Publication Ethics

Last updated: 01 February 2024

Table of contents

1. Publication ethics and standards
1.1. Ethics for authors
       a) Clear authorship and contributions
       b) Plagiarism (including self-plagiarism), data fabrication, and artwork manipulation
       c) Conflict of interest
       d) Allegations of misconduct
       e) Data sharing
       f) Reproducibility of data
       g) Ethical oversight
       h) Use of generative AI
1.2. Ethics for editors
1.3. Editors, employees and members of the editorial board as authors
1.4. Ethics for reviewers
1.5. Handling complaints and appeals

1. Publication ethics and standards

Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science (AAES) editorial decisions are not affected by the origins of the manuscript, including the nationality, ethnicity, political beliefs, race, or religion of the authors. AAES is committed to publishing only innovative and original material, i.e., material that has neither been published elsewhere, nor is it under consideration for publication by another publisher. Our journal adheres to the guidelines set by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). We are committed to upholding ethical standards in publishing and promoting responsible conduct within our scholarly community. We follow the guidelines of the COPE, which helps editors address issues that go against our editorial policy.

To avoid ethical violations, authors should read the journal's "Instructions for Authors" before manuscript submission and adhere to the specified format. Manuscripts are confidential and shared only with those involved in processing and preparing them for publication. The peer review process is crucial, helping editors make decisions and authors improve their manuscripts. During the review, the author's identity is concealed from reviewers. The editor, following COPE guidelines, makes the final decision on a manuscript. Interference with editorial freedom is considered misconduct which is strictly prohibited.

a) Clear authorship and contributions:

We follow ICMJE guidelines that authorship be based on the following 4 criteria:

  • Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  • Drafting the work or reviewing it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  • Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

The authorship statement should be placed in disclosure section of the manuscript in following format:

Authors contribution: Conceptualization, X.X. and Y.Y.; methodology, X.X.; software, X.X.; validation, X.X., Y.Y. and Z.Z.; formal analysis, X.X.; investigation, X.X.; resources, X.X.; data curation, X.X.; writing—original draft preparation, X.X.; writing—review and editing, X.X.; visualization, X.X.; supervision, X.X.; project administration, X.X.; funding acquisition, Y.Y. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Use this format to write authors' contributions and write authors abbreviations in place of the full name of authors (CRediT taxonomy).

Authorship change request form can be downloaded from this link.

b) Plagiarism (including self-plagiarism), data fabrication, and artwork manipulation

Plagiarism is strictly prohibited in our journal. This encompasses the replication of text, concepts, visuals, or data from any source, including one's own previous publications, without proper attribution to the original creator. When reusing text copied from another source, it must be enclosed within quotation marks, and appropriate credit to the original source must be provided through citation. Should a study's design, manuscript structure, or language draw inspiration from prior works, explicit citation of those works is required. All submissions in our journal undergo plagiarism screening using the industry-standard iThenticate software. Detection of plagiarism during the peer review process may result in rejection of the manuscript. Post-publication detection prompts an investigation and actions aligned with our policies.

Manipulation of image files in a manner that distorts the original information is prohibited. This includes introducing, enhancing, moving, or removing features from the original image, grouping images that should be separate, or adjusting contrast, brightness, or colour balance to obscure, eliminate, or enhance information. If irregular image manipulation is discovered and verified during peer review, manuscript rejection may follow. Post-publication identification may lead to correction or retraction of the paper.

Presented data must be authentic and not inappropriately manipulated, enhanced, or fabricated. This encompasses the exclusion of data points to bolster conclusions, fabrication of data, selective reporting to support a particular viewpoint while disregarding contradictory evidence, and deliberate choice of analysis tools to favour specific conclusions (including p-hacking). We strongly advocate for preregistration of methods and analysis to maintain integrity.

c) Conflict of interest

As per the guidelines established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), authors are advised to refrain from entering agreements with study sponsors, whether for-profit or non-profit, that impede their access to the study's complete dataset or hinder their ability to independently analyse, interpret, and publish manuscripts as they see fit.

Authors are required to disclose any personal circumstances or interests that could potentially bias the representation or interpretation of their research findings. Examples of potential conflicts of interest encompass financial interests (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, grants, honoraria, and patent-licensing arrangements) as well as non-financial interests (such as personal relationships, affiliations, and beliefs).

The involvement of funding sponsors in the study's design, data collection, analysis, manuscript preparation, or decision to publish must be transparently declared. If the funding sponsors played no role, authors should explicitly state, “The funding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.”

Authors can disclose potential conflicts of interest in manuscript. A summary statement addressing conflicts of interest must be included by the corresponding author in a separate section titled "Conflicts of Interest," positioned just before the reference list. This statement should encompass all disclosed potential conflicts of interest.

Examples of conflict disclosures are provided below:

Conflicts of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stocks in Company Y. Author C has been involved as a consultant and expert witness for Company Z. Author D is the inventor of Patent X.

If no potential conflicts exist, authors should declare:

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

The sample form for conflict of interest is given at this link.

d) Allegations of misconduct

Our editors bear the responsibility of upholding the academic integrity of the articles published in the journal. Any instances of misconduct are addressed promptly and thoroughly in accordance with the guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Such misconduct encompasses, but is not confined to, the following:

  • Plagiarism
  • Falsification of research or data fabrication
  • Misrepresentation of affiliation
  • Simultaneous submission to multiple journals
  • Breaches in copyright or unauthorized use of third-party material without proper permissions
  • Failure to disclose competing interests
  • Conducting unethical research practices

Any detected instances of these forms of misconduct are thoroughly investigated and appropriate actions are taken to maintain the integrity and quality of the journal's publications.

e) Data sharing

We strongly encourage authors to embrace data sharing practices. This approach not only facilitates scientific research and knowledge discovery but also enhances the reproducibility and reliability of research outcomes. Furthermore, data sharing fosters collaboration and innovation, streamlines research processes, and augments the applicability and value of data.

Authors are encouraged to share relevant data and materials alongside their article submissions, thereby enhancing the transparency and quality of scientific research. Collaboration with journal editors is welcomed to facilitate the sharing of raw data, codes, and other pertinent materials with fellow researchers for further scientific exploration.

Authors are requested to include raw data with their article submissions and to furnish comprehensive details regarding data sources and processing methods within the article. In cases where data sharing may be restricted or subject to privacy concerns, authors are expected to propose suitable solutions to enable access to the data under reasonable conditions.

The types of data shared by the journal include, but are not limited to:

  • Raw data: This encompasses data collected or generated during the research, including experimental data, observations, questionnaire responses, etc.
  • Code and algorithms: Software code and algorithms utilized for data processing, analysis, and interpretation.
  • Literature and metadata: This includes literature, metadata, and annotations pertaining to the research process, encompassing study design, methodologies, hypotheses, results, and conclusions.
  • Images and multimedia: Multimedia materials such as images, audio recordings, videos, etc., utilized to support the presentation and interpretation of the research.
  • Models and simulations: This category includes mathematical models, simulation tools, etc., employed for research predictions and simulations.
  • Other related materials: This category encompasses questionnaires, sampling protocols, experimental protocols, and any other materials relevant to the study

f) Reproducibility of data

The reproducibility of data and methods utilized in scientific research is paramount for several reasons. Firstly, it enhances the credibility and reliability of scientific findings, thus bolstering trust within the academic community and beyond. Moreover, reproducibility accelerates scientific progress by allowing other researchers to build upon existing knowledge and validate research outcomes. It fosters academic communication and collaboration, promoting a culture of transparency and cooperation in scientific endeavours. Additionally, reproducibility aids in the efficient allocation of research resources, as redundant efforts can be minimized, and resources can be redirected to novel areas of inquiry.

We strongly advocate for authors to embrace open science practices, including the sharing of data on public databases and adherence to ethical and legal standards. By doing so, authors not only contribute to the advancement of knowledge but also facilitate collaboration and innovation within the scientific community. These practices enhance the credibility and reproducibility of scientific research, ultimately benefitting the scientific community and society as a whole.

We are committed to rigorously enforcing the aforementioned policy. Reviewers and editors will be tasked with critically evaluating the data and methods presented in articles. In cases where incomplete data, inadequate methods, or analytical errors are identified, we reserve the right to reject articles or request authors to make necessary corrections and additions. This ensures that published research meets the highest standards of quality and reliability, thereby upholding the integrity of scientific inquiry.

g) Ethical oversight

We are dedicated to upholding the quality and integrity of scientific research, guided by ethical principles and adhering to the ethical oversight policy outlined by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). To maintain these standards, we require all authors to observe the following ethical guidelines and policies when submitting articles:

  • Consent to Publication: Authors must ensure that all co-authors have granted consent for publication of the submitted article. Additionally, any data or information included in the article must be appropriately licensed. The sample consent to publication form can be downloaded from this link.
  • Publication on Vulnerable Populations: When conducting research involving vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, individuals with disabilities, the ill, or underprivileged groups, authors must adhere to ethical guidelines and moral standards. This includes obtaining informed consent from subjects or their guardians and safeguarding their rights, privacy, and confidentiality. AAES is committed to promoting equality and progress in society and upholds strict academic standards in this regard.
  • Ethical Conduct of Research Using Animals: Authors are strongly encouraged to conduct animal experiments only when absolutely necessary and to comply with relevant ethical and moral standards. Detailed plans and methods for animal experiments, along with appropriate ethical review and authorization materials, must be provided. Authors are also encouraged to adhere to the principles of Reduce, Refine, and Replace (3Rs) to minimize harm to laboratory animals. The sample form for ethical conduct of research using animals is given at this link.
  • Ethical Conduct of Research Using Human Subjects: Authors conducting experiments involving human subjects must adhere to relevant ethical and moral standards to protect the rights and safety of participants. This includes providing detailed trial plans and methods, obtaining informed consent from participants before their involvement in the study, and ensuring the protection of participants' rights and privacy. The sample form for ethical conduct of research using humans is given at this link.
  • Handling Confidential Data and Ethical Business/Marketing Practices: Authors must handle confidential data responsibly, ensuring its confidentiality and security to prevent misuse or disclosure. They should also adhere to honest, fair, and transparent business practices, complying with relevant laws and regulations, and refraining from using false or misleading statements or language.

h) Use of generative AI tools

We adhere to the guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) regarding the incorporation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and AI-assisted technology in the preparation of manuscripts. Although tools like ChatGPT and other large language models (LLMs) play a significant role in the process, they do not fulfil the criteria for authorship and therefore cannot be credited as authors of the manuscript. In instances where AI or AI-assisted tools have been utilized in manuscript preparation, authors must clearly declare this in the cover letter upon submission, providing adequate details. Additionally, authors are expected to maintain transparency regarding the utilization of these tools, outlining their methodology within the "Materials and Methods" section of the manuscript. Furthermore, details regarding the specific AI tool employed should be included in the "Acknowledgments" section.

1.2. Ethics for Editors

Editors of AAES journal uphold principles of independence and integrity, strictly adhering to COPE's Core practices in the decision-making process to ensure the publication and quality of manuscripts meet ethical standards. All manuscripts submitted to the journal undergo a rigorous peer review process. Before peer review, manuscripts are screened for readability, novelty, and relevance to the focus and scope of the journal. The editor maintains fairness and impartiality throughout the review process. Each manuscript is reviewed by at least two reviewers, and the final decision on acceptance is made by the Editor-in-Chief or the designated academic editor in consultation with reviewer comments. Manuscripts submitted to our journal are treated as confidential. They are not disclosed to anyone except the editorial staff, reviewers, editors, and other individuals involved in the review and publication process. Editors refrain from participating in the processing of articles in which they have a conflict of interest. The journal ensures that its commercial activities do not influence editorial decisions and steadfastly upholds principles of independence and integrity.

1.3. Editors, employees and members of the editorial board as authors

AAES implemented strict policies regarding the involvement of editors, employees, and members of the editorial board in the processing of their own articles:

  • Non-Participation: Editors, employees, and editorial board members are prohibited from participating in the processing of their own articles.
  • Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest: Editors, employees, and editorial board members must disclose all potential conflicts of interest related to their articles.
  • Strict Review Process: Editors, employees, and editorial board members are required to adhere to a rigorous review process to ensure the quality and reliability of articles.
  • Assignment to External Reviewers: For articles submitted by editors, employees, or members of the editorial board, AAES will assign the manuscript to expert reviewers in the field who do not have a conflict of interest with the author. Additionally, other editors will be involved in the evaluation and processing of such articles.

1.4. Ethics for reviewers

We conduct peer reviews through a single-blind process via our Open Journal System (OJS). The comments provided by editors and reviewers hold significant weight in determining the acceptance or rejection of manuscripts, thus underscoring the importance of these comments in the peer-review process. Reviewers are expected to adhere to the following guidelines:

  • Declaration of conflicts of interest.
  • Identification of published works relevant to the manuscript under review.
  • Strict confidentiality regarding reviewed articles and their contents, refraining from sharing or distributing manuscripts to third parties before publication.
  • Objectivity in reviews, avoiding personal criticism.
  • Timely response and notification to AAES if unable to participate in the peer review of a specific manuscript.
  • Focus areas during manuscript reviews, including potential ethical concerns, technical and logical errors, clarity of language, and adequacy of references.

1.5. Handling complaints and appeals:

Authors who disagree with the journal editor's decision have the option to submit an appeal for reconsideration. The appeal should include:

  • Specific rebuttal to the editor's decision, supported by relevant evidence.
  • Request for reconsideration, accompanied by reasons for the request.
  • Reasonable suggestions for resolving the issue, such as seeking mediation or resubmitting to another journal.

For complaints against a journal or publisher, evidence of misconduct should be provided, and all complaints will be taken seriously and addressed promptly by our publisher and journal.

Our policy aims to uphold the rights of authors, reviewers, editors, and publishers while strictly adhering to publication ethics. Complaints and appeals must be supported by relevant materials and evidence.

To file a complaint or appeal, please contact us via email at

Or submit your complaint using this form:

We will handle complaints and appeals following relevant regulations outlined by COPE at