Gravel and River sand mining activities in Maroua (Far-North Region, Cameroon): Environmental and Socioeconomic aspects

Bertin Pagna Kagonbé 1 , Bouba Nafissa 2 , Cedric Djeutchou 3 , Alexis Ngoniri Hamdja 4 , Pagoré Djoda 5 , Alain Pahimi Loabé 6 , Etienne Yanné 7 , Paul Venyité 8

1   Local Materials Promotion Authority (MIPROMALO), P.O. Box 2395, Yaoundé, CAMEROON
2   Local Materials Promotion Authority (MIPROMALO), P.O. Box 2395, Yaoundé, CAMEROON
3   Department of Earth Science, Khalifa University of Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
4   National Institute of Cartography (INC), P.O. Box 157, Yaoundé, CAMEROON
5   National Advanced School of Engineering of Maroua, University of Maroua, P.O. Box 46 Maroua, CAMEROON
6   Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), P.O. Box 415 Garoua, CAMEROON
7   National Advanced School of Engineering of Maroua, University of Maroua, P.O. Box 46 Maroua, CAMEROON
8   Local Materials Promotion Authority (MIPROMALO), P.O. Box 2395, Yaoundé, CAMEROON

✉ Coressponding author: See PDF.




Sand and gravel mining are amongst the main factors that induces significant impacts on environment, as a result of growing need for building materials and as a source of income for rural communities. This study was conducted to assess the socio-economic and environmental effects of these activities in Maroua, Cameroon. Its objectives include a description of artisanal mining method and identification of its socio-economic and environmental impacts. The study was conducted in a multidisciplinary approach. During the fieldwork, data were collected using questionnaires and focused group discussions were undertaken with those responsible for managing natural resources in the that area. The results reveal that sand mining activity alter river morphology at a faster rate than normal river process, where river reduction of the extraction areas is significantly larger. These activities were responsible for quick resource depletion and adversely affecting the environment and causing disturbances such as, ecological balance, soil degradation, pollution, infrastructure destruction, as well as conflict between miners and communities.  Despite the negative impacts, mining activities generate income for all parties involved in the value chain, including the government. Accordingly, based on the research results, there are concerns about sustainable extraction practices by implementing strict rules and government policies.


Environmental Impacts, Gravel, Maroua, River sand extraction


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How to Cite

Kagonbé, B. P., Nafissa, B., Djeutchou, C., Hamdja, A. N., Djoda, P., Loabé, A. P., Yanné, E., & Venyité, P. (2024). Gravel and River sand mining activities in Maroua (Far-North Region, Cameroon): Environmental and Socioeconomic aspects. Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 9(1), 126-133.



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