Sheath Blight of rice: A review of host plant interaction and disease management

Ganesh G.C. 1 , Puja Roka 2

1   Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Paklihawa, Rupandehi, NEPAL
2   Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Paklihawa, Rupandehi, NEPAL

✉ Coressponding author: See PDF.




The devastating pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, which is responsible for significant quality and production losses worldwide, is discussed in this review article along with the symptoms, disease cycle, epidemiology which causes sheath blight disease in rice. R. solani Kuhn, poses a significant threat to tropical Asia's rice production, potentially reducing grain yield by 50%. The article also emphasises the numerous management techniques, such as cultural, biological, and chemical controls. It is a severe production bottleneck in high yielding rice varieties under intensive rice production techniques, monoculture methods, a dense canopy, and extensive nitrogen management. Disease propagation in fields is influenced by air temperature, moisture content, and leaf wetness, with 16-25 C temperature range and 90% humidity favoring growth. Vertical and horizontal spread are influenced by these factors. The article provides comprehensive insight on host plant interaction of pathogen R. solani.


Disease cycle, Host-Plant Interaction, Oryza sativa, Rhizoctonia solani


Download data is not yet available.


Acharya, P., Regmi, P., Gauchan, D., Dilli, K., & KC, G. (2020). Comparative analysis of cost, return, profitability and labor use in mechanized and traditional rice farms in Nepal. Food & Agribusiness Management, 2, 17–22,

Akos, I. S., Yusop, M. R., Ismail, M. R., Ramlee, S. I., Shamsudin, N. A. A., Ramli, A. B., Haliru, B. S., Ismai’la, M., & Chukwu, S. C. (2019). A review on gene pyramiding of agronomic, biotic and abiotic traits in rice variety development. International Journal of Applied Biology, 3(2), 65–96.

Ali, W., Fahad, A., Mehmood, A., Amin, A., Ullah, S., Fateh, F. S., & Fayyaz, M. (2023). Sheath Blight of Rice: A Review of Host Pathogen Interaction, Management Strategies and Future Prospects. Plant Protection, 7(2), 331–339.

Anderson, J., Sperschneider, J., Win, J., Kidd, B., Yoshida, K., Hane, J., Saunders, D., & Singh, K. (2017). Comparative secretome analysis of Rhizoctonia solani isolates with different host ranges reveals unique secretomes and cell death inducing effectors. Scientific Reports, 7.

Anees, M., Edel-Hermann, V., & Steinberg, C. (2010). Build up of patches caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42, 1661–1672.

Banniza, S., & Holderness, M. (2001). Rice Sheath Blight—Pathogen Biology and Diversity. In S. Sreenivasaprasad & R. Johnson (Eds.), Major Fungal Diseases of Rice: Recent Advances (pp. 201–211). Springer Netherlands.

Biswas, B., Dhaliwal, L., Sandhu, S., & Pannu, P. (2011). Effect of meteorological factors on rice sheath blight and exploratory development of a predictive model. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 81, 256–260.

Brooks, S. A. (2007). Sensitivity to a Phytotoxin from Rhizoctonia solani Correlates with Sheath Blight Susceptibility in Rice. Phytopathology, 97(10), 1207–1212.

Carling, D., Baird, R., Gitaitis, R., Brainard, K., & Kuninaga, S. (2002). Characterization of AG-13, a Newly Reported Anastomosis Group of Rhizoctonia solani. Phytopathology, 92, 893–899.

Castilla, N., Leano, R., Elazhour, F., Teng, P., & Savary, S. (2008). Effects of Plant Contact, Inoculation Pattern, Leaf Wetness Regime, and Nitrogen Supply on Inoculum Efficiency in Rice Sheath Blight. Journal of Phytopathology, 144, 187–192.

Chuanqing, Z., Liu, Y., Ma, X., Feng, Z., & Ma, Z. H. (2009). Characterization of sensitivity of Rhizoctonia solani, causing rice sheath blight, to mepronil and boscalid. Crop Protection - CROP PROT, 28, 381–386.

Danson, J., Wasano, K., & Nose, A. (2000). Infection of Rice Plants with the Sheath Blight Fungus Causes an Activation of Pentose Phosphate and Glycolytic Pathways. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 106(6), 555–561.

Dar, M. H., Bano, D. A., Waza, S. A., Zaidi, N. W., Majid, A., Shikari, A. B., Ahangar, M. A., Hossain, M., Kumar, A., & Singh, U. S. (2021). Abiotic Stress Tolerance-Progress and Pathways of Sustainable Rice Production. Sustainability, 13(4),

Fujikawa, T., Sakaguchi, A., Nishizawa, Y., Kouzai, Y., Minami, E., Yano, S., Koga, H., Meshi, T., & Nishimura, M. (2012). Surface α-1,3-Glucan Facilitates Fungal Stealth Infection by Interfering with Innate Immunity in Plants. PLoS Pathogens, 8, e1002882.

Glazebrook, J. (2005). Contrasting Mechanisms of Defense Against Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 43, 205–227.

González, V., Onco, M. A., & Rubio, V. (2006). Review. Biology and Systematics of the form genus Rhizoctonia. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 4.

Greer, C., & Webster, R. (2001). Occurrence, Distribution, Epidemiology, Cultivar Reaction, and Management of Rice Blast Disease in California. Plant Disease - PLANT DIS, 85, 1096–1102.

Groth, D. (1992). Selection for Resistance to Rice Sheath Blight Through Number of Infection Cushions and Lesion Type. Plant Disease, 76, 721.

JB, Z., AQ, Y., ZJ, M., LL, Z., & He, G. (2012). Association analysis of important agronomic traits in japonica rice germplasm. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11, 2957–2970.

Joshi, K. D., Chaudhary, P., Shrestha, S., Upadhyay, S., Bhattarai, K., & Tripathi, B. (2020). The Rice Processing Industry in Nepal: Constraints and Opportunities. Agricultural Sciences, 11, 1060–1080.

Kouzai, Y., Kimura, M., Watanabe, M., Kusunoki, K., Osaka, D., Suzuki, T., Matsui, H., Yamamoto, M., Ichinose, Y., Toyoda, K., Matsuura, T., Mori, I., Hirayama, T., Miami, E., Nishizawa, Y., Inoue, K., Onda, Y., Mochida, K., & Noutoshi, Y. (2017). Salicylic acid-dependent immunity contributes to resistance against Rhizoctonia solani , a necrotrophic fungal agent of sheath blight, in rice and Brachypodium distachyon. New Phytologist, 217.

Kumar, K., Poovannan, K., Nandakumar, R., Kandasamy, T., Geetha, C., Jayashree, N., Eswaran, K., Raja, J., Ramasamy, S., Sudhakar, D., & Ponnuswami, B. (2003). A high throughput functional expression assay system for a defence gene conferring transgenic resistance on rice against the sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. Plant Science, 165, 969–976.

Kunkel, B. N., & Brooks, D. M. (2002). Cross talk between signaling pathways in pathogen defense. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 5(4), 325–331.

Liu, H., Tian, W., Li, B., Wu, G., Ibrahim, M., Tao, Z., Wang, Y., Xie, G., Li, H., & Sun, G. (2012). Antifungal effect and mechanism of chitosan against the rice sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. Biotechnology Letters, 34.

Malabadi, R., Kolkar, K., & Chalannavar, R. (2022). White, and Brown Rice- Nutritional value and Health benefits; Arsenic Toxicity in Rice plants. 4, 3065–3082.

Masajo, T. (1976). Varietal Resistance in Rice to Sheath Blight Caused by Thanatephorus Cucumeris (Frank) Donk (Rhizoctonia Solani Kuhn). [Doctor of Philosophy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College].

Mew, T. W., Cottyn, B., Pamplona, R., Barrios, H., Xiangmin, L., Zhiyi, C., Fan, L., Nil-panit, N., Arunyanart, P., Van Kim, P., & Van Du, P. (2004). Applying Rice Seed-Associated Antagonistic Bacteria to Manage Rice Sheath Blight in Developing Countries. Plant Disease, 88(5), 557–564.

Miah, S., Shahjahan, A., Sharma, N., & Ahmed, H. (1994). Field Evaluation of Fungicides for Rice Sheath Blight Control. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 23, 239–244.

Molla, K., Karmakar, S., Chanda, P., Sarkar, S., Datta, S., & Datta, K. (2016). Tissue specific expression of Arabidopsis NPR1 gene in rice for sheath blight resistance without compromising phenotypic cost. Plant Science, 250, 105–114.

Molla, K., Karmakar, S., Molla, J., Bajaj, P., Varshney, R., Datta, S., & Datta, K. (2020). Understanding sheath blight resistance in rice: The road behind and the road ahead. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 18.

Monsur, M., Biñas, S., Herath, S., Ambita, I., Tasnim, Z., Pangga, I., & Cumagun, C. J. (2023). Comparative study between biological and chemical agents for control sheath blight disease of rice. Journal of Plant Stress Physiology, 10–17.

Muhammad, Samion, Z., Zainal, M., Nor, M., & Rosmi, M. (2021). Nematode Attacks and their Influence on Farming Economics. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 11.

Mukhtar, T., Vagelas, I., & Javaid, A. (2023). Editorial: New trends in integrated plant disease management. Frontiers in Agronomy, 4, 1104122.

Mutuku, J. M., & Nose, A. (2010). Rhizoctonia solani infection in two rice lines increases mRNA expression of metabolic enzymes genes in glycolytic, oxidative pentose phosphate pathways and secondary metabolism. Tropical Agriculture and Development, 54, 119–131.

Nagarajkumar, M., Bhaskaran, R., & Velazhahan, R. (2004). Involvement of secondary metabolites and extracellular lytic enzymes produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens in inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani, the rice sheath blight pathogen. Microbiological Research, 159, 73–81.

Pal, R., & Mandal, D. (2023). Use of plant essential oils for the management of sheath blight disease in rice. Oryza-An International Journal on Rice, 60, 281–286.

Pan, X. B., Rush, M. C., Sha, X. Y., Xie, Q. J., Linscombe, S. D., Stetina, S. R., & Oard, J. H. (1999). Major Gene, Nonallelic Sheath Blight Resistance from the Rice Cultivars Jasmine 85 and Teqing. Crop Science, 39(2), 338–339.

Pedras, M. S., & Ahiahonu, P. (2005). Metabolism and Detoxification of Phytoalexins and Analogues by Phytopathogenic fungi. Phytochemistry, 66, 391–411.

Presti, L., Lanver, D., Schweizer, G., Tanaka, S., Liang, L., Tollot, M., Zuccaro, A., Reissmann, S., & Kahmann, R. (2015). Fungal Effectors and Plant Susceptibility. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 66, 513–545.

Ramanarao, M., Chidambaram, P., Sripriya, R., & Veluthambi, K. (2011). Transgene stacking and marker elimination in transgenic rice by sequential Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation with the same selectable marker gene. Plant Cell Reports, 30, 1241–1252.

Rangaswami, G., & Mahadevan, A. (1998). Diseases of Crop Plants in India. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

Rashid, K., Khaliq, E., Farooq, O., & Ahsan, M. (2014). Correlation and Cluster Analysis of Some Yield and Yield Related Traits in Rice (Oryza Sativa) Journal of Recent Advances In Agriculture. Journal of Recent Advances In Agriculture, 2, 271–276.

Regmi, N., Bhandari, M., & Ghimire, P. (2023). Status and prospects of spring rice in Nepal: a review. 5, 1–05.

Richa, K., Tiwari, I. M., Kumari, M., Devanna, B. N., Sonah, H., Kumari, A., Nagar, R., Sharma, V., Botella, J. R., & Sharma, T. R. (2016). Functional Characterization of Novel Chitinase Genes Present in the Sheath Blight Resistance QTL: qSBR11-1 in Rice Line Tetep. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7.

Savary, S., Castilla, N., Elazegui, F., McLaren, C. G., Ynalvez, M. A., & Teng, P. (1995). Direct and indirect effects of nitrogen supply and inoculation pattern on rice sheath blight spread. Phytopathology, 85.

Singh, R., Bhukal, & Mehta, N. (2015). Progression and development of sheath blight of rice in relation to weather variables. Progression and Development of Sheath Blight of Rice in Relation to Weather Variables, Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 166-172.

Singh, R., Sunder, S., & Kumar, P. (2016). Sheath blight of rice: Current status and perspectives. 69, 340–351.

Sivalingam, P. N., Vishwakarma, S. N., & Singh, U. (2006). Role of seed-borne inoculum of Rhizoctonia solani in sheath blight of rice. Indian Phytopathology, 59, 445–452.

Sneh, B., Jabaji, S., Neate, S., & Dijst, G. (1998). Rhizoctonia Species: Taxonomy, Molecular Biology, Ecology, Pathology and Disease Control. In Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 578, ISBN nr. 0-7923-3644-5.

Srivastava, D., Shamim, M., Ahmad, R., Upadhyay, Husain, R., Vikram, N., Pandey, S., Yadav, G., Khan, N., Shamim, M., Hussain, T., & Tiwari, S. (2023). Fungal

Diseases of Rice and Their Management Insights from Genetics, Breeding, and Molecular Approaches for Rice Sheath Blight Disease Resistance chapter 7 (pp. 155–182).

Vidhyasekaran, P., Ponmalar, T. R., Samiyappan, R., Velazhahan, R., Vimala, R., Ramanathan, A., Paranidharan, V., & Muthukrishnan, S. (1997). Host-Specific Toxin Production by Rhizoctonia solani, the Rice Sheath Blight Pathogen. Phytopathology, 87(12), 1258–1263.

Wu, W., Huang, J., Cui, K., Nie, L., Wang, Q., Yang, F., Shah, F., Yao, F., & Peng, S. (2012). Sheath Blight Reduces Stem Breaking Resistance and Increases Lodging Susceptibility of Rice Plants. Field Crops Research, 128, 101–108.

Zainol, R., Ashri, N., Rosmi, M., & Ibrahim, M. S. N. (2023). The effect of using quality rice seed varieties on rice cultivation activities. Journal of Food Technology Research, 10, 62–74.



How to Cite

G.C., G., & Roka, P. (2024). Sheath Blight of rice: A review of host plant interaction and disease management. Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 9(2), 404-408.



Review Articles

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.