26.74 t/ha, 24.06 t/ha and 30.32 t/ha). In comparison to the sole effects of the highest dose of nitrogen fertilizer (200 kg/ha) and the highest dose of biochar (15 t/ha), their combined application showed the increased yield in radish root by 13.38% and 26.01%, respectively, indicating that the combined effect of biochar and nitrogen is more productive for the growth and yield in radish crop as compared to the sole effect of nitrogen and biochar.</p> R. Pathak, Sita Dahal Khatri, S. Dahal, S. Mahatara Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-02 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of seasonal variations on the physicochemical characteristics of spring water in Oji River LGA, Enugu State Nigeria https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-012 <p>This study was conducted to determine the effect of seasonal variations on the physicochemical characteristics of spring water samples in Oji River Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected in sterile plastic water containers at the point of discharge during the dry and wet seasons and analyzed physicochemically using the standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. The results showed that the colour (7-14.2 TCU); pH (7.18-8.4); temperature (24.6-28.1 <sup>o</sup>C); electrical conductivity in wet season (128.5-285.6 µs/cm); total dissolved solids (114.7-401 mg/L); total suspended solids (101.8-423.6 mg/L); total hardness (58-255 mg/L); total acidity (3.55-19.5 mg/L); total alkalinity (9.2-47 mg/L); biological oxygen demand (1.70-3.28 mg/L); nitrate (0.73-2.23 mg/L); ammonium in wet season (0.18-0.34 mg/L); zinc (0.011-0.085 mg/L); mercury (0.001-0.005 mg/L); copper (0.002-1.008 mg/L) and iron (0.031-0.318 mg/L) of water were within the WHO standard for drinking water quality while the phosphate (0.14-1.08 mg/L), lead (0.013-0.098 mg/L) and ammonium in dry season (0.48-0.75 mg/L) levels were not found within the prescribed limit of WHO drinking water standards. Therefore, this investigation indicated that the spring water is unfit for drinking without adequate treatment. Liming, boiling and ozonation treatment techniques are recommended for the treatment of water.</p> Elochukwu Chidubem Sunday Okoye, Samuel Chinedu Onuorah, Lydia Chidimma Okoye, Joseph Onyebuchi Nwadiogbu Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-012 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the parameters influencing agricultural productivity due to the limitations of smartphone-related knowledge among farmers https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-011 <p>The use of smartphones has improved individuals significantly in this age of information technology. Yet farmers cannot use this smartphone due to a lack of proper knowledge. Where smartphones could easily be used by farmers to solve their agricultural problems. The aims of the study to improve the daily life of a farmer as well as to gain skills in the use of smart phones. Nine characters have been selected to find out the relation between knowledge of farmers' use of smartphones in agriculture. The data are collected through interviews from 128 farm families from Mymensingh of Bangladesh. A semi-structured questionnaire is distributed for collecting data. Those data were pre-arranged and categorized by using M.S. Excel. Spearman's Rank Order were used to create correlations among the characteristics of farmers. Among the selected farmers 56% have low knowledge and only 3% of farmers have high knowledge about the use of smartphones in the agricultural sector. Among nine characters ages and firm experience have a strong negative significant correlation (-0.548* and -0.541*, respectively). On the other hand, extension media interaction has a strong positive relationship (0.588*). From this output, farmers will be able to gain a complete understanding of smartphones to solve the agricultural problems with proper training and experience.</p> Prodipto Bishnu Angon, Md. Mahbubur Rahman Khan, Md. Shafiul Islam, Rucksana Parvin Suma, Ummya Habiba Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-011 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A review on comparative effect of chemicals and botanicals in management of brown spot diseases of rice (Oryza sativa L.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-018 <p>Brown spot of rice is a fungal disease caused by either <em>Bipolaris oryzae</em>, <em>Helminthosporium oryzae</em> or <em>Drechslera oryzae</em> species, which is found to be a major problem eventually causing sustainable losses both in quality and quantity. The pathogen after infection shows the symptoms on the leaves, panicles, glumes, and grain causing first as small, circular, and dark brown to purple-brown spots and fully developed lesions are circular to oval with a light brown to gray center, surrounded by a reddish-brown margin and ultimately killing the leaf. We have collected our information from secondary sources. In this review article, we have discussed the effects of bio-agents and chemicals and their comparative efficacy. Fungicides like: propiconazole, Carbendazim, Mancozeb, Hexaconazole, Cabendazim, Bion, Amistar, Tilt etc. are discussed which showed diverse performance on the diseases brown spot of rice. Extracts from the plant parts like roots, stem, leaves etc. are comparatively analyzed and studied that effected on mycelial growth and spore germination of <em>Bipolaris </em>pathogen. The plant components with phenolic structures like carvacrol, eugenol, and thymol are found to be highly active against the pathogen. The extracts of plants like <em>Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander, Curcuma longa, S. indicum, Cymbopogon citratus </em>etc. are found suitable against brown spot in rice. Chemical fungicides were found to have more inhibition rate against the pathogen, even up to 100%. Although being eco-friendly, plant extracts were recorded to be less effective in comparison to chemical fungicides for suppressing plant pathogen. This article promotes the use of plant extracts for human health and environmental benefits over the use of chemicals for the control of plant diseases.</p> Monika Parajuli, Gautam Bahadur Khadka, Jay Chaurasia Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-018 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Aquaponics a modern approach for integrated farming and wise utilization of components for sustainability of food security: A review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-017 <p>Aquaponics is the sustainable approaches of present day’s world for raising fish species along with vegetables in a symbiotic association for sustainable food production. People are facing food crisis not only because of the adverse environmental condition but also due to unbalance environment population ratio. That is the main reason why the entire world is more concerned about the production of more food for security and sustainability. Present day’s modern farming system mainly focus on the productivity increasing technology and in due course individual are utilizing more chemical compounds that result in the degradation of soil. It shows great impact on ecological environment. Most of the cultivable land is also turned out as a site of construction which reduces the cultivable land on earth and ultimately arising the food insecurity. In such a circumstance a new approach of aquaponics might be beneficial where water solely covers the two third of the total mass. Aquaponics is a soilless culture which gained immense popularity as it focuses on organic production of vegetables within a single recirculating aquaponics system. Along with the sustainability it also emphasis economic efficacy and enhancement of productivity. It can be grown used on non-arable lands such as deserts, degraded soil or salty, sandy islands. So, it can integrate livelihood strategies to secure food and small incomes for landless and poor households.</p> Shreejana K.C, Ronika Thapa, Ashish Lamsal, Shirish Ghimire, Kavita Kurunju, Pradeep Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-017 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF FISH SPECIES IN COAST OF GHANA, WEST AFRICA https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/416 <p>The study aimed at applying multivariate techniques in determining the changes in abundance and distribution of fish species in the coast of Ahanta West, Ghana. The abundance data was analyzed using cluster analysis, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and SIMPER analysis in PRIMER v6 software. The dendrogram identified three main groups, at 55% similarity. The identified assemblages were spatially distinct however, the average similarities at Busua and Akwidaa were driven by the following top four species: <em>Pteroscion peli, Galeoides decadactylus, Pseudotolithus senegalensis</em> and <em>Brachydeuterus auritus</em> in order of percentage contribution.</p> Samuel Amponsah Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/416 Livelihood assets and food consumption status of riverbank erosion hazard people in a selected area of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-010 <p>Riverbank erosion is a major threat to Bangladesh refers to an endemic and recurrent natural hazard of our country. The study was conducted to identify the socioeconomic characteristics, find out the root causes of riverbank erosion, determine the livelihood assets and measure the calorie intake level of the riverine people. Primary data were collected from Jamalpur district in Bangladesh. The DFID approaches of livelihood and the consumption data of riverine households of seven days was measured by per person per day calorie intake level. The findings revealed that 72% of the respondents belonged to the age up to 60 years, 33.33% respondents’ education level was primary, 36% of the respondents’ primary occupation was agriculture, and 40% respondents had annual household income more than Tk. 100000 (US$ 1556.60). Most of the households identified flood, heavy rainfall, and stream of current as the main cause of riverbank erosion. Overall, human assets were in good position. About 54% respondents used leased land for their cultivation and 37.33% respondents had cash in hand. About 80% of the respondents belonged to the poor and their calorie intake level was &lt; 2122 K. Cal. The Water Development Board of Bangladesh needs more attention to riverine people for improvement of their livelihood and food security status.</p> Toma Chowdhury, Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Md. Akhtaruzzaman Khan, Tanjima Akter Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-010 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Good agricultural practices in mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco); Perception and factors affecting awareness among farmers in Gulmi, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-01 <p>Citrus, in general, and mandarin, in particular, has long been one of Nepal's most important fruit crops. However, in recent years, a lack of good cultivation procedures and negligence has resulted in a significant reduction in its productivity. The declining situation cannot be controlled without the transfer of science-based knowledge and skills where Good Agricultural Practices have been linked to higher output. A study was carried out in 2020 to assess the perception of farmers towards Good Agricultural Practices and factors affecting awareness of GAP among mandarin growers. Altogether 100 households from Dhurkot and Chhatrakot Rural Municipalities, and Resunga Municipality from Gulmi district, were purposively chosen for the study in the command area of the PMAMP PIU Citrus Zone, and sampling was carried out using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with the use of a semi-structured questionnaire, entered, and analyzed using SPSS and STATA software. The farmers were categorized into GAP aware and unaware based on the criteria made by the focus group discussion carried out with the leading farmers, mandarin experts, and government agriculture officers. The findings revealed that 39% of the total respondents knew about GAP for mandarin. The entire respondents agreed that GAP-produced fruit has a nicer appearance and better quality and fruits meet national and international standards and enhance exportability of fruits, however, 61.5% of respondents didn’t agree that GAP helps in providing subsidies from governmental organizations. The output of the binary logit model suggested that an increase in participation in training and contact with extension agents has a significant effect on awareness of GAP. Participatory GAP training, regular extension services to smallholding farmers could be beneficial for mandarin farmers leading to commercialization.</p> Samikshya Sedhai, Bishnu Prasad Panth, Puspa Raj Dulal, Gaurav Adhikari, Surya Dhungana Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-02-01 Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Spatial distribution and relative enrichment of some upper-group trace elements in rhizosphere of highly anthropized and rapidly developing tropical environment https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/413 <p>Most upper-group (Groups 13-17) trace elements, including micronutrients known for a very thin margin between adequacy and toxicity in the biosphere, are toxic. The concentrations, distribution and relative enrichment were studied of some of these elements at Ikwo, southeastern Nigeria, representing largely disturbed and rapidly evolving ecosystems of the humid tropical region. The study involved the north (N), south (S), east (E) and west (W) zones with pronounced mining/agricultural activities, and a reference central (F) zone. Sampling was from the 0-50-cm soil layer of fallow lands in the dry season. The concentrations of the trace elements were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Enrichment factor was calculated as the ratio of each element to that of Fe (serving as a reference element) in the soil. The F- and N-zones had the highest and lowest concentrations (21.00-10.75, 1.83-0.93, 10.90-5.58, 4.05-2.05, 4.97-2.54, 2.20-1.12, 17.75-9.09, 26.74-13.69, 4.41-2.26 and 1.89-0.96 mg kg<sup>–1</sup>, respectively for Se, As, B, Al, Si, S, Sn, Sb, I and Br), implying that mining/agricultural activities rather reduced the accumulation of these elements in the rhizosphere. Enrichment factors mostly indicated moderate-to-insignificant concentrations in the soils. Generally, the trace elements showed similar distribution and enrichment patterns across the five zones, implying that the mining/agricultural activities had not led to their accumulation in the agroecosystem. Thus, at their current modes and intensities in the humid tropics, mining/agricultural activities apparently may not constitute any ecological risks due to these trace elements. &nbsp;</p> Prof. Sunday E. Obalum, Dr Andrew A. Tyopine, Prof. Charles A. Igwe, Prof. Chukwuma O.B. Okoye Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/413 Socio-economic analysis of ginger production in Terhathum district, Province no. 1, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-09 <p>Terhathum is one of the major ginger-producing districts in Nepal. This study with the objective of analyzing the socio-economic status of ginger growing farmers in the Terhathum district investigates the production economics of ginger (<em>Zingiber officinale</em> Rose.) and the socioeconomic status of ginger producing farmers. The semi-structured interview schedule was administered to interview randomly selected commercial ginger-producing households in Myanglung municipality, Phedap rural municipality, and Menchhayayem rural municipality with 35, 39, and 17 respondents from each of the locations respectively. The overall productivity of ginger in the study area was found to be 19.3 MT/ha. The major cost-share for ginger production was found to be held by rhizomes used in the plantation (40.01%). The results indicated that ginger production was a profitable enterprise in the study area with an average B: C ratio of 3.77. The Cobb-Douglas production function indicated that ginger production exhibit increasing returns to scale at a decreasing rate. Rhizome quantity and amount of organic manure applied in the field played a major role in increasing the gross margin of the production. The goodness of fit was 52.3% with a return to scale of 0.714. Indexing technique identified incidence of diseases and pests and the instability of price as the major problems associated with production and trade of ginger. Overall, the study revealed that ginger production was a profitable and potential agriculture enterprise for the study area.</p> Aastha Adhikari, Thaneshwar Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-09 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Field screening of seven genotypes of maize against Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) at Gokuleshwor, Baitadi. https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/411 <p>The main aim of this study was to know the genotype of maize that would be least affected by the fall armyworm infestation. The Field screening of seven genotypes of maize namely Arun-2, Arun-4, Manakamana, Posilo makai, Local seto makai, Rampur composite and Deuti against Fall armyworm (<em>Spodoptera frugiperda) </em>were carried out at the research farm of Entomology section, Gokuleshwor Agriculture and Animal Science College, Baitadi with RCBD design. Each genotype was assigned as a treatment and each were replicated three times. Density of pest was recorded on respective days. With the variation in temperature and rainfall their infestation level was fluctuating. None of the seven genotypes were found to be completely resistant to Fall armyworm however their population density varied according to genotype. During field observation, population of&nbsp; Fall armyworm larvae was found highest at 60 DAS on genotype Arun-2 and Deuti, 75 DAS on genotype Arun-2, Arun-4 and Rampur composite and lowest population was observed at 30 DAS on genotype Local seto makai, 45 DAS on genotype Deuti. Similarly, maximum foliar damage intensity was observed at 60 DAS on genotype Manakamana and Local seto makai, 75 DAS on genotype Manakamana and Local seto makai and minimum intensity of foliar damage was observed at 30 DAS on Arun-4, 45 DAS on genotype Arun-2. Highest yield was obtained from genotype Rampur composite (6.43 Mt/hac) and lowest yield was obtained from Deuti (2.66 Mt/hac).</p> Rojina Sapkota Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/411 Impacts Of Sowing Time On Wheat In Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/410 <p>&nbsp;Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) belonging to the family Poaceae is the most important cereal crop in Nepal as well as globally as it contributes a major portion to the world food supply. Similarly, it is the third most cultivated cereal crop in Nepal in terms of production and area. But due to the impact of time of sowing, the severe loss has been reported and been a serious threat to its growth, development, and productivity in Nepalese agriculture.</p> Babita Bastakoti Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/410 Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria - Mechanisms, Benefits and Constraints https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/409 <p>Rising population growth and decreasing cultivable land are putting food production under challenge since last century. Chemical fertilizers and hybrid crop varieties are two supports till now that have helped the agriculturists and farmers ensure the most output from cultivable lands. But concerns are rising as indiscriminate application of agrochemicals is threatening the ecological balance and sustainability of food production. Thus, biofertilization are now in focus to replace chemical ones. Use of living or dormant microorganisms are going to be the alternative of chemical fertilizers in near future, which is also an environment friendly. Candidates like soil bacteria are a remarkable portion of biofertilizers. Free living rhizobacteria colonize close to plant roots and help in plant growth. These plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have multiple traits from which plants can benefit. They make soil nutrients accessible to plant roots, prevents pathogenic microorganisms, reduce the intensity of different biotic and abiotic stresses. Various physiological and chemical changes are directed by these PGPR to facilitate their host plants with required resources for uninterrupted growth and development. More studies need to be done to make this biofertilization technology a permanent trend in agriculture.</p> Md Shafiul Islam Rion Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/409 Effects of industrial effluents on growth and heavy metals accumulation in cabbage in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-07 <p>The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of industrial effluents on cabbage growth and heavy metal accumulation. Untreated effluents were collected from nine dumping sites in Bangladesh's Dhaka, Sylhet, and Chittagong divisions: including Narsingdi, Tongi, Hazaribagh, Alampur, Khadimnagar, Majortilla, Bhatiary, Bayazid bostami, and Sagorika. Pb (2.038 mgl<sup>-1</sup>), Cd (0.082 mgl<sup>-1</sup>), Ni (0.237 mgl<sup>-1</sup>) and Cr (0.172 mgl<sup>-1</sup>) concentrations found maximum in Hazaribagh effluents, whereas Fe (7.171 mgl<sup>-1</sup>) and Zn (1.938 mgl<sup>-1</sup>) were maximum in Khadimnagar. Two pot experiments were carried out in CRD with three replications. Untreated effluents had a significant influence on cabbage germination and growth in the early stages. Seed germination was reduced by 19.78% when Khadimnagar effluents were used instead of control. The seedling mortality rate in Khadimnagar effluents was higher (15.56 %), whereas no seedling mortality in the control. Because of the toxicity of heavy metals, shoot length (61.98%) and root length (66.76%), as well as other parameters, were lowered compared to control. The number of leaf plants<sup>-1</sup>, leaf length, leaf width, fresh weight, and dried weight were all highest in the control, while they were lowest when Khadimnagar effluents used as irrigation. The transfer factor values of several heavy metals (Pb-0.442, Cd-0.400, Ni-0.411, Cr-0.378, Fe-26.317, and Zn-22.951) were maximum when using effluents from Khadimnagar and Hazaribagh. Finally, the overall findings suggest that heavy metals including Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Zn were significantly contaminated in Khadimnagar and Hazaribagh, with negative effects on cabbage growth and heavy metal accumulation in foodstuffs, potentially posing a health risk.</p> Abu Rashed Md. Maukeeb, Md. Kamrul Hasan, Munmun Saha, Md. Fuad Mondal Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-07 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of dairy producers market participation: Empirical evidence from Southwestern Ethiopia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/405 <p>Though Bench Sheko and Sheka zones have great potential for dairy production in Ethiopia, the majority of dairy producers’ could not get benefit from the sector in a sustainable way due to the low market participation problem. Hence, this study was projected to identify the factors that determine the dairy producers’ market participation in Southwestern Ethiopia. Data from 160 sampled dairy producers were employed and analyzed by the probit model. The econometric model result shows the type of dairy breed, currently owned dairy cows’ size, number of children below six years, distance from the nearest market, and utilization of improved livestock feeds are the significant factors determining the likelihood of dairy market participation in the study area. Therefore, demonstrations of improved livestock breed through supplying improved bulls and artificial insemination technologies, demonstration of improved livestock forages and concentrates through training, and organizing dairy marketing cooperative and dairy products collection centers were suggested to improve the market participation in the study area.</p> Kassa Tarekegn, Yishak Shitaye Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/405 Effect of integrated management on purple blotch (Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cif.) progression and bulb yield of onion at Arba Minch in Southern Ethiopia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-06 <p>A field experiment was conducted at Arba Minch area, southern Ethiopia during the 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons to determine the integrated effects of varieties and fungicide spray frequencies on onion purple blotch (PB) epidemics, bulb yields, and economic returns. Fifteen treatment combinations consisting of three onion varieties and five fungicide spray frequencies were arranged in a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Integrating varieties with fungicide spray frequencies significantly reduced onion PB epidemics and increased bulb yields and economic returns. Due to four times spray of ridomil gold (RG) at 14-day interval, PB severities as low as 35.7, 42.2, and 58.9% were recorded on Nasik-Red, Bombay-Red, and Adama-Red varieties, respectively. The lowest area under the disease progress curve of 625.3, 706.7, and 1131.1%-days was also recorded on Nasik-Red, Bombay-Red, and Adama-Red varieties, respectively, due to four sprays of RG at a 14-day interval. Three times spray of RG at 10-day interval gave the highest bulb yields of 33.4, 38.9, and 23.7 t ha<sup>-1</sup> on Nasik-Red, Bombay-Red, and Adama-Red varieties, respectively. The results showed the existence of variability in onion genetic resistance that was complemented by fungicide spray frequencies against PB epidemics to increase bulb yields. The use of Bombay-Red variety along with three and four-time spray frequency of RG was found to be the most effective option in reducing PB epidemics and increasing onion bulb yields. However, the use of Bombay-Red variety along with three-time spray frequency of RG could be recommended, because of its highest economic returns, to farmers in the study areas and elsewhere with similar agro-ecologies to manage PB and sustain onion production and productivity in the country.</p> Getachew Gudero Mengesha, Abu Jambo Yae, Dizgo Chencha Cheleko Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-06 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Screening of sweet potato feathery mottle virus resistant sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L., Lam.) cultivars in Kebbi State, Nigeria https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-05 <p>Sweet potato is a food security crop because of its ability to withstand adverse climatic conditions. This security, however, is being threaten by viral diseases and use of resistant cultivars remain the best management. This research was conducted to screen cultivars of sweet potato against sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) infection. The treatments consisted of five cultivars coded as CV1, CV2, CV3, CV4 and CV5, respectively. The asymptomatic experimental plants were established, maintained under screen house conditions and graft-inoculated using infected vines which were tested SPFMV positive using both Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and replicated three times. Results obtained from disease incidence and symptom severity indicated that there was significant difference (<em>P</em> &lt;0.05) among cultivars in their reaction to SPFMV infection. CV2 had the highest mean disease incidence (60.67%) while, CV3 had the lowest mean disease incidence (36.67%). CV1, CV3, and CV5 have the same lowest mean symptom severity score of 2.00 while, CV2 had the highest mean severity score of 4.00. Based on the reaction of the cultivars after inoculation, it could be concluded that, all the cultivars screened were susceptible to SPFMV but CV1, CV3 and CV4 cultivars have some degree of resistance to SPFMV infection and were therefore recommended for use by the farmers in the study area. This is the first research that screened sweet potato cultivars for resistance to SPFMV in Kebbi State, Nigeria.</p> Abdulrahman Musa, Musa Umar Tanimum, Adamu Muhammad, Abubakar Sadiq Muhammad, Ibrahim Mohammed Umar Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-05 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A. FIBER YIELD AND ITS PROPERTIES STUDY ON DHAINCHA PLANT https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/401 <p>A study was conducted on Dhaincha (<em>Sesbaniaaculeata</em>) plant at the workshop of Farm Power and Machinery Department, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The main objective of the study was to study of the fiber yield and its properties on dhaincha plant. Fermentation, mechanical extraction method (Scraping for leaf fiber) was conducted to extracted fiber from plant. The fiber properties like tensile strength, % elongation at break and diameter of fiber decreased with the increase of period of different fermentation methods. Dhaincha plant contained, average 3.74% fiber (green wet basis) and 5.83% (dry stick basis); average 63.81% stick; fiber-wood ratio was 0.006; and fiber yield/plant 12.26 gm. The estimated fiber production of Dhaincha was 1900 kg/ha.</p> Md. Zakir Hossain Hossain Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/401 The EFFECT OF TRASH FISH REPLACEMENT WITH FORMULATED FEED ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF MUD CRAB (Scylla serrata) FATTENING https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/400 <p>Using of trash fish and marine resources for aquaculture feed formulation has made several sustainability issues in the industry. In the present study, three types of formulated dry pellet feed which were developed using shrimp head meal prepared using the shrimp processing wastes, and fish meal prepared using fishery by catches as the main source of protein were evaluated for mud crab (Scylla serrata) fattening. Trash fish were used as the control feed. Crabs (60.30 g ± 9.76) were selected for the experiment and stocked in vertical culture racks. Four repetitive feeding modes with formulated feed were done and treatment was randomly assigned to each test unit. All crabs were fed with 8% of their body weight twice per day for 30 days. Feed 02 which was formulated with 10% of fish meal and 39% of shrimp head meal had the best growth response. Also, the meat of the crabs fed with feed 02 had a high level of crude protein (70.01%) than other formulated and control feed. In contrast, the control feed had the best feeding efficiency, and protein efficiency over the formulated feed. Furthermore, the trash fish was profitable than the developed feeds. But the sense of convenience, water quality management, and the feasibility of using in any situation are high with the formulated dry pellets. Therefore, dry pellet feed is preferred over the wet feed for fattening mud crabs without facing issues related to the poor availability of trash fish and disease transmissions through fresh trash fish.</p> Tharindu Trishan Darshana Senarathna Dapana Durage, Vithushana Thangarajah, Dushmantha Namal KOKU HANNADIGE ABEYSOORIYA Copyright (c) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/400 Cereal production trends, nutrient use efficiency and its management practices in agriculture: A review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-016 <p>Boosting global food production to meet the escalating demand without distressing the environment is a major challenge of our time. In the present review study, a-59 years global cereal production and fertilizer use trends, nutrients use efficiency (NUE) and some of its management approaches in agriculture were evaluated. Accordingly, the world cereal production increased by 3.4-fold (876.9 to 2979 Mt) from 1961 to 2019, whereas the area of production increased moderately by 1.11 folds. The chemical N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, and K<sub>2</sub>O fertilizer consumption in cereal crop production were increased by 9.45 folds (from 6.9 to 65.2 Mt), 4-fold (from 6.6 to 26.3 Mt), and 4.34-fold (from 5.2 to 22.6 Mt), respectively. The estimated world cereal N, P, and K use efficiency is 33%, 16%, and 19%, respectively. The unaccounted 65% of N, 84% of P and 81% of K fertilizer was either remained in the soil or lost to the environment through volatilization, leaching, and run-offs leading to higher environmental and economic costs. Therefore, improving NUE is a crucial step to enhance crop yields, tackle environmental pollution, reduce production costs. Several NUE management approaches were identified such as soil management (use of organic inputs, 4R nutrient stewardship, adoption of modified fertilizer, root-zone nutrient management, etc.), plant management (growing nutrient use efficient cultivars, crop rotation, and so on), integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM), and application of precision agriculture. However, no single management approach solely resulted in higher NUE but rather the combination. Hence this could be applied in agricultural production to improve yield and NUE while minimizing environmental degradation.</p> Solomon Yokamo, Jiao Xiaoqiang, Fekadu Gurmu, Carlos Kwesi Tettey, Rongfeng JIANG Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-016 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A review of the water quality indices of riverine ecosystem, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-015 <p>Rivers have been the most important freshwater resource, and our ancient civilizations have flourished along the banks of rivers. River water finds multiple uses like agriculture, industry, transportation, aquaculture, and public water supply. Natural waters are being contaminated as the quality of water is being affected by anthropogenic activities, in developing countries like Bangladesh. From the point of view, the physicochemical parameters (water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, DO, BOD, alkalinity, total hardness, nitrate) of seventeen rivers in Bangladesh were reviewed from January 2021 to June 2021. The water quality parameters of some rivers were found to be far above the suitable limits, which is dangerous for human health, agriculture, and fisheries. It is therefore necessary to check the water quality at regular interval of time to conserve the natural ecosystem of the rivers of Bangladesh. Furthermore, this study would help to create and develop awareness among the people to help maintain the quality of the river waters.</p> Nishat Tasnim, Mst. Armina Sultana, Khushnud Tabassum, Md. Jahidul Islam, Mrityunjoy Kunda Copyright (c) 2022 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/07-01-015 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A review on maize-finger millet relay cropping in hills of Nepal: Prospects and constraints https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-021 <p>Maize (<em>Zea mays</em>) and Finger millet (<em>Elusine corocana</em>) are two key staple crops grown in the hills of Nepal. These crops are planted in a relay intercropping system developed by farmers since the dawn of time. The unique example of cereal-cereal intercropping with its cropping system and cropping pattern at different altitudes is reviewed along with the yield comparison of direct-seeded and transplanted finger millet with maize. Relay cropping is the planting of second crop in the same land area before the harvest of first crop with the goal of higher productivity by sharing the available resources. Considerable research has been done on maize and millet but there has been a limited approach to their cropping system. This paper reviews the existing system of cropping, its prospects, and its constraints. The prospects of maize/finger millet cultivation are pronounced in the form of yield increment, economic and efficient use of available resources, insurance against crop failure, and reduced insect, pest, and weed incidence. Although this cropping system has benefits, it exhibits limitations as well which are competition between crops, lack of suitable varieties, labor-intensive system, and soil-nutrient loss. As maize and finger millet are the main food crops in hilly terrain, it is urged to provide the focus and encouragement regarding their sustainable and modern approaches by developing and disseminating crop growing and management technologies.&nbsp;</p> Dipika Parajulee, Sangam Panta Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-021 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 High yield and pest resistant genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) for cultivation in Umudike, Southeastern, Nigeria https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-020 <p>Newly developed progenies of sweet potato were evaluated to identify promising genotypes with high storage root yield, dry matter, starch content and susceptibility to <em>Cylas </em>spp. at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Southeastern Nigeria during the 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons to evaluate variation among crosses of different sweet potato families, namely: LigriXFaara (17), LigriXApomoen (9) and LigrixSauti (8), including two check varieties (Umuspo 3 and TIS 87/0087). Analysis of variance, correlation and principal component analysis were employed for data analysis. In this study, four genotypes; LigriXFaara/3 (16.02t/ha), LigriXFaara/2 (14.67t/ha), LigriXFaara/1 (13.66t/ha) and LigriXFaara/6 (10.33t/ha) produced higher fresh storage root yield than the national check (TIS 87/0087). Four genotypes recorded starch content above 50mg100-1; LigriXApomoden/1 (69.71mg100-1), LigriXApomoden/3 (62.98mg100-1), LigriXApomoden/2 (60.89mg100-1), LigriXApomoden/4 (57.53 mg100-1). Among the thirty-four genotypes evaluated, twenty-nine genotypes were susceptible to the attack of <em>C. puncticollis</em>. LigriXFaara/1 recorded the highest attack of <em>C. puncticollis</em>, followed by LigriXApomoden/5, LigriXFaara/4, LigriXApomoden/3, LigriXSauti/3, LigriXFarra/5 while five genotypes; LigriXFaara/4, LigriXFaara/5, LigriXSauti/5, LigriXFaara/8, LigriXFaara/7 and LigriXFaara/14 did not show any sign of vulnerability of <em>C. puncticollis</em>. Promising genotypes that recorded high yield, dry matter and resistance to <em>Cylas </em>spp. could be subjected to advanced yield trail and incorporated into further breeding program.</p> J. I. Ulasi, R.S. Okim, E.U. Rivers Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-020 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Production and marketing of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in Sunsari District, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-019 <p>Turmeric is a popular spice in Nepalese households and a potential cash crop in the country's tropical areas; yet, due to limited study on production technologies and marketing channels, Nepalese farmers have struggled to earn a reasonable return from its production. For this study, 100 turmeric producers were selected by using simple random sampling technique from total turmeric growing population registered in PMAMP at Barahakshetra Municipality of the district. The research was carried out during January to May. Primary data were collected through field, survey, FGD, and KII while a literature review was carried out as the source of secondary data. Information collected from the field survey were coded, tabulated, and analyzed by using the statistical software of MS Excel 2010 and SPSS V26.0. It was found that majority of the respondent farmers had agriculture as their primary occupation. The average household turmeric area was 0.43 ha. The labor cost contributed 45.46% for the of cultivation with an average cost of cultivation pf NRs.110.63 per kg for dried turmeric. Moreover, the gross return of Rs.270057 per hectare and the BCR 1.35, indicate that turmeric farming is profitable. The average productivity of dry turmeric in the study area was 1800 kg per hectare. Insufficient technical services and low market price of the turmeric were main production and marketing problem faced by turmeric producing community This study suggests the adoption of innovative technology for farming, government intervention in price fixing and replacement of local seed by improved seed.</p> Smriti Baral, Gaurab Luitel, Able Shrestha, Bibhusha Basnet Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-019 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of foliar spray of micronutrients and hormones on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-018 <p>In order to achieve optimal plant growth and production, essential nutrients must be readily available in adequate quantities and in a balanced proportion to give a good yield, especially cauliflower which has health benefits that may not be found in many other plants. For this purpose, this experiment was carried out during the seasons 2020-2021 in the on station of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Khulna under Smallholder Agricultural competitiveness project. Although the treatments showed a positive effect on yield, quality and economics but, T<sub>1</sub> revealed most significant influence on all parameters under study as compared to T<sub>0</sub> (control). For micronutrients and hormone, T<sub>1</sub> treatment produced the highest curd yield (29.99 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and the lowest (17.04 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was control from the varietal effect the highest curd yield was (35.14 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) from V<sub>4 </sub>(It Amazuku 33) and the lowest was (16.21 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) from V<sub>5</sub> (BARI Fulcopi-1). In case of combined effect, the highest curd yield (45.16 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained from T<sub>1</sub>V<sub>4</sub> and the lowest curd yield (10.27 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) from T<sub>0</sub>V<sub>1</sub>. Therefore, it can be suggested that the highest curd yield and good shape cauliflower curd can be obtained application of Zn 8.83 kg/ha, B 3.5 kg/ha, Ma 8.43 kg/ha and Flora (Hormone) 2 ml/1 L of water. Therefore, foliar application of micronutrients and hormone is suitable way to feed the cauliflower crop to enhance the marketable yield and quality.</p> M. Rahman, M.K. Shahadat, M.H. Rashid, F.A. Nasim Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-018 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of vermicompost based nitrogen management and plant spacing on the performance of short duration transplant Aus rice (cv. Parija) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-017 <p>An investigation was carried out at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University to inspect the effect of vermicompost based nitrogen management and plant spacing on the yield performance of short duration transplant <em>Aus </em>rice (cv. Parija). The study comprised three spacing <em>viz. </em>20 cm × 20 cm, 20 cm × 15 cm and 20 cm × 10 cm, and five nitrogen management <em>viz.</em> no nitrogen, 75 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, 55 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> + vermicompost @1.25 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, 35 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> + vermicompost @2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and vermicompost @5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. At harvest, both the spacing of 20 cm × 20 cm and 20 cm × 15 cm produced the tallest plants, the highest number of total tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> and effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup>. The highest grain yield (3.59 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded in 20 cm × 15 cm spacing which was at par with the grain yield (3.52 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) in 20 cm × 10 cm spacing. The 20 cm × 10 cm spacing also produced the highest straw yield (4.88 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and biological yield (8.40 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). The lowest grain, straw and biological yields were recorded at the wider spacing of 20 cm × 20 cm. In contrast, the highest grain yield (3.79 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (4.99 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and biological yield (8.79 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) were found in 75 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> which was as good as the yields of 55 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> N+ vermicompost @1.25 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. The highest number of total tillers hill<sup>-1 </sup>(14.11) and effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (12.67) were found in the interaction effect of 20 cm × 20 cm spacing with 75 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>. The interaction between 20 cm × 15 cm and 55 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> N+ vermicompost @1.25 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>gave the highest grain yield (4.58 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (5.71 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and biological yield (10.29 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). The lowest grain yield (2.03 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (3.49 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and biological yield (5.52 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) were found in the interaction between 20 cm × 20 cm and no nitrogen. Therefore, usage of 20 cm × 15 cm spacing fertilized with 55 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> + vermicompost @1.25 t ha<sup>-1</sup> appeared as the promising practice of transplant <em>Aus </em>rice cv. (Parija) cultivation.</p> Shubroto Kumar Sarkar, Swapan Kumar Paul, Kallyan Kanty Saha, Artho Baroi, Md. Abdur Rahman Sarkar Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-017 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of vegetable production by adopting climate SMART agriculture technologies in Chormara, Nawalparasi district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-016 <p>Vegetable production is an economic booster contributing around 9.71% to total Agricultural Gross Domestic Production. So, the research study was performed under the topic “Assessment of vegetable production adopting climate-smart agriculture technologies in Chormara, Nawalparasi district” from March- April 2021 to assess the production of selected vegetables i.e. Cucumber, Tomato, Bitter Gourd, Sponge Gourd, and Chilly adopting climate-smart agriculture technology among 100 households applying simple random sampling. The study revealed that 96% of the total respondents were being affected directly by the ongoing climate change and to tackle such scenario 88% of the total respondents were adopting climate SMART Agricultural technologies including mulching, drip irrigation, cultivation of vegetables under the semi-protected house, quality seeds, etc. to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change with increased crop production. To enhance the productivity of vegetables and meet the food security of the increasing global population, farmers were integrating organic and synthetic fertilizers to attain the sustainability of soil health. It was found that 76% of the surveyed farmers were going through market hindrances like lack of proper market, fluctuation in price structure, and poor marketing channel suggesting an immediate need for a proper marketing system in the study area. The highest net return of USD 17588.53 per hectare and B:C ratio of 5.88 in tomatoes illustrated economic viability in vegetable production. Although vegetable production and marketing in Chormara seem a profitable business, the study suggests an immediate need for adoption and scaling up of successful CSA practices, its extension and proper implementation along with the provision of effective marketing channel and setting of minimum prices for the vegetable products based on the cost of cultivation that may overcome the farmer’s problems.</p> Sarthak Gaire, Shridhika Dahal Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-016 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of different fertilizer doses on the production of Chaite-5 paddy variety in Dhanusha District, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-15 <p>The application of inorganic nutrient sources is necessary for proper agricultural growth that can ensure high quality food production. A field experiment was carried out in Hansapur, Dhanusha from March 2021 to July 2021 to study the effect of different fertilizer doses on the growth and yield of rice. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 7 different treatments following three replications. The treatments were named as T1: Control, T2: RDF (Recommended dose of fertilizers - 100:30:30 kg NPK/ha), T3: Double dose of RDF (200: 60: 60 kg NPK/ha), T4: A half dose of RDF (50: 15: 15 kg NPK/ha), T5: 125% dose of RDF (125: 37.5: 37.5 kg NPK/ha), T6: Locally available Azolla (300 kg/ha), and T7: FYM (6 ton/ha), respectively. Different doses of RDF showed a significant effect on growth, yield, and yield contributing characters of Chaite-5 variety. Results of the study showed that the application of a double dose of RDF (200: 60: 60 kg NPK/ha) gave the maximum yield (9.50 ton/ha). It was also recorded that 125% dose of RDF, recommended dose of fertilizers and FYM gave satisfactory results. Results revealed that the highest plant height, effective tillers/hill, panicle number, panicle length, total spikelet/hill, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, and straw yield were obtained from the use of a double dose of RDF (200: 60: 60 kg NPK/ha). It was observed that yield of rice can be increased substantially with the application of higher doses of nitrogenous fertilizers. Hence, a double dose of fertilizer can be the best supplement for improving growth and yield in rice.</p> Bhushan Adhikari, Abichal Poudel, Karuna Kafle, Santosh K. Yadav, Rashil Gelal, Biplov Oli Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-15 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Livelihood pattern and food security of tribal people in a selected area of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-014 <p>Asset’s possession and food consumption level of tribal people in Bangladesh express their socioeconomic status. The study was conducted to analyze the socioeconomic characteristics, measure the livelihood assets, and determine the calorie intake level of the sample households. Primary data were collected through field survey using an interview schedule from 60 tribal households. Tabular analysis and capital asset pentagon from DFID livelihood framework were used for data analysis. Household consumption data were converted to per person per day calorie intake level. The major findings of the study were that about 41.67% of the respondents were being 15-29 years of age, 30% respondents’ education was in the secondary level, average family size was 5.81, 40% of the respondents were occupied with agriculture as their primary occupation, average annual income and expenditure were Tk. 258560 (US$3015.28) and Tk. 242373.50 (US$2826.51), respectively. The livelihood assets were moderate. About 83.34% of the respondents belonged to the poor category and rest 16.67% of the respondents belonged to non-poor category. About 98.33% and 96.67% respondents suggested that, if job opportunity increases and ensure proper education; then their socioeconomic improvement will be faster. So, government and other organizations need to come forward to create more employment opportunity and education facilities for improving their livelihood pattern and food security status.</p> Mou Chhanda Saha, Mohammad Ataur Rahman, A.S.M. Golam Hafeez, Tanjima Akter Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-014 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Potential health risks of trace metals in muscle tissue of tilapia and catfish from Mozambican markets https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-013 <p>Due to the toxicity of trace metals and the propensity of fishes to bioaccumulate metals in their tissues, we investigated the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and zinc (Zn) in the muscles of tilapia (<em>Oreochromis mossambicus</em>) and catfish (<em>Chrysichthys nigrodidatatus</em>) collected from open markets in Mozambique. Fe and Hg were the most and least bioaccumulated metals in the fishes, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences between sites for the analytes. Furthermore, we estimated the possible health risks (estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and maximum allowable consumption rate (CR<sub>lim</sub>)) associated with fish consumption. The concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb exceeded the recommended maximum permissible limits (MPL) in fish samples, ranging between 5.65 – 12.7, 1.05 – 12.9, and 1.88 – 6.45 mgkg-1, respectively, whereas values lower than MPL viz. 5.25 – 18.9, ND – 0.033, and 30.8 – 52.3 mgkg-1 were observed for Cu, Hg, and Zn, respectively. Similarly, the EDI (mgkg<sup>-1</sup>day<sup>-1</sup>) were below the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) with decreasing order: Fe &gt;Zn &gt;Cu &gt;As &gt;Cd &gt;Pb&gt;Hg. However, the THQ (mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) was slightly &gt; 1 for As and Cd in some samples. Moreover, the CR<sub>lim</sub> (kg day<sup>-1</sup>) showed a decreasing order of Hg &gt;Fe &gt;Zn &gt;Pb&gt; Cu &gt;Cd &gt;As. Generally, consumers are susceptible to health hazards associated with As and Cd. Hence, regular toxicological monitoring of the fishes from the study area is imperative.</p> Vedaste Munyeshuri, Eutilerio Felizardo Crisino Chaúque, Noor Jehan Gulamussen, Jaime Silvestre Mandlate, Heidi Richards, Adedeji A. Adelodun Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-013 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bioremediation of artificially crude oil polluted soil of veritas University Abuja using poultry manure https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-012 <p>The removal of hydrocarbon compounds from the environment has always been a difficult undertaking for people all over the world. As a result, remedial efforts are required to safeguard the environment as well as to restore agriculture. This study looked at how poultry manure (dung) could help in the bioremediation of Veritas University's intentionally crude oil polluted soil. The physical properties of the soil and total petroleum hydrocarbon content of the crude oil polluted soil were determined, followed by the isolation and identification of microorganisms present in the soil and poultry manure before and after pollution with crude oil. These analyses were done according to standard operating procedures. Within a six-month timeframe, the natural attenuation and poultry manure amendment option for remediating the crude oil-polluted soil were monitored and the residual hydrocarbon content of the polluted soil after remediation evaluated. There was an overall decrease in pH level during the experimental units containing 4 g amendment, 2 g amendment and the untreated polluted soil in the order 8.4 to 7.1, 8.4 to 7.2 and 8.1 to 6.7, respectively. Temperature was within 27oC and 31oC, the treated soil that contained 4 g dung had an initial moisture content of 58%, and 35% after remediation. The hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria isolated were <em>Pseudomonas </em>species, <em>Staphylococcus </em>species, and <em>Bacillus </em>species, while the hydrocarbon utilizing fungi isolated were <em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>Fusarium solani </em>and <em>Candida albicans</em>. There was more significant microbial increase in the sample containing 4 g poultry manure treatment than 2 g poultry manure treatment and natural attenuation. Total hydrocarbon quantity significantly decreased after six months with the complete removal of C4, C7, C19 and C37 from the treated sample containing 4 g poultry manure. This indicated that the negative effects of crude oil on the environment can be mitigated by adding poultry manure.</p> Ozioma L. Ugwu, Michael U. Orji, Odera R. Umeh, Benjamin Nma Yisa, Anthonia O. Oyegue Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-012 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Economic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation in Gorkha district of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-011 <p>A study was conducted to analyze the production economics and factors contributing to the gross return of rice production in the Gorkha district of Nepal in 2020, where a rice block was established under the Prime Minister Agriculture Modernization Project (PM-AMP). Altogether, 76 rice-growing farmers were selected as a sample by using a simple random sampling technique. Primary data were collected by using a pre-tested interview schedule, while secondary data were collected by reviewing related literature. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, independent sample t-tests, and Cobb-Douglas production function. The results showed that the average landholding was 0.74 ha and the average area under rice cultivation was 0.52 ha, with a productivity of 3 mt ha<sup>-1</sup>. The findings revealed that the cost of rice production for small farmers was significantly higher (NRs. 171466 ha<sup>-1</sup>) than that for large farmers (NRs. 132088 ha<sup>-1</sup>). The study reveals that investment in rice cultivation was economically viable in the study area because the overall B: C ratio was greater than one (1.17). The production function analysis reveals that a 10% increase in expenditure on seeds, total labor, and nutrients, keeping all other variables constant, could increase the gross return of rice by 2.97%, 2.19%, and 0.62%, respectively. The sum of coefficients was 0.56, reflecting a decreasing return to scale. Thus, a 100% increase in expenditure on variables presented in the model caused a 56% increase in the gross return of rice production. The findings suggest that human and bullock labor needs to be replaced by the use of farm machinery. Hence, the cost of cultivation would be reduced with the improvement in production and the gross returns of rice cultivation.</p> Uttam Poudel, Rishi Ram Kattel, Bikash Gurung, Sushil Shrestha, Amrita Paudel, Anish Paudel Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-011 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Profitability and productivity of drought tolerant Aus rice variety Binadhan-19 in some areas of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-010 <p>The present study was conducted in five districts namely Mymensingh, Ranpur, Pabna, Rajshahi and Chapainwabganj in Bangladesh. The objectives of the study were i) to identify the socio-economic characteristics of <em>Aus</em> rice growers; ii) to estimate profitability and productivity of Binadhan-19 in the study areas; and iii) to find out the major preferences and constraints for the variety cultivation. A total of 200 farmers were randomly selected (40 from each location) to collect the data with a pre-designed questionnaire. The distribution of the farmers by age showed that the mean age for Binadhan-19 cultivated farmers was 43 years. In the study areas among the farmer 86% was educated. Farmers average experience was 20 year and income were Tk. 235066 (USD 2611.84) per year. Per hectare average yield of rice was 1.37 ton. It was estimated that, to produce one kilogram of rice, total cost incurred was Tk. 14 where per kg average selling price of rice was Tk. 17. The average gross return and gross margin of rice cultivation were found Tk. 90679 (USD 1007.54)/ha and Tk. 51290 (USD 559.88)/ha, respectively. Per hectare average net return was Tk. 2459 (USD 27.32) which was found to be highest in Chapainwabganj Tk. 29739 (USD 330.43) and lowest in Rangpur Tk. 12692 (USD 141.02) district. BCR on total cost basis was found 1.37. The highest preference was for neat rice 98% and the highest constrain said by the farmer was crop destroy by animal and bird of paddy for early ripening in Binadhan-19 cultivation.</p> R. Sultana, M. H. Rahman, M. R. Haque, M. M. A. Sarkar, S. Islam Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-010 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Studies on plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L., Lam.) in Gombe State, Nigeria https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-09 <p>Sweet potato (<em>Ipomoea batatas </em>L., Lam.) is one of the most frequently eaten food crops. Its production is affected by plant-parasitic nematodes as well as biotic factors. This study was conducted to document the different plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN)&nbsp;that limit the gainful production of sweet potato in Gombe State. Thirty soil core samples per hectare were collected at random from sweet potato farms in the three local government areas (Nafada, Kaltungo, and Yamaltu Deba) of Gombe state. The Whitehead and Hemming method and identification keys were used for the soil extraction and genera identification of the plant-parasitic nematodes respectively. A total of 15 plant-parasitic nematodes were recovered throughout the surveyed areas among which 7 are considered major nematode pests of global importance. Irrespective of the surveyed locations, <em>Meloidogyne</em> spp., was found to record the highest population density and prevalence value. The frequency of occurrence in Y/Deba and Nafada LGAs shows that <em>Meloidogyne </em>spp., wasthe most occurring (32 %) genera. In Kaltungo LGA however, <em>Scutellonema</em> spp., and <em>Rotylenchus</em>spp., were the most occurring (17 %) genera. There was a high similarity percentage (≥ 68 %) of PPN genera where 8 genera (<em>Scutellonema</em> spp., <em>Nacobbus</em> spp., <em>Pratylenchus</em> spp., <em>Meloidogyne</em> spp., <em>Heterodera</em> spp., <em>Xiphinema</em> spp., <em>Trichodorus</em> spp., and <em>Rotylenchus</em> spp.) were found to be common amongst the surveyed locations. This is the first report of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sweet potato in Gombe state, Nigeria. Hence, it is critical to educate farmers in the regions about their effects on the crop and how to successfully manage them.</p> Jidere Caleb Iliya, Simon Lilian Dada, Sulaiman Ibrahim, Abraham Peter Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-09 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of nutrient management on growth and yield of two tomato varieties in Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHTs) region of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-08 <p>The main goal is to investigate the effect of crop nutrient management on growth and yield of two tomato varieties in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHTs) region of Bangladesh. Two factors experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Factor A was two varieties of tomato namely, V<sub>1</sub>: BARI 2 and V<sub>2</sub>: BARI 15. Factor B was different types of fertilizer like F<sub>0</sub> (Farmers practices), F<sub>1</sub> (vermicompost), F<sub>2</sub> (inorganic fertilizer), F<sub>3</sub> (combined fertilizer: 3/4 vermicompost+ 1/4 inorganic fertilizers), F<sub>4</sub> (control, no fertilizer). Soil characteristics and climatic conditions were recorded. Plant growth, flowering and fruit characters, and yield were found significantly different (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>).&nbsp; The highest plant height, flowering and fruit characters related to higher production were found in BARI 15 (V<sub>2</sub>) variety influenced by combined application of fertilizer F<sub>3</sub> (3/4 vermicompost + 1/4 inorganic fertilizers). The maximum number of flower clusters per plant (9.66), fruit clusters per plant (8.13), individual fruit weight (117.7 g), fruit numbers per plant (51.17) were found in V<sub>2</sub>F<sub>3</sub> and the same parameters were the lowest in V<sub>1</sub>F<sub>4</sub>. The results showed the highest production (95.50 t/ha) in V<sub>2</sub>F<sub>3</sub> followed by V<sub>2</sub>F<sub>0</sub> (81.70 t/ha), V<sub>2</sub>F<sub>1</sub> (72.17 t/ha) and V<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub> (68.06 t/ha), and the lowest yield (27.70 t/ha) in V<sub>1</sub>F<sub>4</sub>. The highest fruit yield ((95.50 t/ha) found in V<sub>2</sub>F<sub>3</sub> showed 80.84% higher compared to the V<sub>1</sub>F<sub>4</sub> (27.70 t/ha) treatment. Considering the variety, the highest yield (74.05 t/ha) was found in V<sub>2</sub> which was 40% higher yield compared to V<sub>1</sub>. Combined application of vermicompost and inorganic fertilizers performed best as the nutrient management and BARI 15 was found as a suitable variety for the CHTs climatic condition. Hence, the similar type fertilizers proportion can be applied for the other vegetables production in the farmers field for the healthy and eco-friendly environment achievement.</p> Sharmin Akter Shova, M. Ashraful Islam, Md. Habibur Rahman, James Gomes, Md. Nazmul Haque, Remi Subash Das Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-08 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Changes in growth parameters and forage quantity and quality of corn harvested at different developmental stages https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-07 <p>Due to the different agricultural practices such as second cropping or more for the increase product obtained from the areas of suitable climate, some differences in harvesting stages of plants have been occurred. The study was carried out in the Menemem location of Izmir in the coastal Aegean region of Turkey under Mediterranean climate in 2018 and 2019 to determine the performance of corn cultivars in different maturity stages. Seven varieties of corn (Everest, Aga, Kilowatt, Burak, Samada-07, P30B74 and P31Y43) were harvested at 3 different growth stages (silking, end of milk and dough stages) to determine the changes in some parameters of growing, forage quantity and quality. The highest average of dry forage yield (24159 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> average of years) was determined at the third harvest date. The maximum cob rate was also measured at the third harvest date, but the maximum leaf and stalk rates were measured at the first harvest date. The average protein rate decreased throughout the growing period while ADF and NDF increased. Almost all of the varieties were found to have large leaf areas. The Burak variety came to the fore due to its long length and relatively thick stalk features and high green and dry yields. Moreover, P31Y43 was determined to have a high quality in addition to high green and dry grass yields. Therefore, the Burak and P31Y43 can be suggested in terms of high parameters both quantity and quality under different crop conditions for increase production.</p> Suleyman CAGIR, Yakup Onur KOCA Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-07 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of transplanting dates on yield attributing characters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) variety https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-06 <p>The research was conducted on the field of Chagunarayan municipality (Tathali) from 23<sup>rd</sup> March to 17<sup>th</sup> June 2020 to observe the effect date of transplanting on attributing character of tomato Genotype.&nbsp; 23<sup>rd</sup> March, 6<sup>th </sup>April, 21<sup>st</sup> April, and 6th May are the four sowing dates laid out in the RCBD design with three replications. And the data were observed in 10 days intervals for each planting time. The attributing character like plant height, leaf number, no of branches shows positive impact for early shown plant species, and development for later sowing date shows decreasing result. Therefore, the species planted before the planting time is beneficial from an economic point of view where the plant shows a positive growth rate on attributing character, and it can be considered for further research programs as well.</p> Shreejana K.C Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-06 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancement of climate-resilient livelihoods in coastal agricultural communities with an emphasis on women https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-05 <p>Climate change is causing widespread concerns along the coast, reducing agricultural productivity and destroying livelihoods. A study was conducted in two cyclone-prone districts of Bangladesh, Khulna and Satkhira, with a focus on women, to improve the climate-resilient livelihoods of coastal communities. Participatory rural appraisal techniques were used to collect community perceptions of climate change and variability, as well as adaptation options. A total of 699 participants were involved, where 466 respondents were in the treatment group mostly vulnerable to climate change, and 233 were in the control group similarly matched to the treatment groups. Female respondents were adequately involved in this research and accounted for 63% of the treatment and 60% of the control areas. Climate change was impulsive, according to the findings, and variability has increased over time with no optimistic outlook. The women had an idea about climate change, with 62.7% in the treatment group and 58% in the control group being aware of it. About 55.3% in treatment and 45% in control were willing to take preventative measures against climate change. Natural disasters and difficulty in selling their products impacted agricultural harvests, and as a result, both the treatment and control groups attempted to adapt to the alternative livelihoods in response to climate change. Respondents cited changes in rainfall patterns, cyclones, saline water intrusion, and other factors as causing lower yields and crop damage. To improve the adaptive capacities of their climate-resilient livelihoods, communities adapted to the changing environment by accepting high-yielding salt-tolerant varieties, introducing new technologies, and modifying livelihood options.</p> Nirmal Chandra Roy, Md. Atick Chowdhury, Kazi Rabeya Akther Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-05 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Taxonomic diversity of weed flora in pulse crops growing field at south-western part of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-04 <p>Pulses are important field crops in Bangladesh and weed infestation in pulses field is a great concern now a days. So, a rigorous field survey was conducted throughout the pulses growing season at pulses grower farmers’ field of south-western part of Bangladesh to know the present status of weed infestation in pulses field. During the survey, fresh samples were collected along with other related information e.g., habitat, location, collection date, flowering time, crop/plant association. Fresh samples were dried well for making herbarium specimens. A sum of 13 weed species under 12 genera and 08 families were collected and documented their uses in various ailments. Among the families, Amaranthaceae is the highest-represented family with 03 species. Among the genera, the largest genera Amaranthus represented by 2 species. <em>Cyperous rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus spinosus, Croton bonplandianum, Coccinia grandis</em> are the common and major weed species in pulse crop growing field in south-western part of Bangladesh. The knowledge generated from the present research would be helpful for the management practices of pulse crop associated weeds as well as for getting high economic benefits from beneficial species.</p> Md. Shahriar Kobir, Suchana Paul, Pradip Hajong, Md. Harun-Or-Rashid, Md. Hafijur Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-04 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Profitability, marketing, and resource use efficiency of ginger production in Rukum west, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-03 <p>The study was designed to investigate the profitability, marketing, and resource use efficiency of ginger production in Rukum west. The sample size of 62 ginger-growing farmers out of 187 farmers was determined using slovin’s formula. In addition, 20 traders from two major market hubs Simrutu and Jhulneta were interviewed. The pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule was administered to interview a randomly selected sample size. Data were analyzed using descriptive and statistical tools, including the Cobb-Douglas production function. Result showed that the average area under ginger cultivation was 0.14 ha. A major portion (46.56%) of the cost was found to be incurred by the seed alone in ginger cultivation. The benefit-cost ratio (2.02) indicates that ginger production enterprise was profitable. The productivity of ginger in the study area was estimated to be 11.39 Mt/ha, while per kg cost of production was found to be (NRs 35.67 = USD 0.30). Most of the gross income (78.85%) was found to be contributed by fresh ginger. Similarly, gross margin, market margin, and producer’s share were found to be 21.16, 33.33, and 62.97%, respectively, for 1 kg of ginger. The indexing technique identified high-cost with low-quality seed and price instability as the major problems associated with the production and marketing of ginger, respectively. Cobb-Douglas production function estimated the value of return to scale at 0.889, implying that ginger production exhibited decreasing returns to scale. A study on resource allocative efficiency revealed that farm yard manure and total labor were underutilized resources while seed rhizome was overutilized resource. Thus, for optimal allocation of resources, expenditure on farm yard manure and total labor need to be increased by 87.374% and 39.908%, respectively<strong>. </strong>The study concluded that an effort should be made to bridge the gap between optimal resource utilization and current practices. For this, it is prime important to interconnect the combined efforts of ginger growers, provincial government, or any developing partners.</p> Bikash Gurung, Rajendra Regmi, Anish Paudel, Uttam Paudel, Amrita Paudel, Sushil Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-03 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of biochar blended organic fertilizers on soil fertility, radish productivity and farm income in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-02 <p>Declining soil fertility and nutrient availability are one of the major threats to reducing crop productivity in Nepal. A field experiment was conducted to assess the potential of biochar (10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) blended with organic and inorganic fertilizers on improving soil fertility and radish productivity in Morang district, Nepal. Biochar was prepared from locally available twigs, branches, and wood using the soil pit “Kon tiki” method. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with 7 treatments having four replications <em>viz.,</em> control (CK), biochar (BC), biochar + cattle manure (CM), biochar + poultry manure (PM), biochar + cattle urine (CU), biochar + commercial biofertilizers (BF) and biochar + inorganic fertilizers (urea-N). The nitrogen rate used in all the treatments was equivalent to 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. The agronomic effect of biochar blended organic amendments was compared with control and inorganic urea-N treatments. Biochar amended plots showed significantly higher soil pH (6.5), organic matter (4%), total N% (0.8%), available P (80.1 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), and K (203.6 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) compared with control. CM increased marketable yield by 320% (63 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and biomass yield by 198% (100 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) compared with control (15.0 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and 34 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) of marketable and biomass yield, respectively. CM increased marketable yield by 44% compared with the urea-N treatment (44 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Moreover, net return was observed highest with CM treatment among all the organic and urea-N treatments. The study suggests that the combination of biochar with locally produced cattle manure has the potential to increase radish productivity and could compete with mineral nitrogen fertilizers while producing similar or even higher crop yields and economic returns.</p> Shridhika Dahal, Shree Prasad Vista, Mitra Khatri, Naba Raj Pandit Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-02 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Economic analysis of mushroom enterprise in Chitwan district, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-01 <p>The majority of the population (66%) in-country “Nepal” are engaged in agriculture. However, domestic production finds it difficult to meet the annual demand of the people. Hence, people are moving from subsistence agriculture to embrace mushroom farming. This study focuses on economic analysis and analysis of the present status of mushroom farming and enterprise in this country. The study was conducted in the land area of Kalika Municipality and Bharatpur Metropolitan City. 30 mushroom farmers with two huts and at least three years of experience were selected from the study area. The primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with the farmers, focus group discussion (FGD) and key informant interviews (KII). The secondary data was collected through various published articles and documents. The data analysis was done using basic statistics and a regression function. The benefit-cost ratio is 2.54 and a high gross margin is NRs.490,876.65 per kattha per year. The return to scale (RTS) is 0.80. Five marketing channels are present among which wholesalers and local collectors contributed the highest percentage of the share. However, the dominance of the intermediaries, timely unavailability of inputs, price fluctuation, disease and pest infestation were the major constraints. Disease and pest control, formation of the producer organization, improvised cultivation practices, timely and affordable availability of quality can be the major solution measures. Whereas, suitable climatic conditions, high productivity and growing market demand are the strengths of mushroom production in this study area. Mushroom farming is found to be a profitable business concerning competitive and comparative markets. </p> Ranju Acharya, Ujjwal Tiwari Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-04-01 Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Scalability constraints in Disruptive Agricultural Technologies (DATs) along Value Chain on agricultural production in South Sudan https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-021 <p>Scalability known as the capacity of input variables along the Value Chain (VC) to effect transformative changes on agricultural production was evaluated for a farming system in Juba County of Central Equatoria State (CES), South Sudan. These transformative input variables commonly referred to as, Disruptive Agricultural Technologies (DATs) in the form of advisory, material as well as technological variables were shown to positively influence agricultural production from a default state. The objective of this study was to find out how a probability-based Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) software NETICA could be applied to assess as well as upscale the level of agricultural production P(<em>Prod<sub>level</sub></em> |&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ) from a data input domain D. Simulation using a 700 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> of cowpea yield at 50% Cumulative Probability Distribution (CPD) as a calibrant, the backcasting method showed that, scaling up of marginal probabilities in agrotechnology and financial resources from 0.025 to 0.1 (25<em>% increment</em>) and from 0.015 to 0.03 (50% increment) respectively, while keeping other input variables unchanged, increased cowpea yield from 692.9 to 783.1 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (about 12% increment).&nbsp; Conversely, where no DATs were introduced as in the worst-case scenario, production level was comparatively lower. The BBN model is thus, an indispensable tool that can provide useful information on scaling up agricultural production and hence improve livelihood opportunities in Juba County. However, for sustainable agricultural production, scalability may be constrained by spatial-temporal, environmental and socio-economic imperatives as well as on availability, accessibility, affordability of all input variables.</p> David Lomeling Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-021 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Blockchain-based secured traceability system for the agriculture supply chain of ginger in Nepal: A case study https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-020 <p>For the past few years, ginger export to India and through India to other countries has become a perennial problem for the farmers and traders. In this paper, we discuss about the impact of blockchain technology in ginger supply chain, which faces intermittent deterring of ginger worth millions in the Nepal-India border. Extensive literature reviews and execution of Delphi method in the study showed that blockchain as an emerging technology capable of transforming the food supply chain maintaining transparency in each step. In this paper, we study the potentiality of blockchain technology in transforming the ginger supply chain system through its potential benefits in Nepalese agriculture. The technology is capable of making various aspects of supply chain like tracing, monitoring and sustainability efficient. Thus, can reduce the trade-trust deficit between nations with technology.</p> Susan Thapa, Gaetano Piras, Sudesh Thapa, Pravesh Rimal, Aradhya Thapa, Kushal Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-020 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fungal diversity inhabited with trees and their conservation in Bukki Top in upper great Himalaya https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-019 <p>This investigation was aimed to explore the biodiversity of upper great Himalayas range with special reference to the flora and its conservation. The natural landscape and high altitude meadows (Bugyal) enhanced the beauty of Uttarakhand. Bukki village and Bukki top one of the gorgeous region locate in Uttarkashi district of Uttrakhand state, fall on the opposite side of the national highway NH-108 and connect the Gangotri Glacier via Harsil. The present article is the description of the flora of the Bukki region and, we tried to mainly focus on different fungus species and disease on trees, observed during the trek. Some important fungus species observed are&nbsp;<em>Daldinia concentric</em>,&nbsp;<em>Trichaptum biforme, Fomes fomentarius&nbsp;</em>and<em>&nbsp;Daedalea quercina</em>. We also describe each fungus attributes and<em>&nbsp;habitat distribution&nbsp;</em>description.</p> Rajeev Shankhwar, Abhishek Yadav, Vijay Vardhan Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-019 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A review on the effect of heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-018 <p>Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. It ranks first (in the world) and third (in Nepal) in terms of productivity and total cropped area. Worldwide, wheat provides nearly 55% of the carbohydrates and 20% of the food calories. The ideal temperature for its cultivation is about 15°-20°C. Among several abiotic factors, heat stress is one of the major factors affecting wheat production. Wheat is very sensitive to heat stress. Each degree rise in the temperature can decrease wheat yield by 6%. This review is written with an aim to reflect the influence of heat stress in the production of wheat and the mechanism of how loss in yield occurs. Some of the major findings of this research are : (a) Heat stress negatively effects germination, emergence, root growth, leaf, stem development and growth, tillering, grain yield and quality (b) A sharp decline in photosynthesis is evident when wheat plant is exposed to high temperature stress during vegetative or reproductive phase (c) With increases in temperature, rate of respiration is greater&nbsp; than the rate of photosynthesis&nbsp; which ultimately leads to carbon starvation (d) High temperature fastens the crop growth by making it to enter into jointing stage and reproductive stage earlier than normal resulting in decreased crop yield. The identification of such effects of heat stress in our crop helps us adopt several strategies or methods to mitigate the impacts on crop yields and improve tolerance to heat stress.</p> Preeti Karki, Enzy Subedi, Garima Acharya, Manisha Bashyal, Nistha Dawadee, Srijana Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-018 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Status of forest soil and necessity of sustainable soil conservation practices of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-017 <p>Forests are the fundamental natural resource regarded as the crucial aspect to uplift rural livelihood in Nepal. Forest, not only acquaints us with ecosystem services but also deals with carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling in forest soil, serving the most crucial part of human welfare. However, several human forces such as construction of roads, deforestation, shifting cultivation, overgrazing, and forest fires have decreased the organic matter content and contributed to landslides, erosion and sedimentation in forest. Frequent landslides, soil erosion on the landscape of Nepal is degrading the environment and soil, where 1.7mm of fertile topsoil is lost annually. Considering the fact, present study points to recognize the status of forest soil, its relationship and necessity of sustainable soil conservation practices. Secondary sources of data were used to assemble the related information. Hence, Involvement of different institutions, policy, law, local participation and community-based approach is significantly important in adopting forest soil conservation approaches. Different strategies of carbon sequestration should be maintained by increasing plant cover, enhancing microbes, utilizing agricultural inputs and slowing down the amount of soil disturbances. Likewise, strengthening different thematic areas of Forest Policy 2015 is indispensable in effective implementation of sub sectoral programmes. Forest management strategies incorporating the concepts of carbon storage, buffer strips, terracing, windbreaks, agroforestry, conservation tillage are the major areas highlighted through this paper for further researchers on preserving forest land.</p> Astha Pokharel; Bidya Ojha, Sandesh Bhatta, Adarsha Neupane Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-017 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A review on use of agrochemical in agriculture and need of organic farming in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-016 <p>The growing use of chemical pesticides&nbsp;haphazardly and their harmful influence on ecosystem and human health highlight the necessity for safe and sustainable organic production in our time. The article reviews a general overview of organic farming; the impact of organic farming on soil health and climate mitigation in comparison with conventional farming practice in Nepal. The article identifies the problems and possibilities of organic farming to resuscitate the pesticide-dominated conventional practice in Nepal. Organic farming now has been embedded in the natural agriculture policy in Nepal. Organic farming benefits in terms of environmental protection along with better living health. Various governmental and non-governmental bodies, farmers, and individuals are working to promote organic farming in Nepal. With the increase in awareness of health and environmental concerns, the adoption of organic agriculture and the demand for organic agricultural products is increasing. It holds a great prospect in countries like ours where an integrated crop-livestock system is still prevalent in many parts of the country. As a result, an organic farming system in Nepal must be thoroughly investigated and supported through proper regulations and tactics. It is urged to supplant pesticide-based conventional farming with organic farming that leads towards agricultural sustainability for the upcoming generation.</p> Susan Makaju, Kabita Kurunju Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-016 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of climate change on the ecosystem of the central Himalayas, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-015 <p>The threats of climate change are found in both developed and developing countries. Since the impacts of climate change are global, irreversible, and pervasive, it is gaining worldwide attention. High mountains are the first indicators of climate change. However, the idea of what causes climate change effects on multiple ecosystem services remains scattered. This article is meant for information regarding the impacts of climate change on the ecosystem of Nepal. The result shows that climate change causes tree line shifting, change in land cover, extinction of species due to loss of habitat, imbalance in carbon sequestration on the terrestrial ecosystem while eutrophication of water bodies and extinction of endemic fish species was reported from the aquatic ecosystem. Tropical area is considered to be more affected by climate change in terms of Natural disasters and Health impacts. Moreover, different types of ecological modeling can be simulated in the context of Nepal for the prediction and future analysis of the impacts of climate change in the Ecosystem. Therefore, the impact of climate change is crucial and challenging.</p> Ganesh Paudel, Subash Adhikari, Bikesh Jojiju, Rabindra Adhikari, Namita Paudel Adhikar Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-015 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of different doses of vermicompost on growth, yield and quality of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Mino Early) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-014 <p>A field experiment was conducted at Horticulture farm of Nepal Polytechnic Institute (NPI) Bharatpur-11, Chitwan to study the effects of different doses of vermicompost on growth, yield and quality of radish (<em>Raphanus sativus</em>&nbsp;L. cv. Mino Early) from January 2020 to March 2020. Five different doses (0 ton, 5 ton, 10 ton, 15 ton, and 20 ton per hectare) of vermicompost were taken as treatments and the experiment was replicated four times. The experiment was set up in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The result of the study showed that there was a significant effect of different doses of vermicompost on plant height, the number of leaves per plant, spreading of the plant, root length, root weight per plant, root diameter, and root yield at harvesting. The maximum plant height, the maximum number of leaves per plant and maximum plant spreading in radish plant on vermicompost application was recorded every 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). The maximum root length (29.60 cm), maximum root diameter (36.27 mm), maximum root weight (191.8 g), maximum biomass weight (241.6 g/plant), maximum root yield (47.9 ton/ha), were recorded on applying 15 ton/ha vermicompost at 60 DAS. The control treatment showed the minimum vegetative growth and yield. Among the different doses of vermicompost, the overall performance of radish was found better in 15 ton/ha of vermicompost. Statistical analysis showed no differences among (5 ton, 10 ton, 15 ton, 20 ton per hectare of vermicompost) applications. Hence, 5 ton per hectare of vermicompost application will be best for radish production in Chitwan.</p> Dipesh Dulal, Deepshikha Baral, Abichal Poudel, Karuna Kafle, Bishal Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-014 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Efficiency assessment of faecal sludge treatment plant (FSTP): An analytical study https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-013 <p>The success of Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) has increased the number of toilets in India. Treatment of septage and faecal sludge is now a big challenge to main the sanitation and hygiene in the society. Therefore, in the present study an attempt has been made to explore the concept and efficiency of Faecal Sludge Treatment (FSTP) technology. The paper also includes the study of characteristics of faecal sludge and biochar produced from faecal sludge. The efficiency of plant for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) was observed 99.88%, 99.91% and 99.88, respectively. After the treatment all the studied parameters of treated water was found below the standards set by MOEF for FSTP discharge. After dewatering and drying, the faecal sludge is analyzed for calorific value, ash, fixed carbon, volatile matter, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulphur. Calorific value of faecal sludge ranged from 3339.00 Kcal kg<sup>-1</sup> to 3542.00 Kcal kg<sup>-1</sup> with an average value of 3419.67 Kcal kg<sup>-1</sup>. Then the faecal sludge is pyrolysed to produce the energy and biochar. Biochar was analyzed for pH, colour, moisture, bulk density, potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, chromium, and mercury. All the parameters of biochar were found below the standard limits of Solid Waste Management Rules (SWM), 2016 except bulk density (2.07 g cm<sup>-3</sup>), potassium (1.02%), and nitrogen (3.09%). On the basis of biochar results, it may be concluded that the sludge produced can be used as manure in agriculture and gardening. Therefore, FSTP is a suitable, sustainable eco-friendly technology for the treatment of faecal sludge and also reduces the chances of soil and ground water pollution.</p> Mukesh Ruhela, Pooja Rani, Sweta Bhardwaj, Faheem Ahamad Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-013 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An assessment of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) orchard management practices in Dailekh, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-012 <p>A study was carried out in Dailekh, Nepal with an objective to assess the mandarin orchard management practices and their level of adoption by mandarin growers of Dullu municipality. All together 60 respondents were selected for the household survey in major citrus-producing wards of Dullu by following the simple random sampling technique. Primary data were collected by administering the pretested questionnaire and; descriptive and inferential statistics were computed using Ms-Excel and SPSS. The result showed that the majority of the respondents were from Brahmin ethnicity (43.3%), middle-age group i.e. 35-49 years (53.3%), and male (70.0%). Furthermore, most of them belonged to medium size family of 5-8 members (60.0%) and were earning most of their income through agriculture (80.0%). The result of the study revealed the variation in the scale of adoption of different management practices. Most of the households had adopted pruning and applied farmyard manure (FYM) while the least of them had adopted mulching and applied chemical fertilizer. Chi-square test revealed that the factors such as age (p=0.042), education level (p=0.007), family size (p=0.029), and training exposure (p=0.001) were significantly associated with the level of adoption of these practices. Incidence of insect-pests and diseases (I=0.88), frequent occurrence of climatic hazards such as hailstorms (I=0.71), and limited irrigation facility (I=0.70) were the major problems of mandarin growing households. It is recommended that improving access to irrigation facilities, use of certified planting material, mulching application and use of appropriate dose of manure and fertilizer must be prioritized in the study area.</p> Ansu Adhikari, Pankaj Raj Dhital, Sambat Ranabhat, Shilpa Koirala Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-012 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Use of high-speed rotary tiller and power tiller operated seeder for onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivation https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-011 <p>A field study was carried out to assess the performance of power tiller operated seeder (PTOS) and to compare the yield, quality, maturity and economic traits of onion under different planting methods at Spices Research Sub-Centre (SRSC), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Faridpur, Bangladesh with four planting methods as four treatments: T<sub>1</sub>) ploughing the main field with high speed rotary tiller (HSRT) + direct seeding with power tiller operated seeder (PTOS), T<sub>2</sub>) ploughing the main field with HSRT + transplanting of seedlings, T<sub>3</sub>) ploughing the main field with HSRT + direct seeding in line and T<sub>4</sub>) ploughing the main field with HSRT + direct seeding as broadcasting. Under the study the treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The outcome of the study revealed that the treatments had a significant influence on the characteristics studied accept yield of onion. Different economic traits of onion were varied among the planting methods. The bulbs under direct seeding with the PTOS matured earlier (133.66days) as compared to the transplant (155.54days). All direct seeding methods showed insignificantly higher yields than that of transplants. The maximum yield (15.05t/ha) was recorded from broadcasting method. The yield performance under direct seeding with the PTOS and transplants were 15.08 and 14.92t/ha, respectively. The broadcasting method had very heterogeneous and under-sized bulbs due to uneven spacing and maximum plant population per unit area. In case of economic performance, transplanting method incurred the highest total cost of production. Maximum net return and benefit-cost ratio (2.95) were calculated from direct seeding with PTOS.&nbsp; So, it is concluded that in Bangladesh, direct seeding method with the PTOS may be a good option for getting early crop and maximum economic benefit.</p> M.A. Khan, M.A. Wohab, M.M. Rahman, M.M. Alam Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-011 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Binamorich-2: A new high yielding Chilli variety of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-010 <p>Chilli is one of the most important spices as well as cash crop in Bangladesh. This study was undertaken at Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) to characterize the collected germplasm morphologically and select a desirable one for commercial cultivation in Bangladesh. More than fifty chilli germplasm were collected from local and exotic sources were put into evaluation to select desirable ones for directly use as varieties or for future usage as breeding materials. Through observation trials five germplasm were selected considering their better agronomic performance. Selected germplasm was evaluated through different trials at different chilli growing areas of Bangladesh during 2018 to 2020. Recommended cultural management for chilli cultivation was followed. The germplasm, IndoCF-25 produced significantly higher yield both green chilli and dried chilli than control varieties (Binamorich-1 and BARI Morich-1) in most of the trials. Over two years of advanced yield trial and on-farm trial, IndoCF-25 produced higher yield (32.00 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) while BARImorich-1 produced (12.15 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). IndoCF-25 was produced the longest plant height (78.8 cm), higher number of fruits (78.8) compared to Binamorich-1 (52.8), longer fruit size (13.95 cm), breadth (5.32 cm) and single fruit weight (11.38 g) compared to the check varieties. IndoCF-25 was found to be moderately tolerant to anthracnose, wilting and mosaic diseases, and also showed lower insect infestation than control varieties. Results of yield trials indicated that IndoCF-25-1 was suitable for cultivation in Bangladesh. Though check variety Binamorich-1 produced the highest yield (34.05 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) among three tested genotype/varieties, due to the better pungency as well as other quantitative and qualitative performances, BINA has applied for registration of IndoCF-25-1 to the National Seed Board (NSB) of Bangladesh. Consequently, the NSB of Bangladesh registered IndoCF-25-1 as a high yielding better pungent chilli variety in 2020 as Binamorich-2 for commercial cultivation all over Bangladesh.</p> Md. Nazmul Hasan Mehedi, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Md. Shamsul Alam, Sadia Tasmin Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-010 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Land use/land cover change assessment of Mohana watershed (Far-Western Nepal) using GIS and remote sensing https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-09 <p>The present study was conducted in the Mohana watershed of Far-western Nepal to assess land use land cover change. The study has used ArcGIS and three Landsat images - Landsat TM (1999), Landsat ETM+ (2009), and Landsat OLI (2019) – to analyze land use the land cover change of the watershed. The change matrix technique was used for change detection analysis. The study area was classified into five classes; forest, agriculture, built-up, water bodies, and barren lands. The study has found that among the five identified classes forest and build-up increased positively from 45.40 % to 51.51 % - forest cover and 11.26 % to 19. 85 % - build-up respectively. Similarly, agricultural land and water bodies initially increased but after 2009 both land cover areas decreased to 23.79 % and 0.73 % from 31.38 % and 0.97 % in 2009 respectively. Barren land decreased from 15.37% to 4.12% over the last 20 years. This study might support land-use planners and policymakers to adopt the best suitable land use management option for the Mohana watershed.</p> Suraj Prasad Bist, Rabindra Adhikari, Raju Raj Regmi, Rajan Subedi Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-09 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of irrigated and non-irrigated cropping systems on soil physicochemical properties in a small-scale irrigation farming system in Eastern Uganda https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-08 <p>This study evaluated the impact of irrigation and cropping on soil physicochemical properties at Kyekide small scale irrigation farm in Jinja district, eastern Uganda. Treatments included Land-use systems under perennial and annual cropping with and without irrigation for over 20 years. The hypothesis was that there were insignificant differences in physicochemical properties of the soil under irrigated and non-irrigated cropping systems. Soil physical properties except hydraulic conductivity was not significantly different with irrigation and cropping. The pH of the soils ranged from moderately acidic to neutral pH (5.17-7.40), with irrigated soils tending to be more neutral than non-irrigated soils. SOM content was higher in the irrigated soils and perennial soils than in the non-irrigated and annual soils. The soils were moderately deficient in N and severely deficient in P (mean values =0.175% N and 1.183mg kg<sup>-1</sup> P) compared with the critical of 0.2% and 15 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Irrigated soils had a significantly higher Na<sup>+</sup> content than non-irrigated soils, with a mean value of 2.985cmol/kg. The K<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup>, and Mg<sup>2+</sup> contents were higher in irrigated and perennial soils than non-irrigated and annual soils. The study suggested monitoring the soils under an irrigation scheme to prevent degradation due to increased salt accumulation or chemical fertility decline. Overall, monitoring of soil quality is vital in irrigation schemes to monitor the impacts of water on the environment.</p> Issa Kaduyu, Patrick Musinguzi Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-08 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Varietal performance of Broad leaf Mustard during winter season in plain region of eastern Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-07 <p>The experiment was conducted in agriculture farm of Girija Prasad Koirala College of Agriculture and Research Centre Gothagaun, Morang to know the morphological and yield attributing character, disease severity and organoleptic test of Broad leaf Mustard. Four Variety of broad leaf mustard namely Khumal Chaudapat, Marpha Chaudapat, Manakamana and Mustard 101 with five replication was laid out in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) from October, 2020 to January, 2021. The length of leaf was superior in Kumal chaudapat (29.01 cm) as compare to other variety. The yield performance of Khumal chaudapat was better (27.10mtha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by Marpha Chaudapat (24.50mtha<sup>-1</sup>) and Manakamana (23.90mtha<sup>-1</sup>). Lowest disease severity was recorded in Mustard 101 (26.7%), and highest disease severity in Marpha Chaudapat (37.85%).&nbsp; Overall, organoleptic test was good in Marpha Chaudapat.</p> Krishna Dahal Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-07 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Response of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on the growth performance of aromatic Boro rice https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-06 <p>An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during December 2017 to May 2018 to study growth performance of aromatic <em>Boro</em> rice (cv. BRRI dhan50) in response to nitrogen and potassium fertilization. The experiment consisted of four levels of nitrogen <em>viz.,</em> 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, and four levels of potassium <em>viz.,</em> 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that nitrogen and potassium fertilization and their interaction exerted significant influence on growth performance of BRRI dhan50. Application of 100 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> produced the tallest plant (82.17 cm), the highest number of tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (10.08) and chlorophyll content (52.21) at heading stage. While, application of 90 kg K ha<sup>-1</sup> produced the tallest plant (81.44 cm) at physiological maturity stage, the highest number of tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (9.66) and chlorophyll content (51.54) at heading stage. In case of interaction, the tallest plant (85.33 cm), the highest number of tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (10.83) and chlorophyll content (58.28) were obtained from 100 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> along with 90 kg K ha<sup>-1</sup> at heading stage. Therefore, application of 100 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> along with 90 kg K ha<sup>-1</sup> interaction appeared as the promising practice in aromatic rice (cv. BRRI dhan50) cultivation in terms of growth performance.</p> Newton Chandra Paul, Shabuj Chandra Paul, Swapan Kumar Paul, Md Abdus Salam Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-06 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Factors influencing adoption of major orchard management practices in mandarin orange of Gorkha: A case from mid-hills of Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-05 <p>The mid-hills of Nepal have immense potential for mandarin orange production. However, its productivity is declining over the years despite an increasing trend in the cultivated area. Since the proper adoption of orchard management practices has been associated with increased productivity, it is, therefore, an imminent requirement to sustain the mandarin orange production for long in the country. Therefore, a research survey was carried out to assess the adoption of major orchard management practices and identify factors affecting its adoption so that the insights from this finding would provide potential policy implications for the rejuvenation of the declining orchards.&nbsp; Altogether, 93 households from Gandaki and Sahid Lakhan Rural municipalities, as well as Gorkha Municipality from Gorkha district were chosen for the study using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a semi-structured interview which was analyzed using SPSS and Stata software. A seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) logit model was used for triangulating the effect of different variables on the adoption of major mandarin orange orchard management practices. The findings revealed that nearly two-third of the households reported citrus decline in their orchards. Further, the adoption of major orchard management practices was mostly found driven by regular access to extension agents, and the income generated from agriculture. Nevertheless, the adoption was plagued by the prevalence of citrus decline in the orchard. In light of these findings, participatory training programs related to the rejuvenation of declining orchards, regular advisory and extension services, and input subsidies to the smallholding farmers are suggested so that the adoption of major orchard management practices gets increased among the mandarin orange farmers.</p> Ashutosh Poudel, Rishi Ram Kattel, Gaurav Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-05 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Status of farm mechanization and its impact on maize production in Jhapa District, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-04 <p>A survey research was carried out in 2020 in maize zone, Jhapa to identify and analyze the status of farm mechanization and its impact in the maize production. Kankai Municipality and Jhapa Rural municipality were purposively selected for the study as these areas were under the command area of prime minister agriculture modernization project, project implementation unit, maize zone Jhapa. Thereafter, a total of 70 samples were selected using random sampling method. Thirty-three samples were selected from Kankai Municipality and remaining thirty-seven were selected from remaining Jhapa rural municipality. Primary data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire, focal group discussion and key informant interview whereas secondary data were obtained through a review of relevant literature. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were used to analyze the data. It was found that the status of mechanization was still in the initial phase in the study area. Results showed that mechanization was limited to two cultural operations namely tillage and threshing of which only in case of tillage, farm machineries were adopted by more than ninety percent of the respondent farmers while in case of sowing more than ninety percent of respondent didn’t use any modern equipment. Insect and pest in maize field was major problem faced by the farmers. Therefore, productivity of maize in Kankai area was higher as compared to Jhapa area as adoption of mechanization was higher in Kankai area.</p> Santosh Kandel, Rakshya Poudel, Min Thapa Saru, Tulsi Parajuli Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-04 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of integrated weed management practices on the growth, yield, quality and economic of onion (Allium cepa L.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-03 <p>A field study was conducted at research field of Spices Research Sub-Centre (SRSC), Faridpur, Bangladesh to find out the efficacy of weed management practices on the growth, yield, quality and economics of onion with the variety BARI Piaz-6. Thirteen treatments such as: T<sub>1</sub>-control as check (no weeding), T<sub>2</sub>-weed free, T<sub>3</sub>-one hand weeding (HW) at 45 days after transplanting (DAT), T<sub>4</sub>-two HW at 25 and 45 DAT, T<sub>5</sub>-three HW at 25, 45 and 65 DAT, T<sub>6</sub>-pre-emergence (PE) spray of pendimethalin 33 EC @ 330g a.i/litre + one HW at 45 DAT, T<sub>7</sub>- PE spray of pendimethalin 33 EC @ 330g a.i/litre + two HW at 45 and 65 DAT, T<sub>8</sub>- post emergence (POE) spray of pendimethalin 33 EC @ 330g a.i/litre at 25 DAT + one HW at 65 DAT, T<sub>9</sub>- PE spray of oxyfluorfen 23.5 EC @ 235g a.i./litre + one HW at 45 DAT, T<sub>10</sub>- PE spray of oxyfluorfen 23.5 EC @ 235g a.i./litre + two HW at 45 &amp; 65 DAT, T<sub>11</sub>- POE spray of oxyfluorfen 23.5 EC @ 235g a.i./litre at 25 DAT + one HW at 65 DAT, T<sub>12</sub>- PE spray of pendimethalin 33 EC @ 330g a.i/litre + POE spray of oxyfluorfen 23.5 EC @ 235g a.i./litre at 45 DAT + one HW at 65 DAT and T<sub>13</sub>- PE spray of oxyfluorfen 23.5 EC @ 235g a.i./litre + POE spray of pendimethalin 33 EC @ 330g a.i/litre at 45 DAT + one HW at 65 DAT were compared by randomized complete block design with three replications. The study revealed that the weed management treatments under the study significantly influenced all parameters except total soluble solid content of onion bulb. Weed density had reverse effect on growth, development and yield of onion. Among the weed’s infestation, <em>Cyperus rotundus</em> (55-60%), <em>Echinochloa crusgalli</em> (10-15%) and<em> Chenopodium album</em> (8-10%) were predominant. The highest weed density (137.25 weeds/m<sup>2</sup>) were recorded from the T<sub>1</sub>. The lowest weed density (15.24 weeds/m<sup>2</sup>) were observed from T<sub>13</sub>. The T<sub>3</sub> had the least weed control efficacy (23.56%). The maximum fresh yield (19.49 t/ha) of onion bulb were obtained from T<sub>2</sub> followed by T<sub>13</sub> (19.31 t/ha). The highest benefit-cost ratio (2.19) was calculated from the T<sub>13</sub> closely followed by T<sub>12</sub> (2.18). From this study it was concluded that Pre-emergence application (PE) application of oxyflourfen or pendimethalin + post-emergence (POE) application of oxyflourfen or pendimethalin at 45 DAT (days after transplanting) + once HW (hand weeding) at 65 DAT and also PE of oxyflourfen or pendimethalin + twice HW at 45 &amp; 65 DAT exhibited good performance to control weeds in onion field.</p> M. A. Khan, M. M. Rahman, S. S. Mou Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-03 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of soil fertility constraints in two paddy soils of the western highland zone of Cameroon https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-02 <p>Information on soil fertility status and variability are essential in understanding the potential of soils and their management interventions in agriculture. The present study aimed at examining the soil quality or fertility of two paddy soils with different productivity in the Western Highland Zone of Cameroon. Twelve soil samples were collected in each of both study location at a standard depth of 0-30 cm and analyzed to find soil texture, Organic Carbon (OC), basic cations (Calcium Ca, Magnesium Mg, Potassium K and Sodium Na), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), soil pH, phosphorus (P), and Total Nitrogen (TN). Most measured soil characteristics showed different degrees of variability in soil nutrients ranging from low to very high in both soils. Both soils were acidic (pH &lt;5.5), consistently deficient in total nitrogen, phosphorus, basic cations, and had high OC and CEC. Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were used to identify appropriate soil quality indicators. P and Na in Koutaba and P, Mg, and CEC in Santchou constituted minimum data set (MDS) and accounted for 94% and 100% of the quality variation among soils. A Soil Quality Index (SQI) was developed base on the MSD method, Santchou and Koutaba received SQI of 0.48 and 0.73. The paddy soils of Koutaba were more fertile than those of Santchou. The low level of P and Mg were considered to be the major constraints limiting the productivity in both locations. These results suggest that, the management of inherent soil properties is based on-site specific situations.</p> Ngoucheme Mamouda, Tabi Fritz Oben, Lontsi Meli Gilles Raoul, Yerima Bernard Palmer Kfuban Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-02 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of potentiality of known bacterial blight resistant genes against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae pathotypes exist in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-01 <p>Bacterial blight (BB) caused by <em>X. oryzae</em> pv. <em>oryzae</em> is a destructive disease of rice and causes 30-50% losses to rice depending on the outbreak. Development BB resistant rice varieties have long been considered as one of the most effective approach to control the disease. However, the durability of host resistance is breaking down due to the change of pathotypes of <em>X. oryzae</em> pv. <em>oryzae</em> globally<em>.</em> Pathotypic analyses of 239 <em>X. oryzae</em> pv. <em>oryzae </em>Bangladeshi isolates on Near Isogenic Lines (NILs) containing resistance (<em>R</em>) gene (s) revealed the existence of eight pathotypes of <em>X. oryzae</em> pv. <em>oryzae</em>. Among eight pathotypes, pathotypes IV and V were considered as major comprising&nbsp; maximum number of isolates, (30.13% and 23.01%, respectively), whereas pathotype VIII considered as minor consisting only 2.51% of total isolates. Pathotype, I showed highest virulence or aggressiveness compatible with all NILs, whereas pathotype VIII exhibited lowest virulence to these NILs. Bacterial blight resistant genes viz. <em>Xa1 </em>(75.00%),<em> Xa11 </em>(62.50%) and <em>Xa21 </em>(50.00%) showed resistance to most of the pathotypes while <em>Xa4 </em>performed worst as compared to all others <em>R-</em>genes. In pyramid lines, IRBBB63 (<em>Xa5+Xa7+Xa13</em>) and IRBB57 (<em>Xa5+Xa7 +Xa21</em>) showed resistance reaction and IRBB61 (<em>Xa4+Xa5+Xa7</em>), IRBB60 (<em>Xa4+Xa5+Xa13+Xa21</em>), IRBB54 (<em>Xa5+Xa21</em>), and IRBB53 (<em>Xa4+Xa21</em>) showed susceptible reaction to <em>X. oryzae</em> pv. <em>oryzae</em> pathotypes. These results collectively indicated the deployment of <em>Xa1, Xa11</em>, <em>Xa4</em>, <em>Xa5</em>, <em>Xa7</em>, <em>Xa13</em> and <em>Xa21</em> either alone or in combination against BB would be a best choice for the development of BB resistant rice varieties in Bangladesh.</p> Md. Mahbubul Haque, Md. Mostafa Masud, Md. Mokarram Hossain, Md. Mamunur Rashid, Md. Zahangir Alam, Md. Rashidul Islam Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-03-01 Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A survey of Avifauna in aquatic habitat and their adjoining areas of Ramnagar, Uttarakhand, India https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-018 <p>The present study deals with the observation of avifauna in the aquatic habitat and their adjoining areas of Ramnagar, Uttarakhand, India. The present study was carried out from January 2020 to December 2020. We have recorded a total of 145 avian species belonging to the 54 families during the study period. Among this, a total of 113 residents and 32 winter visitor species were identified. The percentage of resident and winter visitor avian species was 78.08% and 21.91%. During the study period, we also reported the four avian species <em>viz.,</em> River Lapwing, River tern, Great Hornbill, and Alexandrine Parakeet are under the Near Threatened (NT) category and one species, namely Red-headed vulture is critically endangered according to IUCN Red data book. Thus, the findings of this study suggest that the selected study area has avifauna diversity of utmost importance which should be conserved by implementing specific strategies.</p> Ashish Kumar Arya, Medha Durgapal, Vinay Singh, Manisha Bisht Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-018 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Coffee income and its determinants: A case of Deusa village, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-017 <p>Understanding economic contribution of coffee production and influencing socioeconomic and environmental factors for coffee income are vital for its promotion. The primary aim of this study was therefore to assess the contribution of coffee income to the household total cash income and identify influencing socioeconomic and environmental factors for coffee income in Deusa, Solukhumbu district of Nepal. A semi-structured questionnaire survey gather data from 55 coffee-growing households. We used Ordinary Least Square regressions (OLS) for identifying influencing factors for coffee income. Household annual gross income, from farm and off-farm income sources, estimated was around NPR 161 thousand, and the median value was 57.4 thousand. On average, coffee farming contributed almost 9% of the total household income in the study area. The OLS regression showed that sufficient labor availability (p&lt;0.05), access to coffee-related trainings (p&lt;0.05), and access to irrigation facilities (p&lt;0.05) significantly increased coffee earnings. Likewise, environmental variables - elevation (negatively, p&lt;0.05) and shade trees availability for coffee farming (positively, p&lt;0.05) also influenced earnings from the coffee farming. We recommend provisions of trainings, improved irrigation facilities and tree saplings for shade management for sustainable coffee production in the study area.</p> Navin Banjade, Kishor Atreya Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-017 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Crop diversity in jhum cultivation: A case study of Upper Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh, India https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-016 <p>Crop diversity is a source of food, medicines, and fodder; it provides a proximate composition including carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins, fats, essential elements, and nutraceuticals for healthy growth and development of a body.&nbsp; Jhum cultivation is a source of multiple crops and study on multiple sources of nutrients help in the dept understanding of diet and also framing of food policy; Present work was carried out to study the multiple cropping in Jhum agriculture field of the Upper Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh. To fulfill the objectives, field visit, open-end&nbsp;questionnaires and purposive samplings methods were used. A total of forty-three (43) crops were recorded to be cultivated in the Jhum field. Crops varieties of the study site could be classified into leafy vegetable crops, cereal crops, oil crops, pulses, spices crops, fruit crops, medicinal food plants, tuber crops and fiber crops.</p> Temin Payum, Kaling Tayeng, Rajiv Mili, Marina Langkam Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-016 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Post-harvest practices of horticultural crops in Nepal: Issues and management https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-015 <p>Fruits and vegetables are highly perishable in nature and have a very short shelf-life. During different handling and marketing procedures, there is massive post-harvest loss of horticulture produce, either or both qualitative and quantitative, between harvest and consumption. Factors affecting post-harvest losses differ with topography, varieties of crops, climate, etc. and are difficult to understand. Considering the fact, the present study aims to describe the status of post-harvest losses of horticultural produce and their potential management techniques. Secondary data is used to collect the related information. The demand of high-quality horticulture produce is increasing due to its healthy nutrition. Post-harvest management of the produce includes pre- and post-harvest practices, their handling, packaging, storage, distribution, and marketing. The storage life and marketable quality of the produce can be maximized by limiting (not stopping) the respiration and transpiration through proper control of temperature and relative humidity of the produce. The right selection of packaging materials and technologies play vital role in maintaining product quality and freshness during storage and distribution. Moreover, the innovative techniques like modified active packaging, active and intelligent packaging, controlled atmospheric storage, and use of antimicrobial could extend the shelf life of produce to a significant time. This review mainly focuses on the causes of qualitative and quantitative losses of horticulture produce along with the effective measures to control the losses in Nepalese context. It emphasized on the adoption of innovative technologies to improve the storage life, marketable quality and freshness of the produce.</p> Biju Adhikari, Aarati G.C. Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-015 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic insights on single cross maize hybrid and its importance on maize self-sufficiency in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-014 <p>When the world's population rises, total crop production worldwide is not meeting rising food demand. Focus on developing high yielding single cross hybrids of maize that are resource-efficient under diverse soil and climatic conditions is utmost for countries like Nepal. With the aim of exploring genetic reasons for higher hybrid vigor of single cross hybrid of maize, global genetic importance and addressing the emerging issue of needed higher productivity in Nepal to achieve maize self-sufficiency status, comprehensive review work was performed. Research findings explored that; the Heterosis hypothesis has been widely exploited in crop breeding, resulting in a large increase in yield. The ability analysis is of special importance in cross-pollinated crops like maize as it helps in identifying potential parents that can be used for producing hybrids and synthetics. New molecular tools and techniques can complement traditional methods to allow breeders to tackle priority research areas efficiently. Nepal’s reliance on imported hybrid maize seed and grain increased each year as competitive hybrid cultivars became unavailable within the country. Recently, higher yield gap due to lower productivity, being the major concern in Nepal, single cross hybrids are intervention point. For the countries like Nepal, where achieving higher yield of maize to address self-sufficiency is the nationally prioritized issue, single cross hybrids of maize could be the best way to come up.</p> Pabitra Joshi, Damodar Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-014 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Pests, pathogens, pathogenic diseases, and diseases control strategies of sal (Shorea robusta) in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-013 <p>Sal (<em>Shorea robusta</em>) is one of the most indispensable species in Nepal, both ecologically and economically. This paper aims to provide updated guidance for the management and protection of this species in the future from various pests and pathogens. We reviewed 38 articles from Google Scholar and Research gate with keywords "<em>Shorea robusta”</em>, “<em>Hoplocerambyx spinicornis”</em>, “<em>Polyporus shoreae”</em>, “Heart rot”. <em>S. robusta</em> has the most insect fauna among the forest tree species. Out of the 346 insects reported on <em>S. robusta</em>, around 155 species of insects are associated with living trees<em>. Hoplocerambyx spinicornis</em> is the most destructive insect pest, wreaking havoc on <em>S. robusta. Polyporous shoreae</em> is the main cause of root rot in <em>S. robusta</em>, and spreads through root contact or root grafting. Heart rot in <em>S. robusta</em> is caused by the fungi <em>Hymenochaete rubiginosa</em>, <em>Fomes caryophylli</em>, and <em>F. fastuosus</em>. During the harvesting of <em>S. robusta,</em> the majority of the tree was observed to be faulty, resulting in a large amount of waste wood. The best way to determine the pathogen's "Achilles' heel" is to consider its life cycle. The Nepalese famous saying "prevention is better than cure" may be applicable in the management of <em>S. robusta</em> insect pests and pathogens. The current paper critically addresses these issues and argues the need for an improvised package of activities for insect pests, pathogens, prevention, and their control.</p> Vivek Thapa Chhetri, Resham G.C., Sanup Chaudhary, Sachin Timilsina, Subash Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-013 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Production status, export analysis, and future prospects of ginger in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-012 <p>Ginger is one of the high-value spices crops of Nepal possessing the huge potential of export to the global market. Among Nepal’s natural gifts are agricultural diversity and varied topography making the land suitable for ginger production.&nbsp;The main aim of this study was to scrutinize&nbsp;the current status of ginger production, annual growth rate, its import and export as well as prospects of the Nepali ginger.&nbsp;Fundamentally, secondary data were collected from authentic sources, and then were assembled in Microsoft Excel, and diagrams were generated. ArcGIS software was used to create the map. Findings revealed that&nbsp;the production of ginger is in an increasing trend with an average annual growth rate of 6.67%. Nepal contributed about 9.2% of the global ginger production, despite its small area. Ginger is exported primarily to India because of the lack of an internationally accredited testing laboratory.&nbsp;From this study, it can be concluded that&nbsp;Nepal has comparative advantages in growing ginger, which is noticeable with the geographical features and well-adapted local varieties. The trend of enormous growth in ginger production and its export indicates that ginger production and trade could be a potential enterprise contributing to the national economy. It is&nbsp;recommended&nbsp;to focus on enhancing ginger productivity by providing training and extension services to farmers, subsidies, establishing ginger processing units, easy and reliable certification within the country, and enhancing diplomatic relations for easy market accessibility for strengthening the ginger sub-sector.&nbsp;</p> Priyanka Joshi, Shovit Khanal Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-012 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Physicochemical assessment of leachate from Pokhara landfill site and its impact on the quality of Seti River water, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-011 <p>The management of municipal solid always poses serious environmental problems on land, air, and groundwater, especially in the case of developing countries. The characterization and assessment of leachates are necessary to understand the water quality in the urban region as well as has enormous importance in sustaining the livelihoods of people in the riverine environment maintaining the ecological balance. Landfill leachate contains thousands of complex components, which contaminate the nearby water bodies, and communities with several hazardous ingredients. The present study was conducted to assess the influence of landfill leachates on the quality of Seti River water. The samples were collected from four stations (Tatopani, Ramghat, Landfill, Below landfill, and Kotre). The samples were analyzed for pH, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl<sup>-</sup>, NH<sub>3,</sub> and PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup> by standard methods. The pH and EC were measured <em>in situ </em>whereas other parameters were analyzed in the laboratory adopting standard protocols. The physicochemical parameters of river water and that of leachates were compared to monitor the level of contamination. The research reveals the landfill to have insignificant pollution of water on matching the parameters with World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values. Regular monitoring of the quality of river water and sustainable management of solid waste is essential for the ecological quality and integrity of the environment in the region. Scientific information obtained by this study could contribute to policymakers for the sustainable management of water quality and landfill in the downstream and urban segments of the river basins.</p> Lekha Nath Khanal, Namita Paudel Adhikari, Ganesh Paudel, Subash Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-011 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Features of small holder goat farming from Chitwan district of Bagmati province in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-010 <p>An assessment was done to analyze the status of small scale goat production system in Chitwan, Nepal. A semi-structured questionnaire having both open ended and close ended questions were interviewed to 147 farmers (69 males, 78 females). The average goat holding was 5.48±0.15 head with female: male ratio of 6: 5. Mainly women folks in the household were involved in husbandry of the raised goats. In this research, we realized that goats were a valuable commodity for the community in the survey area. Grazing in public forest, fallow lands, tree leaves, shrubs and bushes were the main sources of feed for goats throughout the year. When inquired about vaccination, 92.51% of the farmers did not vaccinate their goats and were not aware about its importance. The high index obtained was for health care constraints, followed by feeding constraints, breeding constraints, miscellaneous and marketing constraints. The findings of this survey are not very encouraging as even from one of the developed parts of the country, small scale farmers raising goats seem to be struggling both in terms of technical and logistic inputs. There is need of awareness on improved care and management practices of goat.</p> Alok Dhakal, Sujit Regmi, Meena Pandey, Teknath Chapagain, Krishna Kaphle Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-010 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Adoption status of improved production technology in rice cultivation in Kanchanpur, Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-09 <p>A study was carried out in 2020 to assess the scenario of the improved production technologies among rice growers in Kanchanpur and to identify the factors influencing the adoption of these technologies. The simple random sampling procedure was used to collect data from 90 respondents using a semi-structured interview schedule from Belauri, Bhimdutta municipality, and Beldandi rural municipality which are under the command area of the rice super zone, Kanchanpur. The information on prevailing cultural practice, production, and productivity, adoption of improved technology, problems/constraints faced by farmers in rice cultivation in the study area were collected from the farmers by interview. The data were processed, cleaned, and analyzed using software MS-excel and SPSS. The simple descriptive and inferential statistics like chi-square and binary logistic regression models were used to find the relationship between dependent and independent variables. Respondents adopted plant protection measures (chemical weed control, insects, and disease control) and seed treatment relatively less than they adopted recommended variety, Seed Replacement Rate (SRR), and storage treatment. &nbsp;The majority of the respondents were affiliated with the farmers’ groups but the majority of them had not received training. Furthermore, spade, hoe, tractor, thresher, sickle, wooden plough bullock cart water pumps, tillers, reapers were used by respondents. Binary logistic regression revealed that membership of agriculture group, advice from agriculture technician, training, visit of extension workers and rice cultivated land had a positive and significant effect on the adoption of various production practices. Inadequate availability of fertilizers and inputs (0.85), Inadequate training (0.68), inadequate machinery availability (0.54) were the major constraints faced by the farmers on rice cultivation.</p> Ankit Pokhrel, Suman Dhakal, Rojina Kafle, Aayush Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-09 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Does adoption of agroforestry increase farm production and dietary diversity in the hills of Nepal? https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-08 <p>There are few studies on the influence of agroforestry intervention in the farming and food system. We thus conducted this study to assess farm production diversity and household dietary diversity in the coffee-based agroforestry in Deusa village, Solukhumbu district, Nepal. This study collected data through questionnaire survey, food diary checklist for 24 hours diet recall, transect walk, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. We compared farm production diversity and household dietary diversity scores between two agroforestry types - traditional and coffee-based. We used Pearson’s Chi-Square and Fisher’s Exact tests to assess the association between agroforestry type and 16 food groups wise consumption. Results showed that the farm production diversity is positively associated with the household dietary diversity. Among 16 food groups, households under coffee-based agroforestry system were more likely to consume dark green leafy vegetables (Chi square- 5.385; df=1; <em>p&lt;0.05</em>), and descriptive statistics showed relatively higher consumption for most of the other food groups. It indicates that agroforestry intervention can be beneficial to improve farm production diversity and household dietary diversity in the longer run. Thus, agroforestry promotion is not only important in enhancing biodiversity and farm income but also equally vital in improving food and nutrition security for smallholders.</p> Kanchan Kattel, Rejina Maskey Byanju, Kishor Atreya Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-08 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of zooplankton community in an anthropogenic-disturbance coastal creek, southwest Nigeria https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-07 <p>In order to assess the zooplankton community in an anthropogenic-disturbance Badagry creek, Zooplankton and water samples were collected and analyzed bi-monthly from November 2011 to September 2013 in nine stations representing its three different zones using standard methods. Zooplankton was identified to species-level using relevant texts and counted under a Microstar IV Carl Zeiss binocular microscope calibrated at different magnifications. Diversity was determined using Shannon-Weiner (H), Simpson (1-D) and Evenness (e^H/S) indices. Water samples were analysed for temperature, pH, salinity, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, water depth and nitrate. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, cluster and Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) at α = 0.05. A total of 56 species comprising 26 species of rotifers, 15 species of arthropoda, 4 species of ciliophora, 3 species of cnidaria, and 2 species of ctenophora, foraminifera, mollusca, protozoa each, with an array of meroplankton / juvenile stages of the order copepod of subphylum crustacea were recorded. Diversity indices were highest (H = 2.20; 1-D = 0.80; e^H/S = 0.27) at station 6 and lowest in station 8 (H = 1.20; 1-D = 0.56) and station 1(e^H/S = 0.14). Salinity/conductivity, nitrate and water depth were significantly different (p &lt; 0.05) among the study stations. CCA revealed salinity/conductivity and nitrate were the most important abiotic factors co-related with the zooplankton abundance in Badagry creek. The moderately low zooplankton communities’ diversity and abundance in Badagry creek point at different natural and anthropogenic factor impacts.</p> Kayode James Balogun, Emmanuel Kolawole Ajani Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-07 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Elusive fish catch and vulnerable livelihoods: Status of fishing and fisheries industry among marine south coast communities of Kwale, Kenya https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-06 <p>The aim of this study was to examine the status in fishing and fisheries industry among marine coastal communities of Kwale along Kenyan coast. In this study, we used a cross-sectional descriptive survey design to examine trends in fish and fisheries resources productivity and diversity and the types of fishing vessels and gears used by fishermen among marine Kwale communities. Quantitative data was collected using household survey questionnaires among fisherfolk households randomly selected from two subcounties in Kwale. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted on purposively sampled respondents to generate qualitative data to corroborate the quantitative survey data. Study established that fishing is still the principal source of livelihood, with 31% of people engaged in fishing as their main source of livelihood and being mainly artisanal fishers. There is a declining trend in fish productivity and diversity during the period 2014 to 2019. Out of all fisherfolks, 96.6% of fishers are commercial artisanal fishermen, selling their fish to different groups. The most preferred fishing vessel is wooden row boats (dhow) at 66.3% preference. There is a general decline in fish productivity within fishing grounds based on catches, indicated by 84.9% of the survey respondents. There is a general decline in fish abundance and diversity among coastal Kwale as indicated by 70.6% of respondents. Eleven (11) types of simple traditional fishing gears were identified, with majority (32%) of fishers preferring handline/hook (Mshipi) as their most preferred type of fishing gear. Destructive fishing gears such as spear guns are still in use despite the government regulations. This study concludes that fishing and fisheries resources among marine communities in Kwale of Kenyan coast is in a general declining trend in terms of productivity, abundance and diversity. This signals excess pressure on fishing resources, requiring immediate effective management strategies to contribute to sustainable marine ecosystems resources utilization. The study recommends enforcement of effective management strategies on fishing and fisheries resources through effective policy formulation and enforcement as well as awareness creation and a mind shift among communities towards alternative livelihood sources to reduce pressure on fish stock.</p> Okinyi B. Nyawade, Pamella Were-Kogogo, Phanuel Owiti, Harriet Osimbo, Adero O. Daniel Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-06 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Growth, mortality and stock assessment of greenback mullet, Planiliza subviridis from northwest Arabian Gulf, Iraq https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-05 <p>The growth, mortality and stock parameters of greenback mullet, <em>Planiliza subviridis</em> from Iraqi marine waters, northwest Arabian Gulf was assessed using FiSAT II software for length-frequency data collected from February 2020 to January 2021. <em>P. subviridis </em>is one of the species caught in large quantities as commercial by artisanal fishers. Fish samples were collected by the Shaheen steel-hulled dhow and from the artisanal fishermen. The total length and body weight relationship of fish was estimated as W= 0.034L<sup>2.670</sup>, indicating negative allometric growth. Of 3350 specimens, growth and mortality parameters were evaluated. The asymptotic length (L∞), growth rate (K) and growth performance index (Ø') were 33.8 cm, 0.30 and 2.535, respectively. The total mortality rate (Z), natural mortality rate (M), and fishing mortality rate (F) were 1.11, 0.74 and 0.38, respectively. The present exploitation rate (E<sub>present</sub>) of <em>P. subviridis</em> computed as 0.34. Length at first capture (L<sub>50</sub>) was 17.47 cm. Recruitment of <em>P. subviridis</em> was observed throughout the year, with a peak during July. The yield per recruit analysis indicates that the current exploitation rate was below the biological target reference points (E<sub>0.1 </sub>and E<sub>max</sub>), which refers to the stock of <em>P. subviridis</em> is underexploited. Virtual population analysis results showed that mid-lengths (16-22 cm) experienced the highest fishing mortality. The length at first capture (L<sub>50</sub>) was higher than the length at first maturity (L<sub>m</sub>) of the species. So, for management purposes, more yields could be obtained by increasing the fishing activities on this species for a substantial harvest.</p> Abdul-Razak M. Mohamed, Ali H. Al-Hassani Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-05 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Weed control efficacy of combined application of grass pea and mustard crop residues in T. aman rice https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-04 <p>Among different methods of weed control, allelopathy could lead to reduced labor costs and increased efficiency, without any adverse effects on the environment. In this regard, an experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to evaluate the allelopathic potential of grass pea and mustard crop residues on weed suppression and crop performance of transplanted <em>aman</em> rice. The experiment consisted of three cultivars of <em>T. aman </em>rice <em>viz.,</em> Binadhan-7, BRRI dhan49 and BR11 and five different level of crop residues such as no use of crop residues, grass pea crop residues @ 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, mustard crop residues @ 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, combined use of grass pea and mustard crop residues @ 1 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>of each and hand weeding. All crop residues applied in the experiment suppressed weed growth and inhibition at satisfactory level. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Weed population, weed dry weight and percent inhibition of weed were not significantly influenced by the interaction effect of crop residues (grass pea and mustard) and cultivars. BR11 produced the highest grain and straw yield among the treatment combination. The highest numbers of tillers hill<sup>-1</sup>, numbers of grains panicle<sup>-1</sup>, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, straw yield were observed in hand weeding, followed by combined application of grass pea and mustard crop residues @ 1 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>of each treatment. The highest grain and straw yield (4.81 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and 7.65 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was observed in hand weeding along with variety BR11 and the second highest (4.19 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and 7.36 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained from combined use of grass pea and mustard crop residues @ 1 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>of each. The results of this study indicate that hand weeding followed by combined application of grass pea and mustard crop residues @ 1 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>of each showed potential activity to suppress weed growth.</p> Showrav Ashraf, Uttam Kumer Sarker, Suriaya Perveen, Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Shah Golam Azam, Md. Romij Uddin Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-04 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Concentration of Thiourea is effective in breaking the dormancy of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-03 <p>Potato germination is highly sensitive to ecological conditions. High altitude and low annual average temperature result in tuber dormancy and poor sprouting. Dormancy has become a significant constraint for lowering potato production, which hinders the possibility of growing two crop cycles per year. An experiment was conducted from February to April 2020. Two major potato varieties (Desiree and Cardinal) were treated with four Thiourea concentrations (0, 1, 2, and 3%) in a two factorial, completely randomized block design with three replications. Tubers were soaked for 2 hours in different Thiourea solution as per treatments, air dried until excess solution was removed and kept in a dark room on plastic trays. With the progress of experiment dormancy breaking and sprouting parameters like early sprouting, dormancy breaking, sprout length and sprout density were recorded. It was found that Thiourea has a significant effect on all observed attributes as per varieties of potato. For Desiree variety, Thiourea (1%) decreased dormancy period by 22 days compared to control (Desiree*Thiourea 0%) and produced the longest average sprout of 7.36cm at 49 days after treatment (DAT). On the other hand, for the Cardinal variety, Thiourea (3%) decreased tuber dormancy by 27 days compared to control (Cardinal*Thiourea 0%) and produced sprout of 7.75 cm at 49 DAT. In case of sprouts/tuber 1% and 3% Thiourea produced 4.13 and 1.91 sprouts/tubers in Desiree and Cardinal, respectively. The overall mean finding indicate that, 1% and 3% Thiourea concentration was significantly superior for breaking dormancy and enhancing sprouting of potato varieties of Desiree and Cardinal respectively.</p> Sambat Ranabhat, Madhav Dhital, Ansu Adhikari, Binod Adhikari, Saroj Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-03 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Use of GreenSeeker and CM-100 as manual tools for nitrogen management and yield prediction in irrigated potato (Solanum tuberosum) production https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-02 <p>This study evaluated the possibility of the use of GreenSeeker sensor and CM-100 chlorophyll content meter for in-season N and yield prediction in order to promote timely split N application in potato production in Kenya. Four N-fertilization rates; N<sub>0 </sub>(0), N<sub>1 </sub>(60), N<sub>2 </sub>(90) and N<sub>3 </sub>(130 kg N/ha) were led out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a Greenhouse for two seasons. The results showed that % N leaf content was significantly affected by N rates. The % N leaf content and potato leaf chlorophyll content decreased as the season continued whereas the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) increased as the season continued. CM-100 values were significantly correlated with % N leaf content at vegetative (r=0.86***) and tuber initiation (r=0.74***) growth stages of the crop whereas the NDVI values were only significantly correlated with % N leaf at tuber initiation (r=0.82***). A significant relationship was found between CM-100 values taken at different potato stages (end of vegetative, tuber initiation, bulking and maturation stages) and tuber yield (r=0.90***, 0.82***, 0.47* and 0.41*). The NDVI values at end of vegetative growth, tuber initiation and maturation of potato were also significantly correlated with tuber yield (r=0.81***, 0.43* and 0.54*), except at bulking stage (r=0.33). For efficient in-season N management and yield prediction, CM-100 and GreenSeeker are recommended at an early stage of the crop. Further research in the different potato growing areas in Kenya to establish the different thresholds at different potato growth stages is recommended.</p> Felix Satognon, Joyce J. Lelei, Seth F.O. Owido Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-02 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Rhizobium biofertilizer on agronomical performance of lentil (BARI Masur-6) in Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-01 <p>Excessive nitrogen fertilizer uses in crop field causes surface water pollution, which has a harmful effect on the ecosystem. The study was conducted to reducing the use of nitrogen fertilizers during cultivation of pulse crop and as an alternative to increase the use of biofertilizers. <em>Rhizobium</em> can fix atmospheric nitrogen to the soil; it can be used as an alternative to urea for the cultivation of lentil (BARI Masur-6). The <em>Rhizobium leguminosarum </em>was isolated from root nodules of lentil (<em>Lens culinaris</em>) plants and cultured in YEMA (Yeast Extract Mannitol Agar) media. The <em>Rhizobium</em> was screened on the ground of physiological, biochemical and environmental conditions. Different doses of urea fertilizers (20, 40, 60, 80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and liquid <em>Rhizobium</em> were used in experimental plots. The results indicated that biofertilizer with different chemical fertilizer performed higher than application of several level of urea nitrogen fertilizer in respect of plant height, number, chlorophyll content (µg cm<sup>-1</sup>) and number of nodules plant<sup>-1</sup> with variety BARI Masur-6. There was optimum relative growth rate (RGR) also observed. The increase in urea nitrogen levels was the reason for the decline in relative plant growth. Yield and yield contributing characters like number of pod plant<sup>-1,</sup> number of seed plant<sup>-1</sup>, 1000-grain weight (g), grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield and biological yield were significantly influenced by biofertilizer application. The assembled application of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer produced maximum number of harvest index (%) compare to the chemical fertilizers. Significant correlation found with no of nodule, no of seed, seed weight, grain yield and straw yield. Significant correlation also found in chlorophyll content with some yield contributing characters like seed number, seed weight, grain yield and straw biomass. Further significant correlation observed between pod number and seed number, between seed weight and grain yield. <em>Rhizobium</em> can fulfill the alternate source of nitrogen that promoted significant growth and yield of lentil and it was much closer to the farmer’s conventional amount of urea.</p> Most. Farhana Begom, Md. Giush Uddin Ahmed, Rebeka Sultana, Ferdous Akter Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-02-01 Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A review on biochar as a potential soil fertility enhancer to agriculture https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-014 <p>Biochar is a carbon rich material produced from the pyrolysis of biomass at high temperature under oxygen deficit condition. It is recently introduced as one of the effective soil amendments with wide range of environmental benefits. This paper summarizes and discusses the effects of biochar on different soil parameters and crop productivity by reviewing scientific studies conducted around the globe. The benefit is derived especially from the improved soil physical and chemical properties through improvement in soil moisture content, soil bulk density, nitrogen uptake and availability and retention of other soil nutrients, but its effect is highly dependent on feedstocks used, pyrolysis temperature and soil types. It has been found to be more effective on infertile and degraded land. Further research is required to completely reveal the capacity of biochar in enhancing the soil characteristics.</p> A. Kandel, S. Dahal, S. Mahatara Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-014 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bio-fortified maize: Cornerstone in plant breeding to combat hidden hunger in developing countries https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-013 <p>Malnutrition has been one of the major global health problems mainly in underdeveloped and developing world causing massive economic damage as well as distressing human life. Deficiency of useful micronutrients like vitamins and minerals including low level of availability of better quality protein causes hidden hunger which can be alleviate with the help of genetic bio-fortification of crops. Besides all the challenges, biofortified maize crops like quality protein maize along with the provitamin A and Zn hold a great future to address the malnutrition challenge combating the deficiency of malnutrtients. This is the most sustainable, cost-effective and potentially wide-reaching approach which can bridge the gap between agriculture and nutrition. Biofortification can be achieved both by agronomic and genetic approaches. The Importance, genetics and potential of bio-fotification is thoroughly reviewed to provide useful findings for new readers and researchers.</p> Damodar Gautam, Bandana Shrestha, Bhuwan Subedi Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-013 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Agroforestry for mountain development: Prospects, challenges and ways forward in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-012 <p>Most of the agroforestry systems (AFS) in Nepal are traditional, and deliberate management of trees, crops and livestock as an integrated and interactive agroecosystem, albeit its enormous socio-economic and ecological benefits, is limited. The objective of this review paper is to understand the prospects, analyze challenges and suggest practical solution for promoting agroforestry as a viable system balancing economic, social and environmental concerns. We develop this paper based on practical experience on the ground and an in-depth review of relevant literature and highlights the prospects, challenges and ways forward of AFS, both farm-based and forest-based, in Nepal. Nepal has enormous agroecological diversity, suitable land availability for agroforestry, traditional knowledge, skill and labor forces, and huge prospects of adapting new technologies and developing market systems, especially considering emerging markets for developing remunerative and environment friendly value chains. However, the prospective value chains of the mountain agroforestry products face many challenges, including i) socio-economic constraints of the farmers mainly because of high initial adoption costs, limited information on benefit-cost of agroforestry practices, limited knowledge on full benefits of agroforestry, and limited markets and marketing information; ii) institutional constraints because of unclear policy to support agroforestry, the lack of extension services and undefined administrative boundaries; and iii) inadequate scientific knowledge, expertise and technologies to address management complexity of agroforestry system. We therefore suggest having a scan of those challenges and find out solutions, especially for promoting growth and competitiveness of the sector with poverty reduction strategy ensuring availability of food, fuel, fodder and employment opportunity for local communities. The paper provides a few successful cases of AFS and finally suggests ways forward to promote AFS and a business model which could help achieve the untapped potentials for enhancing income and employment opportunity, achieving food and nutrition security, and building sustainable land use systems.</p> Kishor Atreya, Bhishma P. Subedi, Puspa L. Ghimire, Sudarshan C. Khanal, Shambhu Charmakar, Rabindra Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-012 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A review on yield response to nitrogen, potassium and manure applications in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-011 <p>Potato productivity has stagnated and remained low due to, among other causes, increasing soil infertility and poor nutrient management strategies. To avert this situation, it is essential to have a better understanding of potato response to nitrogen and potassium nutrients. Like other crops, potatoes require an adequate and balanced supply of nutrients for better growth and tuber yields. To achieve that, it is essential to conduct an extensive soil analyses for the entire farm. However, this process is expensive for most resource-constrained farmers. Moreover, the current recommendations used in the region are generic and focuses more on nitrogen than potassium. Hence, there is a need to focus on readily and freely available information for enhanced decision making. The assumption that the soils in the region are fertile and can supply adequate potassium is no longer valid, and now necessitates more actions such as adopting integrated soil fertility and precise application of nutrients within the 4R principles. All these aspects are well covered in this article. We believe the information presented in this manuscript is valuable and give a better foundation for future research and recommendations in potato production.</p> Hillary M.O. Otieno, Edna K. Mageto Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-011 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An overview of multifaceted role of Trichoderma spp. for sustainable agriculture https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-010 <p>The excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides have caused several negative impacts on the environment and human health. They degrade soil fertility, build up resistance on pathogens, inhibit microbial activities and also enhance greenhouse gas emission. It is impossible and inappropriate to control plant pathogens by using chemical pesticides alone. Emphasize should be given towards organic fertilizers and pesticides to attain sustainability in agriculture. The use of <em>Trichoderma</em> is slowly increasing in the recent years among progressive farmers as an alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Slow rate of multiplication and colonization, susceptible to biotic and abiotic stresses, incomplete elimination of pathogens and high cost are the major problems behind its poor adoption among the farmers. To overcome these challenges different strains of <em>Trichoderma</em> should be identified which can multiply and colonize rapidly, least affected by environmental conditions and having wide host range on pathogens. In addition, farmers should be made aware about the importance of <em>Trichoderma</em> in agriculture through various extension facilities for its wide scale adoption. <em>Trichoderma</em> can be the viable and sustainable alternative which acts as biofertilizer, bioremediator and biocontrol agent. Nevertheless, the use of <em>Trichoderma</em> is limited on research activities and its application at farmers' level is not yet satisfactory. Thus, this study based on critical analysis of the research works from worldwide researchers aims to reveal the present scenario of the use of <em>Trichoderma</em>, its importance, modes of action, methods of application and multiplication, challenges for wide scale adoption and its appropriate solutions.</p> Sagar Bhandari, Krishna Raj Pandey, Yagya Raj Joshi, Sudip Kumar Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-010 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of nitrate, phosphate and sulphate levels in wastewater from Muhammad Ayuba dam in Kazaure, Jigawa state, Nigeria https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-09 <p>In the continuation of the evaluation of the physicochemical parameters of wastewater of Muhammad Ayuba dam in Kazaure, Nigeria, this investigation was carried out for the assessment of certain nutrients parameters <em>i.e.,</em> nitrate, phosphate and sulphate that are primarily responsible for the eutrophication. This investigation was conducted during November, 2019 to January, 2020 (Harmattan season) to measure the content of nitrate, phosphate and <br>sulphate ions in the wastewater collected from Muhammad Ayuba dam. During the study, standard techniques were used to determine the content of nitrate, phosphate and sulphate using spectrophotometer at specific wavelengths in determination of parameter of interests. The results obtained indicated that the concentrations were in the range of 78.50 – 88.40 mg/L for nitrate, 55.70 – 62.40 mg/L for phosphate and 91.40 – 100.20 mg/L for sulphate ions, respectively. The contents of nitrate, phosphate and sulphate in the wastewater exceeded the limit set by FAO/WHO for these anions in wastewater with exception of sulphate ions that was below the limit. Pearson correlation (r = 0.484) of the different anions indicated that their level of contamination might be traced to the same source means runoff from fertilizer application. Therefore, the water of the dam is majorly polluted with domestic wastes and absolutely rich in sulphate ions especially detergents from nearby houses. The study also revealed gradual accumulation of anions in the wastewater of the dam suggested more pronounced pollution in it.&nbsp; Thus, regular monitoring of these ions must be required to evaluate their environmental impacts and possible potential risks.</p> S.O. Oladeji Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-09 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of road traffic noise in terms of acoustic comfort on sidewalks at ring road of Konya-Istanbul, Turkey https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-08 <p>Walking is an activity that can be easily done by many people in urban spaces even in short periods. The most common areas of walking in urban spaces are the sidewalks. In order for pedestrians to travel comfortably in these areas, acoustic comfort should be fulfilled. This study aims to seek an answer to the question of “Can accurate results be obtained by using an alternative method which is more efficient in terms of time, energy, and cost, in noise measurement studies?”. In this study, minimum and maximum noise measurements were made in three different time periods during the day on a part of D300 ring road in Selçuklu district, Konya province, Turkey. The obtained data were subjected to reliability analysis, unreliable data according to Cronbach's Alpha coefficient were not included in the calculations. The reliable data were evaluated in terms of compliance status according to the “Assessment and Management Regulations of Environmental Noise”. As a result of this study, it was determined that even the recorded minimum noise values have a very high potential in terms of exceeding the limit values stated in the related regulations. The results of this study showed that more efficient results can be obtained in terms of time, energy, and cost by the way of short-term (momentary) measurements, compared to the long-term (time-weighted) noise measurements.</p> Ahmet Akay, Serpil Önder Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-08 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and yield of Bangi (Cucumis melo L.) in charland agriculture affected by micronutrients https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-07 <p>Bangi (<em>Cucumis melo</em> L.) is an important short duration summer fruit crop, it is rich in vitamins and minerals, facilitated to protect from hidden hunger. To expedite the growth attributes and fruit yield of <em>Bangi</em> through micronutrient application for the Charland Agriculture, an experiment was conducted at the farmer’s (Charland) field in two locations <em>viz.,</em> Sadar and Belkuchi upazilas of Sirajgong district, Bangladesh. The crop was cultivated following farmer’s management practices in mada(s)/pits (spacing 3.5 m × 3.5 m) in RCBD design with 3 replications. Two fertilizer doses as control (farmers practice; cow dung + NPK) and improved practice (farmers practice + micronutrients), were used as experimental treatments. The application of micronutrients enhanced plant length and other growth descriptors and fruit yield as well; however, locations did not affect the studied descriptors except the number of secondary branches plant<sup>–1</sup> and leaf characters. The plant length varied from 148.6 cm to 321.7 cm, the fruit yield (number plant<sup>–1</sup>) almost quadrupled and size more than double due to improved practice (with micronutrients) resulting in 4–5 times increase the farmer's profit compared to conventional (farmers) practices. Further research on the effect of micronutrients on nutritional quality enhancement (Biofortification) and self-life is suggested for better understanding and nutritional quality improvement processes of <em>Bangi</em> through nutrient management.</p> A.K.M. Golam Sarwar, Jannat-E-Tajkia, Sontosh Chandra Chanda, Md. Ashrafuzzaman Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-07 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Competitiveness of banana value chain along Hetauda-Dumkibas road corridor, Nepal: An eclectic approach https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-06 <p>Government of Nepal has announced a super-zone of banana in Chitwan district and a block in Nawalparasi East district to enhance productivity and commercialization of banana subsector in the Hetauda-Dumkibas road corridor. This study is the first of its kind to analyze the competitive position of banana value chains in the corridor. Using the literature review approach, the paper generated a conceptual framework to assess competitiveness of value chain. A total of 160 producers, 22 traders, 3 wholesale commission agents and 10 agrovets were selected using stratified random sampling method. The pretested semi-structured questionnaires surveys, focused group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted to collect primary data and analyzed using STATA and MS Excel. The study revealed two value chain streams in the corridor- one in Chitwan district and another in Nawalparasi East district. Most of the structure indicators were found similar for both value chain streams. Banana market was monopolistically competitive along both chains. Producers of Chitwan district were more competitive than Nawalparasi East because of their higher benefit cost ratio and higher farm gate price for fingers. The reasons for this were relatively better institutional set up contributing to extension, insurance and training services, and better technological adoption rate in Chitwan district. In addition, the chain stream of Nawalparasi East had relatively lower marketing cost and higher market margin, market efficiency and value addition. The reasons for this were shorter chains and low level of transportation cost. Thus, policy efforts to strengthen local institutions providing extension, training, insurances, market information and credits are recommended to improve the performance of the value chain. In addition, encouraging processing and value addition of bananas should be of concern to development practitioners and policy makers.</p> Manoj Sharma, Shiva Chandra Dhakal, Raj Kumar Adhikari, Ujjal Tiwari Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-06 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ripening quality of banana cv. Amritasagor through application of different ripening agents https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-05 <p>Desirable ripened quality banana fruits are important for the consumer acceptability. Banana cv. Amritasagar was treated with different ripening agents like control (R<sub>1</sub>), Ripestuff<sup>TM</sup> @ 42 mg/10 mL water (R<sub>2</sub>), Ripestuff<sup>TM</sup> @ 84 mg/10 mL water (R<sub>3</sub>), Ethephone @ 200 ppm (R<sub>4</sub>) and Ethephone @ 400 ppm (R<sub>5</sub>); and storage durations were 24 h (H<sub>1</sub>), 48 h (H<sub>2</sub>), 72 h (H<sub>3</sub>), and 96 h (H<sub>4</sub>). The two factors experiment was conducted with complete randomized design with three replications. Fruits were placed in container (RFL). With the progress of storage duration quality parameters like weight loss (%), peel color, pulp to peel ratio, softness, total soluble solids (TSS), and pH were recorded. Fruits treated with R<sub>3</sub> and R<sub>5</sub> produced uniform yellow color and the highest softness at 96 h. Whereas banana fruits treated with R<sub>2</sub> developed peel colour and softness a bit slower compared to other treatments; and untreated fruits (control) were hard, poor in color and quality, and were not suitable for consumption at 96 h. The highest TSS (%) were found at 72 h treated with R<sub>5</sub> and at 96 h with R<sub>5 </sub>including R<sub>3</sub>, and R<sub>4 </sub>showed the mostly similar TSS (%). Thus, Ripestuff<sup>TM</sup> @ 84 mg/10 mL water (R<sub>3</sub>) and ethephon @ 400 ppm (R<sub>5</sub>) can be used maintaining quality and ripening banana for better price of banana growers and traders through avail it at earlier marketing and reduced postharvest loss.</p> Tamanna Yasmin, M. Ashraful Islam, Quazi Forhad Quadir, Daryl C. Joyce, Bhesh Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-05 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization of dietary protein level for good aquaculture practice based carp fattening in ponds under drought prone area of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-04 <p>Good aquaculture practice (GAP) based carp fattening is a potential technique to obtain higher and safe fish production within shorter period in ponds of drought prone area. Sustainability of this technique, however, is constrained by high feed cost and poor water quality. Therefore, as an overcoming effort, three diets (protein content of 20%, 25% and 30%) under three different treatments (T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>) were tested during January-June, 2020 in fattening ponds of carps (Catla, <em>Gibelion catla; </em>silver carp, <em>Hypophthalmichthys molitrix; </em>rohu, <em>Labeo rohita</em>; mrigal, <em>Cirrhinus cirrhosis</em>; and carpio, <em>Cyprinus carpio var. specularis</em>) under Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. Variation in protein level had no significant effect on environmental parameters of pond water. Combined fish yield was found to vary significantly (<em>P&lt;0.05</em>) among the treatments, while feed conversion ratio did not vary significantly. Although second degree polynomial regression analysis identified 28.50% dietary protein for optimal growth of carps but no significant difference between T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> was found for the total fish yield. However, significantly (<em>P&lt;0.05</em>) highest cost-benefit ratio obtained with the diet containing 25% protein suggested this protein level in diet was profitable for carp fattening in pond.</p> Md. Anwar Hossain, Md. Akhtar Hossain, Md. Ayenuddin Haque, Md. Harun-Ur-Rashid, Md. Moksedur Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-04 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determining the rate of blended fertilizers and urea for potato production under rainfed condition in Jeldu, West Showa, Ethiopia https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-03 <p>This experiment was conducted to determine the rate of blended fertilizers and urea for potato production under rainfed condition in Jeldu, West Showa, Ethiopia. Different fertilizer treatments <em>viz.,</em> 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB+80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea, 250 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB+80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea, 350 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB+80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea, 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB+140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea, 250 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB+140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea, 350 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB+140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea, 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB +200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea, 250 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB +200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea and 350 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N+200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea was used for the production of Belete and Gudenie potato varieties (cv. Jeldu Wereda) during 2018-2019 using RCBD factorial arrangement in three replication. This study revealed that there was a highly significant difference between the yield and yield components of potato due to the main effect of fertilizer rates. The interaction did not significantly affect any parameter of potato during the study. The highest total and marketable yields (22.95 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and 20.06 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), respectively were harvested from 350 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB+200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea though not significantly different from total and marketable yield of 250 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB+200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea (22.08 and 19.14 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and 350 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> + 140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea (21.65 and 18.84 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), respectively. The partial budget analysis indicated that the highest benefit (64,916.00ETB) was fetched from 350 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB+200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea followed by 250 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB+200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea (63,004.00ETB) while the highest marginal rate of return (19,430.00%) was recorded from 250 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB+200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> followed by 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB+200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea (17,000.00%). From this, it can be concluded that the NPSB+ urea rates highly significantly affected the yield and yield component of potato. Thus, 250 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea+200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> urea can be used for high yield and high economic return of potato in Jeldu district.</p> Egata Shunka, Kassaye Negash, Abebe Chindi, Gebremedhin W/giorigis, Tesfaye Abebe, Atsede Solomon, Mihiretu Bedasa, Ibrahim Said, Lema Tesema Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-03 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of compost quality from non-dairy creamer sewage sludge-solid compost biogas-rice husk char on bok choy mustard (Brassica rapa L.) https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-02 <p>Non-dairy creamer sewage sludge (NDCSS) has high organic matter and nutrients for compost production but NDCSS has a problem for the composting process because it has high moisture and slurry form. Therefore, the composting process of NDCSS requires mixing of other organic materials such as solid compost biogas (SCB) and rice husk char (RHC). Therefore, this study aims to determine the chemical properties of compost from a mixture combination of NDCSS, SCB, and RHC, and to assess compost quality as organic fertilizer from a mixture combination of NDCSS, SCB, and RHC through growth and yield of bok choy mustard (<em>Brassica rapa</em> L). Experiments were carried out in greenhouses from March to September 2019. The research treatment consisted of 7 treatments mixture combination of NDCSS, SCB, and RHC for the composting process, and each treatment was repeated 4 times. The composting process is carried out by anaerobic or fermentation methods. The research layout was used as a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The NDCSS can produce compost with the highest N content, while the RHC will produce compost with the highest P. The mixture combination of NDCSS, SCB, RHC, and the mixture combination of SCB and RC will produce compost with the highest K content. Compost from NDCSS produces the best organic fertilizer because it is able to make the best biomass wet weight and dry weight of bok choy mustard biomass.</p> Kurniawan Andrianto, Bistok Hasiholan Simanjuntak, Maria Marina Herawati Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-02 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Article Retracted: Estimation of soil carbon stock in some wetlands of the northeastern region of Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-01 <p>This article has been retracted due to authorship dispute among original authors.</p> Md. Shiful Islam, Arafat Rahman, Humyra B. Murshed, A.S.M. Mohiuddin, Md. Jashim Uddin, Muhaiminur Rahman, Md. Khalilur Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/06-01-01 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A review on status, implications and recent trends of forest fire management https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/05-04-024 <p>Forest fire spread out in an area having combustible material in the summer season with high temperature. It burns the area and looks like a misery. Forest fire is one of the factors that severely affects the forest biodiversity. Burning actions in a forest affects not only flora and fauna but also soil properties changed due to the forest fire. In summer season on sloppy topography forest fire originates in tropical forests. While in coniferous forests, forest fire outbreaks during the resin extraction activities. More than 350 million hectares (ha) was estimated to be affected by vegetation fires globally. In India about 55% of forest area is prone to the fire. Fires can be natural or man- made, but manmade fire affects mostly. Several forest types and areas are more susceptible to forest fires because of suitable weather, topography and inflammable material. Forest fires adversely affect the soil, water, flora and fauna and disrupt the ecological functions. The new advances in fire control are remote sensing and GIS where real time information can be gathered about the fire break and immediate follow can be done. The chemicals (as borate, ammonium sulfate and ammonium biphosphate) are used for fire control and various other types of fire retardants are used to keep the fire under control. Forest fire changes the composition of vegetation, extinction of species, development of the various adaptations in unwanted plants. Nutrient cycle and soils are affected. Frequent forest fire events cause global warming. Forest fire needed to be controlled at initial stage and the large fires should not be allowed to occur, the modern techniques of monitoring, detection and control must be used for avoiding the large fires happenings.</p> Varun Attri, Rajeev Dhiman, S. Sarvade Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/05-04-024 Fri, 25 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Integrated pest management of fall armyworm infestations in maize fields in Nepal: A review https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/05-04-023 <p><em>Spodoptera frugiperda, </em>commonly known as Fall Armyworm (FAW)<em>, </em>is amongst the most terrifying pests of maize in Latin America, which unexpectedly appeared in Nepal in 2019 and spread expeditiously. Estimates of maize crop losses due to this pest are vital in order to compare the effect of these losses with the convenient of controlling FAW and suggest pertinent controlling technology and methods. Nepal is predominantly an agrarian nation thus, maize is grown substantially. However, climatic conditions of Nepal favor the outbreaks of pests such as FAW in many maize grown areas. On the grounds that most of the people of hill and mountainous regions depend on maize for their staple food, pests have appeared to be a great threat to cereal production. It causes&nbsp;&nbsp; considerable&nbsp;&nbsp; injuries&nbsp;&nbsp; to&nbsp;&nbsp; maize &nbsp;&nbsp;by&nbsp;&nbsp; feeding&nbsp;&nbsp; on&nbsp;&nbsp; leaf whorls, ears and tassel which often leads to total yield loss.&nbsp; Yet, agriculture is an economic activity, even among subsistence farmers in Nepal. Seeing high potential losses caused by FAW, different control methods have been proposed. This pest demands meticulous and stepwise plan for its management. This review emphasized on adoption of IPM methods of pests’ control, which is the integration of biological, cultural, physical, chemical, and technological approaches. Meanwhile, early warning systems, though poorly developed in Nepal, can be highlighted for further studies and for further research work.</p> Sushil Khatri, Prakash Pakuwal, Saugat Khanal Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/05-04-023 Fri, 25 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A review on impact of inflation on economic growth in Nepal https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/05-04-022 <p>This study shows that there is no consensus on the relationship between inflation and economic growth in economic literature. The answer to whether inflation is generally conducive or detrimental to economic growth is still inconclusive. Various arguments have been put forward on both sides. It is generally believed that a low and stable inflation rate helps economic activities, while high inflation hurts growth. The study finds overwhelming support in favor of the specific threshold level of inflation that is appropriate for growth in Nepal. Several studies on this subject have found the threshold value of inflation to be around 6 per cent for Nepal. Inflation is harmful to the economy after certain rate of threshold. Therefore, it is necessary to control inflation in order to address poverty as well as economic growth. Policies need to be put in place to keep inflation target range around the optimum inflation rate to accelerate the pace of economic growth rate and ensure that the negative effect inflation has on economic growth is minimized.</p> Seema Karki, Sushma Banjara, Amrit Dumre Copyright (c) 2020 Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/05-04-022 Fri, 25 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Fish sanctuary as a sustainable management tool for recovering fish biodiversity, production and livelihood: A case study on Halti Beel tank sanctuary, Bangladesh https://journals.aesacademy.org/index.php/aaes/article/view/05-04-021 <p>Fish sanctuary is a common tool for retrieving fisheries diversity in a threatened aquatic ecosystem. The present study highlighted a case study on sustainable management of Halti <em>Beel</em> tank sanctuary, Bangladesh (a part of Chalan <em>Beel</em>) established for the betterment of fisheries and fishermen community. The study was conducted for a period of 6 months from July to December 2017. Both primary and secondary data was used for a comparison before and after effects of Halti <em>Beel</em> tank sanctuary considering three parameters <em>viz.,</em> fisheries diversity, production trends and socio-economic condition of fishermen community. During the study period, diversity in both native and exotic fish species (71) were increased where 62 species were native and 9 were exotic under 26 families of 11 orders. This number (71) was observed 97.22% higher than the number of species before declaring Halti <em>Beel</em> tank as fish sanctuary. Recovery rate was observed highest for the order Siluriformes (11) and the lowest for Channiformes (1). Cypriniformes was the most diversified order with 24 species (18 native and 6 exotic species). The observed data showed a dramatic increase in fish production from 8.77 to 37.50 metric ton within four fiscal years whereas the gradual production trend was recorded 10.12, 29.47, 35.10 and 37