Impact of IPM training on pest management practices in major vegetables in Palpa, Nepal

Mamata Adhikari 1 , Sapana Acharya 2 , Pankaj Raj Dhital 3

1   Agriculture and Forestry University, Faculty of Agriculture, Rampur, Chitwan, NEPAL
2   Agriculture and Forestry University, Faculty of Agriculture, Rampur, Chitwan, NEPAL
3   Agriculture and Forestry University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Rampur, Chitwan, NEPAL

✉ Coressponding author: See PDF.




A study assessed the impact of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) training on pest management practices in major vegetable crops in Palpa district. A total of 138 respondents were selected through purposive random sampling from Tansen municipality and the rural municipalities of Bagnaskali and Ribdikot. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews on prevailing IPM practices, pesticide handling, and challenges in IPM adoption. The analysis, employing descriptive and inferential statistics including chi-square tests, revealed that most trained respondents were from Tansen municipality, with more females than males receiving training. Although respondents preferred botanical methods, they predominantly used chemical pesticides due to availability, lack of biopesticides, high costs of IPM, social constraints, and the absence of block farming. Agro-vet stores were the main information source on pesticides. The level of pest control influenced chemical pesticide purchases, with low awareness of pest resistance. Both trained and non-trained respondents sprayed pesticides during pest outbreaks, with few reporting symptoms from exposure. Trained respondents exhibited greater awareness of the impacts of chemical pesticides on beneficial insects and soil health, the importance of waiting periods, safe pesticide disposal, and safety precautions. Significant associations were found between IPM training and chemical pesticide use, awareness of their impacts on beneficial insects, pesticide disposal methods, waiting periods, safety precautions, and perceptions of soil impact. The study highlighted the critical role of training in enhancing pest management practices and awareness of the adverse effects of chemical pesticides, underscoring the need for increased availability of biopesticides and support for IPM adoption.


Bio-pesticides, Botanicals, Pesticides, Soil properties, Waiting period


Download data is not yet available.


AKC Palpa. (2020). Annual Progress Report Book. Agriculture Knowledge Center, Palpa.

Atreya, K. (2007). Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal. Environmental esearch, 104(2),305 311.

Atreya, K. (2008). Health costs from short-term exposure to pesticides in Nepal. Social Science and Medicine, 67(4), 511–519.

Damalas, C. A. (2016). Safe food production with minimum and judicious use of pesticides. In S. Torok & J. J. Tóth (Eds.), Food Safety: Basic Concepts, Recent Issues, and Future Challenges (pp. 43–55). Springer International Publishing.

Bhandari, P. (2012). Farmers Perception about gains from Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field School. International Journal of Agricultural Science, 2(3).

Food and Agriculture Organization. (2016). FAO Statistics. Rome, Italy.

Food and Agriculture Organization. (2020a). Fruit and vegetables – your dietary essentials. The International Year of Fruits and Vegetables, 2021, background paper.

Food and Agriculture Organization. (2020b). NSP-Integrated Pest Management, FAO definition. Retrieved from

GC, Y. D. (2011). Status of plant protection activities in Nepal. In Conference on Capacity building in use of the International Phytosanitary Portal and APPPC website for information exchange, 4-9 July 2011, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ghimire, K., & Gc, A. (2018). Trend of Pesticide Use in Nepal. Plant Protection Society, Nepal.

Gyawali, P., Khanal, S., & Joshi, J. R. (2021). Crop Protection Practices in Traditional Agriculture in mid-hills of Western Nepal: A Case of Palpa and Gulmi District. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 9(2), 138-151.

Jha, R. K. 2008. An assessment of farm-level use of bio-pesticides in Nepal: A case study based on IPM Farmers' Field Schools of Bhaktapur District. Paper presented in 3rd annual meeting of Plant Protection Society of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development. (2020). Statistical Information on Nepalese Agriculture 2018/19. Retrieved November 2021, from

Oerke, E. (2006). Crop losses to pests. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 144(1), 31-43.

Paudel, M., Parajuli, K., & Regmi, R. (2020). Assessment on Pesticides Use and adoption of Integrated Pest Management Practices Among Commercial Vegetable Growers in Dang and Palpa Districts. Food & Agribusiness Management, 1(2), 54–58.

Rijal, J. P., Regmi, R., Ghimire, R., Puri, K. D., Gyawaly, S., & Poudel, S. (2018). Farmers’ knowledge on pesticide safety and pest management practices: A case study of vegetable growers in Chitwan, Nepal. Agriculture, 8(1).

Sharma, D. R. (2015). Use of pesticides and its residue on vegetable crops in Nepal. Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 16, 33–42.

Shrestha, H. K., Ghimire, S. B., Gurung, C. B., & Lal, K. K. (2004). Vegetable seed production, supply and quality control situation in Nepal. In Proceeding of the fourth national workshop in horticulture. Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Upadhyaya, N. S. (2002). Experience of community IPM in Nepal. Country Report, Landschaftsökologie und Umweltforschung, 256-264, Braunschweig, Germany.

USAID. (2011). Value chain/market-analysis of the off-season vegetable sub-sector in Nepal. Nepal Economic Agriculture, and Trade Activity, USAID, Kathmandu.



How to Cite

Adhikari, M., Acharya, S., & Dhital, P. R. (2024). Impact of IPM training on pest management practices in major vegetables in Palpa, Nepal. Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 9(2), 359-366.



Research Articles